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It has been observed before, that the 

That the service ancients Comprised their whole ser- 

cf the nncient ^ 

churrh usually be- yicB undcr two general heads, to which 

gan with psalmody. o ' 

they gave the distinguishing names 
of missa catechumenorum, and missa JideUum, the 
service of the catechumens, and the service of com- 
municants or believers ; that is, as we would now 
term them, the ante-communion service, and the 
communion service. The service of the catechu- 
mens was that part of Divine worship, at which the 
catechumens, and all others who were not perfect 
and full communicants, were allowed to be present ; 
and it consisted of psalmody, reading the Scriptures, 
preaching, and prayers for such particular orders of 
men, as were not admitted to participate of the holy 
mysteries : and under these several heads we must 
now consider it. 

The service usually began with reading or sing- 
ing of psalms, as appears from that of St. Jerom,' 
describing the service of the Egyptian monks : They 
meet at nine o'clock, and then the psalms are sung, 
and the Scriptures are read, and after prayers they 
all sit down, and the father preaches a sermon to 
them. And so Cassian represents it,^ that first the 
psalms were sung, and then followed two lessons, 
one out of the Old Testament, and the other out of 
the New. Only on the Lord's day, and the fifty 
days of Pentecost, and the sabbath, or Saturday, 
they read one lesson out of the Acts of the Apostles, 
or the Epistles, and the other out of the Gospels. 
But, probably, there might be a difference in the 

' Hieron. Ep. 22. ad Eustoch. cap. ]5. Post horam no- 
nam in commune conciuritur, psalmi resonant, Scriptiu-aj 
recitantur ex more. Et completis orationibus, cunctisque 
residentibus, medius, quem patrem vocant, incipit dispn- 
tare, &c. 

- Cassian. Institut. lib. 2. cap. 6. Qnibus (psalmis) lec- 
tiones geiuinas adjungentes, id est, unam Veteris et aliam 
Novi Testamenti, &c. In die vero sabbati vel Dominico 
utrasque de Novo recitant Testamento, id est, unam de 

order of reading in different churches. And that 
may reconcile the different opinions of learned men 
concerning the order of their service. For some 
think they began with reading the Scriptures, and 
others, with a prayer of confession. The author of 
the Constitutions, it is certain, prescribes' first the 
reading of the Old Testament, and then the psalms, 
and after that the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles, 
and last of all the Gospels. So that the psalms 
were intermingled with the lessons according to the 
rules and prescriptions which that author had ob- 
served in some churches. St. Basil* speaks of a 
confession made to God upon their knees, after 
which they rose up, and betook themselves to sing 
psalms to God. But that was in their vigils or 
morning prayers before day, and most probably 
only a private confession, which every man made 
silently by himself, before they began the public 
service. But if we take it for a public confession, 
as the learned Hamon L'Estrange' does, then it will 
argue, that the Eastern churches began their morn- 
ing antelucan service with a prayer of confession, 
and so went on to their psalmody, which was the 
great exercise and entertainment of their nocturnal 
vigils. And indeed it was their exercise at all times 
in the church, as St. Austin" notes, to fill up all 
vacuities, when neither the reading of the Scrip- 
tures, nor preaching, nor prayers, interposed to 
hinder them from it. All other spaces were spent 
in singing of psalms, than which there could not be 
any exercise more useful and edifying, or more 

Apostolo, vel Actibus Apostolorum, et aliam de Evangeliis. 
Quod etiam totis quinquagesima; diebus faciunt. 

3 Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. lib. 5. cap. 19. 

* Basil. Ep. 63. ad Neocaesar. t. 3. p. 96. 

^ L'Estrange, Alliance of Div. Offic. cap. 3. p. 75. 

^ Aug. Ep. 119. ad Januar. cap. 18. Qiiando non est 
tcmpus, cum in ecclesia fratres congrcgantur, sancta cantan- 
di, nisi cum legitur, aut disputatur, aut antistites clara voce 
deprecantur, aut communis oratio voce diaconi iudicitur ? 




Book XIV. 

holy and pious, in his opinion. And upon this ac- 
count, (if the observation of L'Estrange be rightly 
made out' of Chrysostom,) the people were used to 
entertain the time with singing of psalms, before 
the congregation was complete and fully assembled. 
I take Ho notice here of their psalmody at other 
times, at their meals, at their labours, and in their 
private devotions : because, though this is fre- 
quently mentioned by the ancients with great and 
large encomiums, yet it differed in many respects 
from the common psalmody, and we can draw little 
light or ai'gument from that to explain the public 

As to the public psalmody of the 
The psalms inter- clim'ch, though wc take it fov the first 

mixed with lessons . '^ <. i 

and prayers in some and leaduiff part of the service, yet 

i-liurches. o ' ... 

we are not so to understand it, as if it 
was all performed at once in one continued course 
of repeating many psalms together without intermis- 
sion, but rather with some respite, and a mixture of 
other parts of Divine service, to make the whole more 
agreeable and delightful. At least, it was apparently 
so in the practice of some churches. For the coun- 
cil of Laodicea made a decree,' That the psalms 
should not be sung one immediately after another, 
but that a lesson should come between every psalm. 
And St. Austin plainly intimates, that this was the 
practice of his own church. For in one of his 
homilies' he takes notice first of the reading of the 
Epistle, then of singing the 95th Psalm, " O come, 
let us worship, and fall down, and kneel before the 
Lord our Maker," and after that of a lesson read out 
of the Gospel. And in another homily '" he speaks 
of them in the same order. In the lesson out of the 
Epistle, says he, thanks are given to God for the 
faith of the Gentiles. In the psalm we said, " Turn 
us again, thou Lord God of hosts, show the light of 
thy countenance, and we shall be whole." In the 
Gospel we were called to tlie Lord's supper. By 
comparing these two places of St. Austin together, 
we may observe, that it was not any particular 
j)salm that was appropriated to come between the 
Epistle and Gospel, but the psalm that was in the 
ordinary course of reading. For the 95th is men- 
tioned in one place, and the 80th Psalm in the other. 

' L'Estrange, Alliance of Div. Offic. cap. 3. p. 77. 

" Cone. Laodic. can. 17. 

"Aug. Serin. 10. de Verbis Apos^oli, p. H'i. Hoc de 
apostolica lectionc percepimus. Deinde cantavimiis psal- 
inum, e.xhortantes nos invicem una voce, una corded iceutes, 
Venite adoremus, &c. Posthaec evangelica lectio decern 
leprosos raundatos nobis ostendit. 

'" Aug. Horn. 33. de Verb. Domini, p. 49. In lectione 
apostolica ;^rati;c aguntur Deo de fide gentium. In psalmo 
diximus. Deus virtutum converte uos, &c. In evan^elio 
ad ccEnam vocati sumus, &c. 

" Collat. &c. ap. Mabillon, de Cursu Gallicano, p. 390. 
Evenit autem ut ea nocte, cum lector secundum morem in- 
ciperet lectioncm a Moyse, incidit in ea verba Domini, Sed 
ego indurabo cor ejus, &c. Deinde cum post psalmos de- 

Mabillon has observed the same practice in the 
French churches, out of the collation between the 
catholics and Arians in the reign of Gundobadus, 
king of Burgundy, anno 499. For in the relation of 
that conference " it is said. That on the vigil before 
the day of disputation, in celebrating the Divine 
offices, it happened that the first lesson, that was 
out of the Pentateuch, had those words, " I will 
harden Pharaoh's heart," &c. After which the 
psalms were sung, and then another lesson was read 
out of Isaiah, in which were these words, "Go and 
tell this people. Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not 
understand." After the psalms were sung again, 
another lesson was read out of the Gospel, wherein 
were those words of our Saviour upbraiding the Jews 
with their infidelity, "Woe unto thee, Chorazin," 
(S:c. And last of all the Epistle was read, contain- 
ing those words, " Despisest thou the riches of his 
goodness," &c. : where it is easy to observe, that as 
there were four lessons read out of the Old and New 
Testament, so there were psalms sung between each 
lesson, except the last, which is not mentioned. 

These psalms were styled by a pe- 
culiar name, responsoria, and psalmi which psaims 

,, 1 . 1 were called by a \)e- 

resnonsoru, the responsories ; which cuiiar name, ps«;mi 

^ ^ responsorii. 

was not a name affixed to any par- 
ticular psalms, but was given to all such as happened 
to fall in here, in the common course of reading. 
The fourth council of Toledo is to be understood of 
such psalms, when it speaks of responsories,'^ blam- 
ing some for neglecting to use the Gloria Patri 
after them. And Gregory Turonensis" often men- 
tions them more expressly under the name oi psalmi 
responsorii, making it a part of the deacon's office to 
repeat them. The ancient ritualists are not agreed 
about the reason of the name, why they were called 
responsoria ; some saying '* they were so called, be- 
cause one singing, the whole quire did answer them; 
whilst others'^ say, they had their name because 
they answered to the lessons, being sung immedi- 
ately after them. Which seems to be the more 
likely reason. 

But we are not to imagine, that g^.^^ ^ 
these were the only psalms which the propnate'd"tir%a^ 
ancients used in their psalmody. For *"'"''"' """'"• 

cantatos rccitaret ex prnphetis, occurrenint verba Domini 
ad Esaiam dicentis, Vade et dices popiilo huic, Audite aiuli- 
entes, &c. Cumque adhuc psalmi t'uissent decantati, et 
legeret ex Evangelio; incidit in verba, quibus Salvator ex- 
probrat Judaiis incredulitatem, Vjctibi, Chorazin, &c. De- 
nique cum lectio fierct ex Apostolo, &c. 

'■- Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 15. Sunt quidam qui in fine rc- 
sponsorioium, Gloria non dicunt, &c. 

'^ Greg. Turon. de Vitis Patrum, cap. 8. Diaconus 
responsorium psalmum canere coepit. It. Hist. Francor. 
lib. 8. cap. 3. Jubet rex ut diaconum nostrum, qui ante 
diem ad missas psalmum responsorium dixerat, canere ju- 

n Isidor. de Offic. lib.], cap. 8. 

'^ Huport. de Offic. lib. 1. cap. 15. 

Chap. I. 



some psalms were of constant use in the church, as 
being appropriated to particular services. We have 
seen " before, that the G3rd Psalm, " O God, my 
God, early will I seek thee," was peculiarly styled 
the morning psalm, because it was always sung at 
morning service, as the 95th Psalm is now in our 
Hturgy. And the 14Ist Psalm, " Let my prayer be 
set forth in thy sight as the incense, and let the lift- 
ing up of my hands be an evening sacrifice," was 
always sung " at evening service. They had also 
some proper psalms adapted to the nature of their 
communion service, and their funeral offices, as we 
shall see hereafter. And in the French church, 
from the time that Musajus, presbyter of Marseilles, 
composed his Lectionarium, or order of reading the 
psalms and lessons, at the instance of Venerius his 
bishop, the responsory psalms were all adapted to 
their proper times and lessons, as Gennadius"* in- 
forms us. And this, some learned men '^ think, 
was at first peculiar to the Gallican office, and a 
singular usage of the French church. Which may 
be true as to the appropriating of several psalms to 
their proper lessons in the general course of the 
year ; but it cannot be true, if it be meant only of 
particular and solemn occasions. For the church 
had not only proper lessons, but proper psalms read 
upon greater festivals, suitable to the occasion ; and 
that long before the time of IMuseeus's composing 
his Calendar for the Gallican church. For St. Aus- 
tin^ plainly informs us, that the 22nd Psalm, " My 
God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me," &c., was 
always read upon the day of our Saviour's passion 
in the African church ; and he seems to intimate 
that the Donatists did the same, though they were 
so stony-hearted as not to make a just application 
of it. And there is little question to be made, but 
that as they had proper psalms for this occasion, so 
they had for all the other solemn festivals. 

gg^f g The other psalms were sung in the 

ord^'MiT ^cc^frse "as Ordinary course of reading from end 
ing^ipp'ropriat"d to to cud, lu the Same order as they lay 
any ime or ay. ^^ ^-^^ book, without bciug appropri- 
ated to any times, or lessons, or days, except those 
particular psalms, which were appointed as proper 
for each canonical hour. Cassian observes,^' That 

in Egypt, at the first beginning of the monastic life, 
there were almost as many types, rules, or orders 
about this matter, as there were monasteries, some 
singing eighteen psalms immediately one after an- 
other, others twenty, and some more. But at last, 
by common consent, the number for morhing and 
evening service was reduced to twelve, w^hich were 
read in one continued course,^- without any lessons 
coming between them ; for they had only two les- 
sons, one out of the Old Testament, and the other 
out of the New, and those read only when all the 
psalms were ended. He tells us also, that in some 
places they sung six psalms'-^ every canonical hour, 
and some proportioned the number of psalms to the 
number of the hour at which they met at their de- 
votions : so that at the third hour they had only 
three psalms, but six at the sixth, and nine at the 
ninth hour; till upon more mature dehberation they 
came at last to this resolution, to have only three 
psalms at every diurnal hoiu: of prayer,-* reserving 
the greater number of twelve for the more solemn 
assemblies at morning and evening prayer. Though 
the custom of conforming the number of psalms to 
the number of hours continued in use in some parts 
of France, or else was taken up in the time of the 
second council of Tours, anno 567> as appears from 
a singular canon of that council,-^ which I have re- 
cited at large before in the last Book.^ 

Besides these, it was usual for the 
bishop or precentor to appoint any Andsomeappoint- 

, - • 11 • ^^ occasionally at 

psalm to be sung occasionally m any the discretion of the 

. •' •' bishop or precentor. 

part of the service at discretion : as 
now our anthems in cathedrals are left to the choice 
of the precentor, and the psalms in metre to the 
discretion of the minister, to choose and appoint 
what psalms he pleases, and what times he thinks 
most proper in Divine service. Thus Athanasius 
tells us he appointed his deacon to sing an occa- 
sional psalm'-' when his church was beset with the 
Arian soldiers. And St. Austin^ sometimes speaks 
of a particular psalm, which he ordered the reader 
to repeat, intending himself to preach upon it : and 
it once happened, that the reader, mistaking one of 
these psalms, read another in its stead ; which put 
St. Austin upon an extempore discourse upon the 

"= Book XIII. chap. 10. sect. 1. 

" See Book XIII. chap. 11. sect. 2. 

'^ Genuad. de Scriptor. cap. 79. Responsoria etiam 
psalmorum capitula tempori et lectionihus congruentia ex- 

'•■> Stillingfleet, Orig. Britan. chap. 4. p. 218. 

-" Aug. in Psal. xxi. in Praef. Serm. 2. p. 43. 

2' Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 2. 

" Cassian. ibid. cap. 4. Per universam ^Egyptum et 
Thebaidem duodenarius psalmorum niimerus tarn vesper- 
tinis quam nocturnis solennitatibus custoditur, ita duntaxat 
ut post hunc numei'um duae lectiones, Veteris scilicet ac 
Novi Testamenti, singula; subsequantur. 

^ Ibid. cap'. 2. Sunt quibus in ipsis quoqne diurnis ora- 

tionum officiis, id est, terfia, scxta, nonaque id visimi est, ut 
secundum horarum modum, in quibus haec Domino reddun- 
tur obsequia, psalmorum etiam el orationum putareut nu- 
merumcoaequandum: nonuuUis placuit senarium numenuu 
singulis diei conventibus deputari. 

"* Cassian. lib. 3. cap. 3. " Cone. Turon. 2. can. 19. 

"-" Book XIII. chap. 9. sect. 9. 

2' Athan. Apol. 2. 717. 

^ Aug. in Psal. cxxxviii. p. 650. Psalmum nobis brevein 
paraveramus, quern mandaveramus cantari a lectore: sed 
ad horam, quantum videtur, perturbatus, alterum pro altery 
legit. Malumus nos in errore lectoris sequi voluntateni 
Dei, quam nostram in nostro proposito. Vid. Aug. Pra;fat. 
in Psal. xxxi. 



Book XIV. 

psalm that was read by mistake to the people. And 
when we consider that they sometimes spent whole 
days and nights almost in psalmody ; as when St. 
Ambrose's church was beset with the Arian soldiers, 
the people within continued the whole night and 
day ^ in singing of psalms ; it will easily be imagined, 
that at such times they did not sing appropriated 
psalms, but entertained themselves with such as the 
bishop then occasionally appointed, or left them at 
large to their own choice, to sing at liberty and dis- 
cretion. Sometimes the reader himself pitched ujion 
a psalm, as the necessitj- of affairs would allow him, 
or his own discretion direct him. Thus St. Austin 
tells us, in one of his homilies,'" That he had preach- 
ed upon a psalm, not which he appointed the reader 
to sing, but what God put into his heart to read, 
which determined his sermon to the subject of re- 
pentance, being the 51st, or penitential psalm, 
which the reader sung of his own accord, or rather, 
as St. Austin words it, by God's direction. Sulpi- 
cius Severus tells a remarkable story to the same 
purpose, in the Life of St. Martin.^' He says. When 
St. Martin was to be elected bishop, one, whose 
name was Defensor, among the bishops, was a great 
stickler against him. Now, it happened that, in the 
tumult, the reader, whose course it was to sing the 
psalm that day, could not come at his place in due 
time, and therefore another read the first psalm that 
he lighted upon when he opened the book, which 
happened to be the 8th Psalm, wherein were those 
words, " Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings 
thou hast perfected praise, because of thine enemies, 
that thou mightest destroy the enemy and defensor," 
as the Galilean Version then read it, t'7 destruas 
inimicum et defensorcm. And this, though it seem- 
ingly were but a chance thing, was looked upon as 
providential by the people, to overthrow the machin- 
ations of Defensor. 

In some places, instead of lessons 

Sect. 7. 

Prayers in ' some bctwecn cvery psalm, they allowed a 

places between every 

psalm, instead of a short spacc for prlvatc prayer to be 
made in silence, and a short collect by 
the minister, which, Cassian'- says, was the ordinary 
custom of the Egyptian fathers. For they reckon- 
ed, that frequent short prayers were more useful^ 
than long continued ones, both to solicit God more 
earnestly by frequent addresses, and to avoid the 

temptations of Satan, drawing them into lassitude 
and weariness, w^hich was prevented by their suc- 
cinct brevity. And therefore they divided the longer 
psalms into two or three parts,'* interposing prayers 
between every distinction. 

In all the Western churches, except 
the Roman, it w^as customary also, at The Gloria PatH 

^ 1 i* 1 r ^ added at the end of 

the end oi every psalm, lor the con- every psaim in the 

Western, but not in 

gregation to stand, and say, " Glory be ^^^^^^^^"^ 
to the Father, and to the Son, and to 
the Holy Ghost:" but in the Eastern churches it 
was otherwise; for, as I have noted before^ out of 
Cassian,'" in all the East they never used this glori- 
fication, but only at the end of the last psalm, which 
they called their antiphona or hallelujah, which 
was one of those psalms which had hallelujah pre- 
fixed to it, and which they repeated by way of an- 
tiphona, or responsal, and then added, " Glory be to 
the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost." 
But in the Western churches, he says, it was used 
at the end of every psalm. And so we are to un- 
derstand those canons" of the council of Toledo, 
which order, " Glory and honour be to the Father, 
and Son, and Holy Ghost," to be said at the end of 
the psalms and responsories : but the Decretal of 
Vigilius,*' which orders the same at the end of the 
psalms, must be taken according to the custom of 
the Roman church, to be used only at the conclu- 
sion of all. Other differences relating to the use of 
this doxology, and its original, shall be considered in 
the next chapter hi their proper place. 

As to the persons concerned in this g^^ ^ 

service of singing the psalms publicly tim^s" sun" by" one 
in the church, we may consider them '"^"'"" °"'''" 
in four different respects, according to the different 
ways of psalmody. 1. Sometimes the psalms were 
sung by one person alone, the rest hearing only 
with attention. 2. Sometimes they were sung by 
the whole assembly joining all together. 3. Some- 
times alternately by the congregation divided into 
distinct quires, the one part repeating one verse, and 
the other another. 4. Sometimes one person repeat- 
ed the first part of the verse, and the rest joined all 
together in the close of it. The first of these ways, 
Cassian notes as the common custom of the Egyp- 
tian monasteries. For he says, Except hifli'" who 
rose up to sing, all the rest sat by on low seats in 

-' Ambros. Epist. 33. ad Mavcellinam Sororem. 

'" Aug. Horn. 27. e.v 50. t. 10. p. 175. Proinde aliquid de 
pcenitentia dicere divinitus jubemur. Ncque enim nos istum 
psalmuin cantandiim lectori imperavimus: sed quod ille 
censuit vobis esse utile ad audiendum, hoc cordi etiam pu- 
erili jmperavit. 

31 Sulpit. Vit. Martin, cap. 7. p. 21b. 

'-' Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 5. Undecim psalmos ora- 
tionum interjectione distinctos, &c. 

^ Ibid. cap. 10. Utilius consent breves quidem orationos, 
sed creberrimas fieri, &c. 

'' Ibid. cap. 11. Et idcirco nc psalmos quidem ipsos, 

qiios in congregatione decantant, continuata student pro- 
nunciatione concludere : sed eos pro numero versuum dua- 
bus vel tribus intercessionibus, cum orationum interjectione 
divisos, dislinctim particulatimque consummant. &c. 

^^ Book XIII. chap. 10. sect. xiv. 

^" Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 8. Strabo de Reb. Eccles. 
cap. 25. 

" Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 14 et 15. 

'" Vigil. Ep. 2. ad Eutherium, cap. 2. In fine psalmoruni 
ab omnibus catholicis ex more dicatur, Gloria Patri, et Filio, 
et .Spiritui Sancto. 

^•' Cassian. Instit. lib, 2. cap. 12. Absque co qui dicturus 

Chap. I. 



silence, giving attention to him that sang. And 
though sometimes four sang the twelve psalms in 
one assembl}', yet they did it not all together, but in 
course one after another,^" each singing three psalms, 
and the rest keeping silence till the last psalm, 
which they all sang by way of antiphona or alter- 
nate song, adding the Gloria Patri in the close. 
spi-t in iSometimes, again, the whole assem- 

bly joined together, men, women, and 
children, united with one mouth and 
one mind in singing psalms and praises to God. 
This was the most ancient and general practice, till 
the way of alternate psalmody was brought into the 
church. Thus Christ and his apostles sung the 
hymn at the last supper, and thus Paul and Silas 
at midnight sung praises unto God. Bellarmine,'" in- 
deed, and some other writers of the Romish church, 
say, tliis custom was not in use till the time of St. 
Ambrose ; but they plainly mistake the introduction 
of the alternate way of singing psalms for this more 
ancient way, which derives its original from the 
foundation of the church. Thus St. Hilary, who 
lived before St. Ambrose, takes notice," that the 
people all prayed, and all sang hymns together. 
And St. Chrysostom, comparing the apostohcal 
times with his ovm, says," Anciently they all met 
together, and all sang in common. And so do we 
at this day. And again," Women and men, old men 
and children, differ in sex and age, but they differ 
not in the harmony of singing hymns ; for the 
Spirit tempers all their voices together, making one 
melody of them all. After the same manner St. 
Austin sometimes" speaks of singing the psalms 
between the lessons with united voices, though be- 
fore his time the way of alternate psalmody was 
become very common in all parts of the church. 

This way of singing the psalms 

Sect. 11. , , -^ , ° °, 

somrtimes alter- alternately was, when the congi'ega- 

natcly, by the con- J 1 O C5 

murtwo"paii's''^'' tion, dividing themselves into two 

parts, repeated the psalms by courses, 

verse for verse one after another, and not, as formerly, 

all together. As the other, for its common conjunc- 

tion of voices, was properly called symphony ; so 
this, for its division into two parts, and alternate 
answers, was commonly called antiphony, and some- 
times responsoria, the singing by responsals. This 
is plain from that noted Iambic" of Gregory Nazi- 
anzen, aifi<piovov, avr'Kpwvov dyysXwv ardaiv, where 
the symphony denotes their singing alternately 
verse for verse by turns. Socrates" calls it dvri- 
<pu>vov vfivwdiav, the antiphonal hymnody ; and 
St. Ambrose,*" responsoria, singing by way of re- 
sponsals. For, comparing the church to the sea, 
he says. From the responsories of the psalms, and 
singing of men, women, virgins, and children, there 
results an harmonious noise, like the waves of the 
sea. He expressly mentions women in other places," 
as allowed to sing in public, though otherwise the 
apostle had commanded them to keep silence in 
the church. St. Austin also frequently mentions'*" 
this way of singing by parts, or alternately by re- 
sponses ; and he carries the original of it in the 
Western church no higher than the time of St. 
Ambrose, when he was under the persecution of 
the Arian empress Justina, mother of the younger 
Valentinian ; at which time both he^' and Paulinus, 
who writes" the Life of St. Ambrose, tell us the 
way of antiphonal singing was first brought into 
the church of Milan, in imitation of the custom of 
the Eastern churches ; and that from this example 
it presently spread all over the Western churches. 
What was the first original of it in the Eastern 
chiu'ch, is not so certainly agreed upon by writers 
either ancient or modern. Theodoret says*' that 
Flavian and Diodorus first brought in the way of 
singing David's Psalms alternately into the church 
of Antioch, in the reign of Constantius. But So- 
crates'* carries the original of this way of singing 
hymns to the holy Trinity as high as Ignatius. 
Valesius thinks Socrates was mistaken : but Car- 
dinal Bona" and Pagi'^ think both accounts may 
be true, taking the one to speak of DaWd's Psalms 
only, and the other of hymns composed for the ser- 
vice of the church. Some say the custom w'as first 

in medium psalmos surre.xeiit, ciincti seJilibiis humillimis 
insideutes, ad vocem psallentis omui cordis intentione de- 

" Ibid. cap. 5 et 8. 

*' Bellarm. de Bonis Operibus, lib. I. cap. 16. t. 4. p. 1077. 

*■- Hilar, in Psal. Ixv. p. 332. Audiat orantis populi con- 
sistens quis extra ecclesiam vocem, spectct celebres hymno- 
rum sonitus. 

" Chrys. Horn. 3G. in 1 Cor. p. 653. 'E-n-t'i/raXov Tri'tvTti 


" Chrys. in Psal. c.xlv. p. 824. 

** Aug. de Verb. Apost. Serm. 10. p. 112. Cantavimus 
psalnium cxbortantes nos invicem una voce, imo corde, 
dicentes, Veuite adoremus, &c. 

*'^ Naz. Carm. 18. de Virlute, inter lambica, t. 2. p. 218. 

" Socrat. lib. 6. cap. 8. 

^' Ambros. Hexaraer. lib. .3. cap. .'j. Rcsponsoriis psal- 
morum, cantu virorum, mulierum, virginum, parvulorum, 

consonans undarum fragor resultat. 

^^ Ambros. Expos. Psal. i. Mulieres apostolus in ecclesia 
tacorejubet: psalmuin etiam bene clamant, &c. 

**• Aug. Serm. in Psal. xxvi. in Prajfat. Voces ista; 
psalmi, quas audivimus, et ex parte cantavimus. Item in 
Psal. xlvi. In hoc psalmo, quern cantatum audivimus, cui 
caiitando respondimus, ea sumus dicturi quw nostis. 

*' Aug. Confess, lib. 9. cap. 7. Tunc hymni et psalmi ut 
canerentur secundum moremOrientalitim partium, ne popu- 
lus mseroris toedio contabesceret, institutmu est: et ex illo 
in hodiernum retentum, miiltis jam ac poene omnibus gre- 
gibus tuis et per ceteras orbis paries imitantibus. 

5- Paulin. Vit. Ambros. p. 4. Hoc in tempore primo 
antiphona; hymni et vigiliae in ecclesia Mediolanensi cele- 
brari Ciepcrunt, &c. 

^ Theod. lib. 2. cap. 24. " Socrat. lib. 6. cap. 8. 

*» Btma de Psalmod. cap. 16. sect. 10. n. 1. 

5« Pagi, Critic, in Baron, an. 400. n. ]0. 



Book XiV. 

begun by Ignatius, but destroyed by Paulas Samo- 
satensis, and revived again by Flavian. But Pagi's 
conjecture seems most reasonable, that Flavian only 
introduced this way of singing the psalms in the 
Greek tongue at Antioch, whereas it had been used 
in the Syrian language long before, as he shows out 
of Theodorus of Mopsuestia, and Valesius himself 
confirms this out of the same author, whose testi- 
mony is preserved by Nicetas." However this mat- 
ter be as to the first original of this way of antipho- 
nal psalmody, it is certain, that from the time that 
Flavian either instituted or revived it at Antioch, it 
prevailed in a short time to become the general 
practice of the whole church. St. Chrysostom^ 
encouraged it in the vigils at Constantinople, in 
opposition to the Arians. St. BasiP^ speaks of it 
in his time, as the received custom of all the East. 
And we have seen before, how from the time of St. 
Aiubrose it prevailed over all the West. And it was 
a method of singing so taking and delightful, that 
they sometimes used it where two or three were met 
together for private devotion; as Socrates"" par- 
ticularly remarks of the emperor Theodosius junior 
and his sisters, that they were used to sing alternate 
hymns together every morning in the royal palace. 
Besides all these, there was yet a 

Sect. 12. 

J^^'^^lntorV- fourth way of singing, of pretty com- 
Tart'Tf «.e %"L mon usB iu the fourth age of the 
pning wftnim "a chuTch : which was, when a single per- 
aiso 'of'"'diapsaim" SOU (whom that age called a jjJionas- 
and acrostics m cus, vTvoBokivc, OX prccentor"') began 

psalmody. '■ .... 

the verse, and the people jomed with 
him in the close. This the Greeks called inrrjxt'^v, 
and viraKoviiv, and the Latins, succinere. And it was 
often used for variety in the same service with al- 
ternate psalmody. Thus St. Basil, describing the 
different manners of their morning psalmody, tells 
us, They one while divided themselves into two 
parts, and sung alternately, answering to one an- 
other ; and then again, let one begin the psalm, and 
the I'est joined with him" in the close of the verse. 
This was certainly in use at Alexandria in the time 
of Athanasius, as I have observed in the last Book.'^ 
For both he himself,"* and all the historians** who 
relate the story after him, in speaking of his escape 

*' Nicet. Thesaur. Orthod. Fid. lib. 5. cap. .30. 

^ Socrat. lib. 6. cap. 8. ^"■' Basil. Ep. 63. ad .Neocaesar. 

^ Socrat. lib. 7. cap. 22. 

•" See Book III. chap. 7. sect. .3. and Sidoii. Apollin. 
lib. 4. Ep. 11. Psalmovum hie luodiilator et phonascus. 

^ Basil. Ep. 63. ad Neocsesar. NCi; ixiv oixv oiavi/xi]- 
Qiimi, avTL \l/dWov(Tiv a\\j)\ois' tirtiTa TrdXiu kiriTpi- 
x]ntVTi^ tvL KaTapy^iiv tov /xiXov^, ol Xonroi uTDjj^oucri. 

'•3 Book XIII. chap. b. sect. 6. 

'^* Athanas. Apol. 2. p. 717. 

'■^ Theodor. lib. 2. cap. 1.3. Socrat. lib. 2. cap. 11. So- 
zoin. lib. 3. cap. 6. 

*"* Hist. Tripart. lib. 5. cap. 2. Praecepi ut diaconus 
psalmum legeret, populi responderent, &c. 

out of the church, when it was beset with the Arian 
soldiers, tell us he avoided the assault by setting the 
people to psalmody, which psalmody was of this 
kind: for he commanded the deacon to read the 
psalm, and the people viraKovuv, to repeat this 
clause after him, " For his mercy endureth for ever." 
The common translations of Athanasius make this 
viruKovuv to signify no more than the people's at- 
tending to what the deacon read ; but Epiphanius 
Scholasticus, the ancient author of the Historia Tri- 
partita, having occasion to relate this very passage"* 
of Athanasius, rightly renders viraKoviiv by respon- 
dcre. The deacon read, and the people answered 
in these words, " For his mercy endureth for ever." 
Valesius" thinks it should be read iittjjx"", instead 
of viraKoiiiv, ill all those places of Athanasius, and 
the historians after him: but there is no need of 
that critical correction ; for both the words among 
the Greeks are of the same import, and signify to 
make answer or responses, as Cotelerius, a judicious 
critic, has"* observed. And so the word viraKovtiv 
is used both by Theocritus"" and Homer. So that 
there is no reason to dispute the use of it in this 
sense in ecclesiastical writers. St. Chrysostom uses 
the word irn-rj^f 'v,'" when he speaks of this practice : 
The singer sings alone, and all the rest answer him 
in the close, as it were with one mouth and one 
voice. And elsewhere he says" the priests began 
the psalm, and the people followed after in their 
responses. Sometimes this way of psalmody was 
called singing acrostics. For though an acrostic 
commonly signifies the beginning of a verse, yet 
sometimes it is taken for the end or close of it. 
As by the author of the Constitutions," w;hen he 
orders one to sing the hymns of David, and the 
people to sing after him the acrostics or ends of 
the verses. This was otherwise called hypopsalma 
and diapsahna, and aKportXtvTiov and tipvfiviov, which 
are all words of the same signification. Only we 
must observe, that they do not always denote 
precisely the end of a verse, but sometimes that 
which was added at the end of a psalm, or some- 
thing that was repeated frequently in the middle of 
it, as the close of the several parts of it. Thus St. 
Austin composed a psalm for the common people to 

«' Vales. Not. in Theod. lib. 2. cap. 1.3. 

•^ Coteler. Not. in Coiistil. Apost. lib. 2. cap. 57. p. 262. 

"' Theocrit. Idyl. 14. de Hyla. Tpis o' ap' 6 ttuIs uttu- 
Kov<T^v. Ter piier respondit. Vid. Homer. Odyss. 4. et 
Stephani Le.xicon. 

'" Chrys. Hom. 36. in 1 Cor. p. 655. 'O \l/dXXuw \(/dXXiL 
fiovoi, Kclv TravTES aVijxtocrji' (leg. vTri])(fo(XLv) cos i^ i/'os 
o-ro'/xaxos )'; (^tuyi/ (piptTai. Vid. Horn. II. iu Mat. p. 108. 
'Y-TTijX'yo'ai'Tis, &c. 

'' Chrys. in Psal. cxx.xvii. p. 518. MtTa tou/ Upiwu 
KaTup^Ofxtvuiv, Trpot^yov/JiivoDt/ 'i\l/, Kal a\oXouGii(T(j», 
KUL acrto CTot, &c. 

"' Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. 'O Xaos tu iiKpo'^i'^ia vtto- 


Chap. I. 



learn against the Donatists, and in imitation of the 
II 9th Psalm, he divided it into so many parts, ac- 
cording to the order of the letters in the alphabet, 
(whence such psalms were called abecedarii,) each 
part having its proper letter at the head of it, and 
the hypnpsahna (as he calls it"') or answer, to be re- 
peated at the end of every part of it, in these words, 
Omncs qui gaudctis de pace, jnodo vcrum judicate ; 
as the Gloria Patri is now repeated not only at the 
end of every psalm, but at the end of every part 
of the 1 1 9th Psalm. And in this respect the Gloria 
Patri itself is by some ancient writers called the 
h'jpopsahna, or epode, and acroteleutic to the 
psalms, because it was always used at the end of 
the psalms. Thus Sozomen, giving an account of 
the Allans' management of their psalmody at Con- 
stantinople in their morning processions, says. They 
divided themselves into parts, and sung after the 
manner of antiphona, or alternate song, adding in 
the close their acroteleutics," framed and modelled 
after their own way of glorification. Where, as 
Yalesius rightly observes, it is plain, acroteleutic is 
but another name for the Gloria Patri, which they 
added at the end of the psalms, but perversely 
modelled to favour their own heresy ; not saying, 
" Glory be to the Father, and the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost ;" but " Glory be to the Father, by the 
Son, and in the Holy Ghost." Again, Sozomen 
speaking of the psalmody with which the Chris- 
tians brought the body of the martyr Babylas from 
Daphne to Antioch in the time of Julian, says. 
They who were best skilled began the psalms, and 
the multitude answered them with one harmonious 
consent, making these words the epode of" their 
psalmody, " Confounded be all they that worship 
graven images, and boast themselves in images, or 
idol-gods." Meaning that this sentence was fre- 
quently repeated in the several pauses of their psalm- 
ody ; which the ancients, we see, sometimes called 
an epode or diapsahn, like that of the 107th Psalm, 
" Oh that men would therefore praise the Lord for 
his goodness, and declare the wonders that he doth 
for the children of men ! " which in the distinct parts 
of that one psalm is four times repeated. 

_ , ,^ From all this, it is as clear as the 

Sect. 13. ' 

ob?e"tion made ^" ^^^ ^^ noou-day, that the people 
ing'a''pS''"in generally had a share m the psalm- 
ody of the ancient church ; and that 
this was not an exercise strictly confined to the 
canonical singers, or any particular order in the 


church ; but that men, women, and children were 
all allowed to bear a part in it, under the direction 
and conduct of precentors, or those who presided 
in this and all other offices of the church. There- 
fore the reflection which I have formerly made 
upon Cabassutius,"' I cannot choose but here again 
repeat, who charges this way of singing as a mere 
novelty and protestant whim, because it differs from 
the present practice of his own church ; though it 
be exactly agreeable to the practice of the ancient 
church in all its several methods, and in all ages 
since the apostles. Neither is there any one thing 
can be objected against it, save a single canon of 
the council of Laodicea," which forbids all others 
to sing in the church, except only the canonical 
singers, who went up into the amho or reading-desk, 
and sung out of a book. This I have explained to 
be only a temporary provision of a provincial coun- 
cil, designed to restore or revive the ancient psalm- 
ody, when it might be in some measure corrupted 
or neglected, and not intended to abridge or destroy 
the primitive liberty of the people. Or if any thing 
more was intended by it, it was an order that never 
took place in the practice of the church : it being 
evident, beyond all contradiction, from what has 
now been said, that the people always enjoyed their 
ancient privilege of joining in this Divine harmony, 
and were encouraged in it by the gi-eatest luminaries 
of the church. 

To proceed, then : we are to con- ^.^^^ ,^ 
sider further, that psalmody was al- peKorS'' i'"?K 
waj-s esteemed a considerable part '"=»"<'"'§ p"^""'^- 
of devotion, and upon that account was usually, if 
not always, performed by those that were engaged 
in it, in the standing posture. Cassian indeed seems 
to make an exception in the way of the monasteries 
of Egypt : but his exception helps to clear the con- 
trary rule, and shows also that their devotion was 
in the main performed in the standing posture. For 
he says, though by reason of their continual fast- 
ings and labour night and day, they were unable to 
stand all the time, while twelve psalms were read- 
ing, yet they that read in coiu-se, always stood™ up 
to read : and at the last psalm, they all stood 
up" and repeated it alternately, adding the Gloria 
Patri at the end. In other places it was always 
the custom to stand, as is plain not only from this ex- 
ception, but from the testimony of St. Austin,**" who 
speaks of the psalmody as an act of devotion, which 
all the people performed standing in the church. 

'■^ Vid. Aiif;'. Psalmum contra partem Donati, t. 7. p. 1. 
Et Retract, lib. 1. cap. 20. 

'' Sozom. lib. 8. cap. 8. Km-a tov twv avTKpuivtov Tpo- 
irov ii^aWov, aKpoTEXtu-ria trvvTiQivTi^ ■np6<3 ti'ji/ au-rwv 
oo^au ■wf.iroir)fxiva. 

" Sozom. lib. 5. cap. 19. "i^wiirri^fL t6 •7r\r;6tis iv arvfi- 
tpMvia. Kai xauTj)!/ xi')!/ ptjtnti etti/Ssi/, k. t. X. 

"• Book III. chap. 7. sect. 2. 

" Cone. Laodic. can. 15. 

" Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 12. Absque eo qui dicturws 
in medium psalmos surrexerit, cuncti sedilibus humiUimis 
insidentes, &c. 

" Cassian. ibid. cap. 8. 

"" Aug. Serm. 3. in Psal. xx.xvi. p. 122. Ccrte venim est 
quod cantavi, certe verum est quod in ecclesia staus tarn de- 
vt)ta voce personui, &c. 



Book XIV. 

song, and its 
the ancients. 

As to the voice or pronunciation 
Of thVuseofpiain used in singing, it was of two sorts, 
s the plain song, and the more artificial 
and elaborate tuning of the voice to 
greater variety of sounds and measures. The plain 
song was only with a little gentle inflection, and 
agreeable turn of the voice, with a proper accent, 
not much different from reading, and much re- 
sembling the musical way of reading the psalms 
now in our cathedral churches. This was the way 
of singing at Alexandria in the time of Athanasius. 
For St. Austin says,*" he ordered the reader to sing 
the psalm with so little inflection or variation of 
the tone, that it looked more like reading than 
singing. And this St. Austin ^^ seems to intimate 
to have been the common way of the African 
churches, as most agreeable to the slow genius of 
the African people. Whence some of the warmer 
Donatists made it a matter of objection, that the 
catholics sung the Divine hymns of the prophets 
soberly in the church, whilst they sung their own 
psalms of human composition in a ranting way, 
and even trumpeted out, like men that were drunk, 
their own exhortations. St. Austin does not speak 
this, as if he wholly disapproved the other more ar- 
tificial and melodious way of singing, but only as 
it was intemperately abused by many, and particu- 
larly by the Donatists. For otherwise he commends 
this way of singing, as very useful to raise the af- 
fections, when performed with a clear voice,*^ and 
a convenient sweetness of melody: and says, it was 
that that melted him into tears, when he first heard 
it in the beginning of his conversion, in the church 
of St. Ambrose. 

This plainly implies, that the arti- 
Ariificiai ai.d me- ficlal aud mclodious way of singing, 

lodious tuning of , _ . _ - 

the voice allowed in With vancty 01 uotes lor greater sweet- 
singing, when ma. •' tut ^^ 

naged with sobriety ncss, was uscd and allowed, as well 

and discretion. 

as plain song, in the Italic churches : 
and they mistake St. Austin, who think he speaks 
in commendation of the one, to the derogation of 
the other. For he professes to admire both ways 
for their usefulness, and particularly the more me- 
lodious way, for this, ut per ohlectamenta aurium 
itifirmior animus in affectum inetatis assurgat, that 

weaker minds may be raised to affections of piety, by 
the delight and entertainment of their ears. And 
whilst it kept within due bounds, there is nothing 
plainer than that it had the general approbation of 
pious men throughout the church. 

Neither was it any objection against j,^^|. ^^ 
the psalmody of the church, that she a?li,S-'psaims'"and 
sometimes made use of psalms and conipositi'on,''b^eiy 
hymns of human composition, besides "" '""^^ '' 
those of the sacred and inspired writers. For 
though St. Austin, as we have just heard before, 
reflect upon the Donatists for their psalms of human 
composition, yet it was not merely because they were 
human, but because they preferred them to the 
divine hymns of Scripture, and their indecent way 
of chanting them to the grave and sober method of 
the church. St. Austin himself made a psalm of 
many parts, in imitation of the II 9th Psalm, as 
has been observed above in this chapter, sect. 12. 
And this he did for the use of his people, to pre- 
serve them from the errors of Donatus. And it 
would be absurd to think, that he who made a psalm 
himself for the people to sing, should quarrel with 
other psalms merely because they were of human 
composition. It has been demonstrated in the fifth 
chapter of the last Book, that there were always 
such psalms, and hymns, and doxologies composed 
by pious men, and used in the church from the 
first foundation of it ; nor did any but Paulus Sa- 
mosatensis except against the use of them ; which 
he did not neither because they were of human 
composition, but because they contained a doctrine 
contrary to his own private opinions. St. Hilary 
and St. Ambrose made many such hymns, which 
when some muttered against in the Spanish churches, 
because they were of human composition, the fourth 
council of Toledo** made a decree to confirm the 
use of them, together with the doxology, " Glory be 
to the Father," &c., and, " Glory be to God on high ;" 
threatening excommunication to any that should 
reject them. The only thing of weight to be urged 
against all this, is a canon of the council of Laodi- 
cea,"^ which forbids all iSmriKovQ TpaXfxovQ, all private 
psalms, and all uncanonical books, to be read in the 
church. For it might seem, that by private psalms. 

^' Aug. Confes. lib. 10. cap. 33. Tam modico fiexu vocis 
faciebat sonare lectorein psalmi, ut pronuncianti viciiiior 
esset qiiaiu canenti. 

'^- Aug. Ep. 119. ad Jamiar. cap. 18. Plcraque in Africa 
ecclesiae membra pigriora sunt: ita ut Donatist;c nos repre- 
hendant, quod sobrie psallimus in ecclesia divina cantica 
prophctarum, cum ipsi ebrietates suas ad canticum psalmo- 
riim humauo ingenio compositorura, quasi tubas exhorta- 
tionis inflamment. 

•*■' Aug. Confes. lib. 10. cap. 33. Veruntamen cum rcmi- 

niscor lachrymas meas, quas fudi ad cantus ecclcsi;c tuic 

Et nunc ipso commoveor — Cum liqu.ida voce et convenion- 
tissima modulatione cantantur, inagnain instituti hujus uti- 
litatem asrnosco. 

"' Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 12. Quia a nonnullis hymni hu- 
niano studio compositi esse noscuntur in laudeiii Dei, et 
apostolorum ac martyrum triumphos, sicut hi qiios beatissi- 
mi (loctores Hilarius atque Anibrosius ediderunt, quos tamen 
quidam specialiter reprobant, pro eo quod de Scripturis 
sanctorum canonum, vel apostolica traditione non existiint: 
rcspuant ergo et ilium hymnum, quem quotidie publico pri- 
vatoqne officio in tine omnium psalmorum dicimus, Gloria 

et honor Patri, &c. Sicut ergo oratioues, ita et hymnos 

in laiidcm Dei compositos uullus nostrum ulterias improbet, 
sed pari modo in Gallicia Hispaniaque celebrent, cxcommu- 
nicationc plecteudi, qui hymnos rejicere fueriut aiisi, 

"* Cone. Laodic. can. 59. 

Chap. I. 



they mean all hymns of human composition. But 
it was intended rather to exclude apociyphal psalms, 
such as went under the name of Solomon, as Bal- 
zamon and Zonaras understand it ; or else such as 
were not approved by public authority in the church. 
If it be extended further, it contradicts the current 
practice of the whole church besides, and cannot, 
in reason, be construed as any more than a private 
order for the churches of that province, made upon 
some particular reasons unknown to us at this day. 
Notwithstanding, therefore, any argument to be 
drawn from this canon, it is evident the ancients 
made no scruple of using psalms or hymns of hu- 
man composition, provided they were pious and 
orthodox for the substance, and composed by men 
of eminence, and received by just authority, and 
not brought in clandestinely into the church. 

But there were some disorders and 

Sect IS. 

But two corrup- irregularities always apt to creep into 

tions severely in- o J i: r 

FiJft'^ove^r-g"reat this practlcc, and corrupt the psalmody 
?yTa'sirg?ng?i'r'' aud devotlons of the church: and 

imitation of the •,,! .1 n ,-\ r .1 

modes and music of agaiust thcse the lathcrs irequently 

tlie tlieatre. i i • • i 1 

declaim with many sharp ana severe 
invectives. Chiefly they complain of the lightness 
and vain curiosity which some used in singing, who 
took their measures from the mean and practice of 
the theatres, introducing from thence the corrup- 
tions and elTeminacy of secular music into the grave 
and solemn devotions of the church. We have 
heard St. Chrysostom before ^'^ complaining of men's 
using theatrical noise and gestures both in their 
prayers and hymns. And here I shall add the re- 
flection which St. Jerom makes upon those words 
of the apostle, Ephes. v., " Singing, and making 
melody in your hearts to the Lord :" Let young men 
hear this, let those hear it who have the office of 
singing in the church, that they sing not with their 
voice, but with their heart to the Lord ; not like 
tragedians, physically preparing their throat and 
mouth, that they may sing after the fashion of the 
theatre in the church. He that has but an ill voice, 
if he has good works, is a sweet singer before God. 
The other vice complained of was, 
And, 2diy, Pleas- thc regarding more the music of the 

ing the ear without ° ° 

r/'thlfsoui''*'^''''"^ words, and sweetness of the compo- 
sure, than the sense and meaning of 
them ; pleasing the ear, without raising the affec- 
tions of the soul, which was the true reason for 
which psalmody and music was intended. St. Je- 
rom takes notice of this corruption in the same 
place,*' giving this caution against it : Let the serv- 

ant of Christ so order his singing, that the words 
that are read may please more than the voice of the 
singer ; that the spirit that was in Saul, may be cast 
out of them who are possessed with it, and not find 
admittance in those who have turned the house of 
God into a stage and theatre of the people. St. 
Austin**" confesses he was for some time thus moved 
to a faulty complacency in the sweetness of the 
song, more than the matter that w'as sung, and then 
he rather wished not to have heard the voice of the 
singer. St. Isidore of Pelusium brings the charge 
of these abuses more especially against women, and 
goes so far as to say, that though the apostle had al- 
lowed them to sing in the church, yet the perverse 
and licentious use they made of this liberty, was a 
sufficient reason ^^ why they should be totally de- 
barred from it. And some are of opinion, that it 
was abuses of this kind, in excess, and not in defect, 
that made the council of Laodicea forbid all but 
thc canonical singers to sing in the church ; as think- 
ing, that they might be better regulated and restrain- 
ed fi-om such abuses by the immediate dependence 
they had upon the rulers of the church. But the 
experience of later ages rather proves, that this was 
not the true way to reform such abuses ; since there 
are greater complaints made by considering men, of 
the excesses committed in church music after it was 
wholly given up to the management of canonical 
singers, than there were before. Witness the com- 
plaints made by Polydore Virgil,°° Maldonat,"' Du- 
rantus,"- and others in the Romish church, and Bi- 
shop WettenhaP^ in the protestant communion, 
which it is none of my business in this place any 
further to pursue. 



But there is one thing more may ^ect. i. 
be of use for the better understanding oi"gs^'J*Gi^^'bt°to 
the psalmody of the ancient church, ' ^ " '"' 
which is, to give a distinct account of the most noted 
hymns that made a part of her service. Among 
these, one the most ancient and common, was that 
which was called the lesser doxolog}-, " Glory be to 

6« Book XIII, chap. 8. sect. 11. 

*' Hieron. in Ephes. v. Sic cautet servus Christi, lit non 
vox cauentis, sed verba placeant quaj leguntur : ut spiritus 
qui erat in Saule, ejiciatur ab iis, qui similiter ab eo possi- 
dentur, et non iutroducatur in eos, qui de domo Dei scenam 
fecere populorum. 

*' Aug. Confess, lib. 10. cap. 33. Cum mihi accidit, tit 

me amplius cantus, quam res quae eanitur moveat, poenaliter 
me peccare confiteor, et tunc mallem non audire cantantem. 

«9 Isidor. lib. 1. Ep. 90. 

9" Polyd. Virgil, dc Her. Invent, lib. 6. cap. 2. p. 359. 

" Maldonat. de Sepiem Sacramentis, t. 2. p. 23S. 

92 Duiant. de Ritibus, lib. 2. cap. 21. n. 11. 

93 Wettenhal, Gift of Singing, chap. 1. p. 277 and 247. 



Book XIV. 

the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost." 
Concerning which we are to note, in the first place, 
that it was something shorter than it is now ; for 
the most ancient form of it was only a single sen- 
tence without a response, running in these words, 
" Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen." Part of the 
latter clause, " as it was in the beginning, is now, 
and ever shall be," was inserted some time after the 
first composition. This appears from the most an- 
cient form used both in the Greek and Latin church 
without those words in it. The fourth council of 
Toledo, anno 633, reads it thus :' " Glory and hon- 
our be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen." Where 
we may observe, that not only the words, " as it 
was in the beginning," &c., are omitted, but the 
word honour is added to glory, according- to another 
decree made in that council ; that it should not be 
said, as heretofore some did, " Glory be to the Fa- 
ther," but, " Glory and honour be to the Father ;" 
forasmuch as the prophet David says, " Bring glory 
and honour to the Lord," Psal. xxviii. 2. And John 
the evangelist, in the Revelation, heard the voice 
of the heavenly host, saying, " Honour and glory 
be to our God, who sitteth on the throne," Rev. v. 13. 
From whence they conclude, that it ought to be said 
on earth as it is sung in heaven. The Mosarabic 
liturgy, which was used in Spain a little after this 
time, has it in the very same' form. " Glory and 
honour be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen." Which 
shows, that that was the received way of using this 
hymn in the Spanish churches. The Greek church 
also, for several ages, used it after the same manner, 
only they did not insert the word " honour," which 
seems to be peculiar to the Spanish church. Atha- 
nasius, or whoever was the author of the treatise of 
Virginity among his works,* repeats it thus, " Glory 
be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost, world without end. Amen." And Strabo^ 
says of the Greeks in general, that they omitted 
those words in the latter clause, " as it was in the 
beginning." So that it is not easy to tell what time 
they first began to be used in it. Some say, the 
council of Nice ordered them to be inserted against 
Arius ; others, that the church by common consent 
admitted them, in compliance with the doctrine of 

that council, to confront the Arian tenet, which 
asserted, that the Son was not in the beginning, 
and that there was a time when he was not. But 
if so, it is strange we should not hear of this addi- 
tional part of the hymn in any Greek or Latin writer 
for above two whole centuries after. The first ex- 
press mention that is made of it, is in the second 
council of Vaison," anno 529, which says. It was 
then so used at Rome, and in Italy, and Africa, 
and all the East, and therefore is now so ordered to 
be used in the French churches. Whence it is plain 
it was not in the French churches before. And there 
is reason to conjecture, that the East is here put 
for the West, by a mistake of some transcriber, 
since it appears from Strabo, that in his time the 
custom of the Greek church was still otherwise ; and 
how long it had been the custom of the Western 
churches before the time of this council, is uncer- 
tain. The Spanish churches, as we have seen, did 
not admit it till afterwards. 

There goes an epistle, indeed, under the name of 
St. Jerom to Pope Damasus, which, if it were ge- 
nuine, would make this addition more ancient than 
now it can be allowed to be : for there he advises 
Damasus to order, that in the Roman church at the 
end of every psalm there should be added, " Glory 
be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost ; as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever 
shall be, world without end. Amen." ' But this epistle 
is rejected as spurious by learned men of all sides, 
Bellarmine, Baronius, Bona, and others of the Ro- 
manists, as well as protestants in general, because 
it contradicts the known practice of the Roman 
church in another particular ; for at Rome they did 
not use the Gloria Patri at the end of every psalm 
long after this, in the time of Walafridus Strabo,* 
neither do they now, by the rubrics of the Roman 
Breviary at this day : whereas, if Damasus had made 
those orders, as this epistle directs, the Gloria Patri 
would have been used at Rome at the end of everj'- 
psalm ; which it was not, either there or in any of 
the Eastern churches, but only in France and some 
few other churches, as we have heard before in the 
last chapter. 

There was another small difference in the use of 
this ancient hymn, which yet made no' dispute 
among catholics, till the rise of the Arian heresy, 
and then it occasioned no small disturbance. The 

' Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 12. In fine omnium psalmorum di- 
cimus, Gloria et honor Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto, 
in soecula sccculorum. Amen. 

- Ibid. can. 14. In fine psalmorum, non siciit a quibus- 
dam hue usque, Gloria Patri, sed Gloria et honor Patri, 
dicatur, &c. 

^ Missa Mozarab. in Nativ. Christi, ap. Mabillon. de 
Littirg. Gallic, p. 453. Gloria et honor Patri, et Filio, et 
Spiritui Sancto, in sxcula sajculorum. Amen. 

•< Athan. de Virgin, p. IU51. 

5 Strabo de Reb. Eccles. cap. 25. 

* Cone. Vasens. 2. can. 5. Quia non solum in sede aposto- 
lica, sed etiam per totum Orientem et totam Africara vel 
Italiam, propter ha;reticorum astutiam, qua Dei Filium 
non semper eum Patre fuisse, sed a tempore fuisse blasphe- 
mant, in omnibus clausulis post, Gloria Patri, &c., sicut 
erat in principin, dicitur, etiam et nos in universis ecclesiis 
nostris hoc ita esse dicendum decrevimus. 

' Hieron. Ep. ad Damasum, 53. et inter Decreta Damasi, 
ap. Crab. Cone. t. 1. p. 383. Istud carmen laudis omni 
psalmo conjungi prsecipias, &c. 

* .Strat)o de lieb. Eccles. cap. 25. 

Chap. 1 1. 



catholics themselves of old were wont to say, some, 
" Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost ;" others, " Glory be to the Father, and 
to the Son, with the Holy Ghost;" and others, 
" Glory be to the Father, in" or " by the Son, and 
by the Holy Ghost." Now, these difierent ways of 
expressing were all allowed, so long as no heterodox 
opinion was suspe'cted to be couched under them, 
as Valesins'lias-obscrved in his notes upon Socrates 
and Theodoret, and St. Basil '" shows more at large 
in his book De Spiritu Sancto. But when Arius 
had broached his heresy in the world, his followers 
would use no other form of glorification but the last, 
and made it a distinguishing character of their party, 
to say, " Glory be to the Father, in " or " by the Son, 
and Holy Ghost :" intending hereby to denote, that 
the Son and Holy Ghost were inferior to the Father 
in substance, and, as creatures, of a different nature 
from him, as Sozomen " and other ancient writers 
inform us. And from this time it became scandal- 
ous, and brought any one under the suspicion of 
heterodoxy, to use it, because the Arians had now, 
as it were, made it the shihholeth of their party. 
Philostorgius indeed says,'- That the usual form of 
the catholics was a novelty, and that Flavian at 
Antioch was the first that brought in this form of 
saying, " Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, 
and to the Holy Ghost ;" whereas all before him 
said either, " Glory be to the Father, by the Son, in 
the Holy Ghost ;" or, " Glory be to the Father, in 
the Son and in the Holy Ghost." But this is no 
more than what one might expect from the partiality 
of an Arian historian, and it is abundantly confuted 
by the ancient testimonies which St. Basil produces " 
in his own vindication against some, who charged 
him with the like innovation ; in answer to which, 
he says, he did no more than what was done before 
by Irenceus, Clemens Romanus, the two Dionysii 
of Rome and Alexandria, Eusebius of Ceesarea, 
Origen, Africanus, Athenogenes, Gregory Thauma- 
turgus, Firmilian, and Meletius, and what was done 
in the prayers of the church, and with the consent 
of all the Eastern and Western churches. Which 
would make a man amazed to hear Cardinal Bona'* 
charging St. Basil as blameworthy, for displeasing 
the cathohcs in using the form of the heterodox 
party ; when it is plain, it was the heterodox party 
that quarrelled with him for using the catholic form 
of the church. And yet, though he blames St. Basil 
without grounds, teUing us. That a catholic doctor 
ought to be without rebuke, and abstain from terms 
that have a suspected sense, and offend pious ears ; 

yet he has nothing to say to Pope Leo, who, if eithei-, 
was more certainly liable to his censure, for using 
the Arian form of doxology, though in a catholic 
sense, in one of his Christmas sermons, wl;ich he 
thus words. Let us give thanks, beloved, to the 
Father,'^ by his Son, in the Holy Ghost. St. Basil 
never used this suspected form, (though he says it 
might be used with an orthodox meaning,) but al- 
ways, " Glory be to the Father, with the Son and 
Holy Ghost." For which he was charged by some 
heterodox men as an innovator ; but there was no 
room for Bona's censure. 

Having thus stated the ancient form and modifi- 
cation of this hymn in its first original, and subse- 
quent progress that it made in the church, we are 
next to see to what use it was applied, and in what 
parts of Divine service. And here we may observe, 
that it was a hymn of most general use, and a 
doxology offered to God in the close of every solemn 
oflfice. The Western church repeated it at the end 
of every psalm, and the Eastern church at the end 
of the last psalm, as we have seen in the former 
chapter. Many of their prayers were also concluded 
with it, as we shall find in various instances in the 
following parts of this and the next Book ; particu- 
larly the solemn thanksgiving or consecration prayer 
at the eucharist, to which Irenajus "* and Tertullian " 
refer, when they mention the close of it, ending in 
these words, aiwvaQ rdv uiwvwv, " world without end. 
Amen." The whole doxology commonly running 
thus: "To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, be all 
glory, worship, thanksgiving, honour, and adoration, 
now and for ever, throughout all ages, world with- 
out end. Amen." As it is in the Constitutions.'* 
Or, if the prayer ended, " by the intercession of 
Christ," then it was, " To whom with thee," or, 
" with whom unto thee and the Holy Spirit, be all 
honour, glory, &c., world without end." Amen." 
This was also the ordinary conclusion of their ser- 
mons, " That we may obtain eternal life through 
Jesus Christ, to whom with the Father, and the 
Holy Ghost, be all glory and power, world without 
end :" as may be seen in the homilies of Chrysostom, 
Austin, Leo, and all others, of which more in the 
fourth chapter of this Book. 

Another hymn of great nole in the j.^^^ ^ 
ancient church, was that which they oi"/y!"'Giorfbt'to 
commonly called, the angelical hymn, ^° °" '^ ' 
or great doxology, beginning with those words 
Avhich the angels sung at our Saviour's birth, " Glory 
be to God on high," &c. This was chiefly used in 
the communion service, as it is now in our church ; 

' Vales. Not. in Socrat. lib. 2. cap. 21. et Theod. lib. 2. 
cap. 24. 

'» Basil, de Spir. Sanct. cap. 7, 25, et 29. 

" Sozom. lib. 3. cap. 20. 'Eooga^oi/ IlaTipaiv'Yiw, dtv- 
Tsptvtw Tov 'Yiov dTTorpaii/oVTe^, 

'- Philostorg. lib. 3. cap. 13. 

'3 Basil, de Spir. Sanct. cap. 29. 
" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 3. n. 2. 
'^ Loo, Serm. 1. de Nativ. Agamiis, dilectissimi, gratias 
Deo Patri, per Filiumejus, in Spiritu Sancto. 
'" Irena;. lib. 1. cap. 1. " Teitul. de Spectac. cap. 25. 
'8 Constit. lib. 8. cap. 12. "* Ibid. cap. 13. 



Book XIV. 

and there we shall speak of it again in its proper 
place. It was also used at morning prayer daily at 
men's private devotions, as I have showed before 
out of Athanasius and the Constitutions,"" where 
the reader may find it repeated at length under the 
title of Trpocrevx>) iioOnn), the morning prayer. In the 
jMozarabic liturgy it is appointed to be sung in 
public before the lessons on Christmas day. St. 
Chrysostom*' often mentions it, and in one place 
particularly observes" of those who retired from the 
world to lead an ascetic life, that they met together 
daily to sing their morning hymns with one mouth 
to God, among which they sung this angelical hymn 
with the angels in heaven. But I have observed 
before, that this was not the common practice of all 
churches, to sing it every day at morning prayer, 
but only in the communion service ; or at least only 
upon Sundays, and Easter day, and such greater 
festivals of the church. Who first composed this 
hymn, adding the remaining part to the words sung 
by the angels, is uncertain. Some suppose ^ it to 
be as ancient as the time of Lucian, who lived in 
the beginning of the second century, and is thought 
to mean it in one of his dialogues, where he speaks 
of the hymn with many names, iroXvwt'vfiov wSi]v, as 
used by the Christians : others take it for the Gloria 
Patri: which is a dispute as difficult to be deter- 
mined, as it is to find out the first author and origin- 
al of this hymn. And all I shall say further of it, 
is only what was said heretofore by the fourth coun- 
cil of Toledo^* against some, who rejected the hymns 
of St. Hilary and St. Ambrose and others, because 
they were of human composition : That by the 
same reason they might have rejected both the lesser 
doxolog\% " Glory and honour be to the Father, and 
to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost," which was 
composed by men; and also this greater doxology, 
part of which was sung by the angels at our Sa- 
viour's birth, " Glory be to God on high, and on earth 
peace to men of good will ; " (so they read it, as many 
other Greek and Latin writers did;) but the rest 
that follows was composed and added to it by the 
doctors of the church. 

A third hymn of great note in the 
Of the Trisnffion cliurcli was tile cherubical hymn, or 

or cherubical hymn, ■• rn • • 

'• Holy, holy, holy," ttic Irisagion, as it was called, because 
of the thrice repeating, " Holy, holy, 
holy, Lord God of hosts," in imitation of the se- 
raphims in the vision of Isaiah. The original form 
of this hymn was in these words, " Holy, holy, holy, 

2» See Book XIII. chap. 10. sect. 9. 

-' Chrys. Horn. 3. in Colos. p. 1337. Horn. 9. in Colos. 
p. 138().' -- Ibid. Horn. G8. vel 69. in Mat. p. GOO. 

^ Smith's Account of the Greek Church, p. 226. 

-' Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 12. Nam et ille hymniis, quem 
nato in came Christo, angeli cecineruut, Gloria in e.Kcelsis 
Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis, rcliquaque 
quae ibi sequuntur, ccclesiastici doctoies coniposuerunt. 

=5 Const, lib. 8. cap. 12. p. 402, 

Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy 
glory, who art blessed for ever. Amen." Thus it 
is in the Constitutions,*^ and frequently in St. Chrj^- 
sostom,-" who says always, that it was in the same 
words that the seraphims sung it in Isaiah. After- 
ward the church added some words to it, and sung 
it in this form, "Ayioq 6 Qeog, iiyiog 'ia^vpog, liyioq aOdva- 
Tog, i\t}]aov rifiag, Holy God, holy Mighty, holy Im- 
mortal, have mercy upon us. This form is ascribed 
by some to Proclus, bishop of Constantinople, and 
Theodosius junior, anno 446. And in this form 
not long after we find it used by the fathers of the 
council of Chalcedon,-' in their condemnation of 
Dioscorus. Which is also noted by Damascen,"* 
who says, the church used this form to declare her 
faith in the holy Trinity, applying the title of holy 
God to the Fa'ther, and holy Mighty to the Son, 
and holy Immortal to the Holy Ghost: not as ex- 
cluding any of the three persons from each of the 
titles, but in imitation of the apostle, who says, " To 
us there is but one God the Father, of whom are all 
things, and we by him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, 
by whom are all things, and we by him." And 
thus this hymn continued to be applied to the 
whole Trinity, till Anastasius the emperor, as some -" 
say, or, as others relate,^" Peter Gnapheus, bishop of 
Antioch, caused the words, 6 cravpwOiiQ £i imag, that 
was crucified for us, to be added to it. Which 
was intended to bring in the heresy of the Theo- 
paschites, who asserted that the Divine nature it- 
self suflTered upon the cross ; and was in effect to say, 
that the- whole Trinity suflTered, because this hymn 
was commonly applied to the whole Trinity. To 
avoid this inconvenience, one Calandio, bishop of 
Antioch, in the time of Zeno the emperor, made 
another addition to it, of the words, " Christ our 
King," reading it thus, " Holy God, holy Mighty, 
holy Immortal, Christ our King, that wast crucified 
for us, have mercy on us," as Theodoras Lector^' 
and other historians inform us. These last ad- 
ditions occasioned great confusion and tumults in 
the Eastern church, whilst the Constantinopolitans 
andWestern churches stiffly rejected them; and some 
of the European provinces, the better to confront 
them, and maintain the old way of applying it to the 
whole Trinity, instead of the words, " crucified for 
us," expressly said, " Holy Trinity, have mercy on 
us," as we find it in Eplirem Antiochenus,'- recorded 
in Photius. 

This is the short historj^ and account of the rise 

« Chrys. Horn. 1. de Verb. Esai. t. 3. p. 834. Hom. 6. iu 
Seraphim, ibid. p. 890. Horn. 21. ad Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 
266. et passim. Vid. Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 5. Core. 
Vasens. 2. can. 4. 

-' Cone. Chalced. Act. 1. p. 310. t. 4. Labbe. 

-" Damascen. de Orthod. Fide, lib. 3. cap. 10. 

^ Evagr. lib. 3. cap. 44. '" Damascen. ibid. 

^' Theodor. Lect. lib. 2. p. 566. Cedren. an. 16. Zenonis. 

=- Phot. Bibliothec. Cod. 228. p. 773. 

Chap. II. 



and progress of this celebrated hymn in the service 
of the church, and of tlie heretical corruptions and 
interpolations that were intended to be made upon 
it. As to its use, it was chieflj' sung in the middle 
of the communion ser%ace, as we shall see more ex- 
pressly hereafter in the next Book : but it was some- 
times used upon other occasions, as we have heard 
in the council of Chalcedon before. And some 
Greek ritualists ^ tell us, that it was always sung 
before the reading of the Epistle, which was an- 
ciently a part of the service of the catechumens. 
But then they distinguish between the Trisar/ion 
and Epinicion, or triumphal hymn, calling the sim- 
ple form, " Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts," 
the Ejnnicion, which was sung in the communion 
service ; and the other, the Trisagion, which was 
sung in the service of the catechumens : but the 
more ancient writers do not observe this distinction; 
and therefore I have here put both forms under the 
common name of the Trisagion. He that would see 
this history more at large, may consult Christianus 
Lupus '^ upon the council of Trullo, and Mr. Allix,^ 
who has written a peculiar treatise upon the subject. 
g^^, ^ Next to the Trisagion, there is fre- 

and'^hlaleiuatic'"^*'' qucut mcntiou made among the an- 
'"'^™^' cient writers of singing the hallelujah. 

By which they sometimes mean the repetition of 
this single word, which signifies, " Praise the Lord:" 
which they did in imitation of the heavenly host, 
singing and saying, again and again, " Hallelujah," 
Rev. xix. Sometimes they mean one of those 
psalms which were called halleluatic psalms,^^ be- 
cause they had the word hallelujah prefixed before 
them in the title, such as the 1 45th, and those that 
follow to the end. The singing of these was some- 
times called singing the hallelujah, as has been ob- 
served out of Cassian,'^ more than once, in the fore- 
going parts of this and the former Book. But the 
more common acceptation of hallelujah, is for the 
singing of the word itself, by a frequent solemn re- 
petition of it, upon certain days, and in special parts 
of Divine service ; it being a sort of invitatory, or 
mutual call to each other to praise the Lord. There- 
fore, as St. Austin'* observes, they always used it 

in the Hebrew language, because that w;i,s tlie 
known signification of it : and so it was in our first 
liturgy, though now we say, " Praise ye the Lord," 
with a response of the people, " The Lord's name 
be praised." Anciently there was no dispute about 
the lawfulness of the hymn itself, but some variation 
and some dispute there was about the times of using 
it. St. Austin says, In some churches it was never 
sung but upon Easter day, and the fifty ^ days of 
Pentecost : but in other churches, it was used at, 
other times also. Vigilantius contended fiercely^" 
against St. Jerom, that it ought never to be sung 
but only upon Easter day. And in this he seems 
to have followed the practice of the church of Rome, 
where Sozomen ^' assures us, it was never sung but 
once a year, and that was upon Easter day ; inso- 
much that it was the common form of an oath 
among the Romans, As they hoped to live to sing 
hallelujah on that day. Cardinal Bona" and Ba- 
ronius " are very angry at Sozomen for this : but 
Valesius" honestly defends him, forasmuch as Cas- 
siodore, who was a Roman, reports the same in his 
Historia Tripartita. But we must note, that an- 
ciently, in those churches where it was most fre- 
quented, there were some exceptions in point of 
time and season. For in the time of Lent it was 
never used, as appears from St. Austin," who says, 
That was a time of sorrow, and therefore from the 
beginning of Lent till Easter day they always omit- 
ted it; the ancient tradition of the church being 
only to use it at certain seasons. The fourth coun- 
cil of Toledo ^^ forbids the use of it not only in Lent, 
but upon other days of fasting, as particularly upon 
the first of January, which was then kept a fast in 
the Spanish church, because the heathen observed 
it with great superstition of many idolatrous rites 
and practices. In the same council, the hallelujah 
is mentioned under the name of Zaudcs*'' and ap- 
pointed to be sung after the reading of the Gospel ; 
which, as Bona^" and Mabillon" observe, was ac- 
cording to the Mozarabic rite ; for in other churches 
it was sung between the Epistle and the Gospel. 
It w^as also sung at funerals, as St. Jerom ac- 
quaints us in his Epitaph of Fabiola, where he 

3' German. Theoria Eccles. Bibl. Patr. Or. Lat. t. 2. 
p. 145. 

^' Lupus, Not. in Can. 81. Trullan. 

'^ AUix de Trisafjio. 

^•^ A\ig. in Psal. cv. p. .505. Psahui alleluatici. It. in 
Psal. cxviii. p. 542. 

" Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 5 et II. 

•'"* Aug. Ep. 178. et Horn. 16. ex 50. t. 10. p. 165. 

"" Aug. Ep. 119. ad Januar. cap. 17. Ut alleluia per so- 
los dies quinquaginta cantetur in ecclesia, non usquequaque 
cbservatur. Nam et in aliis diebus varie cantatur alibi 
atque alibi. Vid. Ep. 86, et Horn, in Psal. cvi. et Senn. 
151. de Tempore. 

" Hieron. cont. Vigilant, cap. 1. Exortus est subito 
Vigilantius, qui dicat — nunquam nisi in Pascha alleluia 

2 Y 

■" Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

^'- Bona de Psalmod. cap. 16. sect. 7. n. 4. 

" Baron, an. 384. n. 28. 

■" Vales, in Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

*'^ Aug. in Psal. ex. Venorunt dies ut jam cantemus al- 
leluia, &c. Vid. in Psal. cvi. et cxlviii. 

■"^ Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 10. In omnibus qucwlragesimae 
diebus (quia tempus non est gaiidii, sed mceroris) alleluia 
non decantetur — Hoc euiin ecclesia^ universalis consensio 
roboravit. In temporibus vero reliquis, id est, kalendis 
Januarii, quae propter errorem gentilitatis aguntur, omniuo 
alleluia non decantabitur. 

■" Ibid. can. II. Laudes ideo Evangeliuni sequuntur prop- 
ter gloriam Christi, qua- per idem Evangelium praedicatur. 

^^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 6. n. 4. 

<' Mabil. de Liturg. Gallican. lib. I. cap. 4. n. 12. 



Book XIV. 

speaks of the whole multitude singing psahns toge- 
ther/" and making the golden roof of the church 
shake with echoing forth the hallelujah. The au- 
thor under the name of Dionysius," speaks of it 
also as used in the confection of the chrism, or holy 
oil to be used in the unction of confirmation. St. 
Austin*' says, it was sung every Lord's day at the 
altar, for the same reason that they prayed stand- 
ing, as a memorial of Christ's resurrection, and as 
a figiu-e of our future rest and joy fulness, to signify 
that our business in the life to come, will be nothing 
else but to praise God, according to that of the 
psalmist, '•' Blessed are they that dwell in thy house, 
O Lord, they will be always praising thee." The 
meaningof hallelujah being nothing else but "Praise 
the Lord," as both he and others^ represent it. In 
the second council of Tours^' it is appointed to be 
sung immediately after the psalms, both at the sixth 
hour, that is, noon-day, and the twelfth hour, that 
is, evening prayer. But whether they mean the 
shorter hallelujah, or one of those psalms called the 
halleluatic psalms, of which St. Austin and Cassian 
speak, is not very easy to determine. Isidore" says, 
it was sung every day in Spain, except upon fast 
days ; though it was otherwise in the African 
churches. St. Jerom^^ says, it was used in private 
devotion ; for even the ploughman at his labour sung 
his hallelujahs. And this was the signal or call 
among the monks" to their ecclesiastical assem- 
blies ; for one went about and sung hallelujah, and 
that was the notice to repair to their solemn meet- 
ing. Nay, Sidonius ApoUinaris seems to intimate,^ 
that the seamen used it as their signal or ceJeusma 
at their common labour, making the banks echo 
while they sung hallelujah to Christ. I only ob- 
serve fiu-ther, that in the church hallelujah was sung 
by all the people, as appears not only from what is 
said before by St. Jerom, that the church echoed 
with the sound of it ; but also from that of Paulinus, 
in his epistle to Severus,^* Alleluia novis halat ovile 
choris, Thewhole sheepfoldofChristsings hallelujah 
inhernew choirs. And St. Austin,™ alluding to this, 
says, it was the Christians' sweet celeusma, or call. 

whereby they invited one another to sing praises 
unto Christ. 

I do not here insist upon the ho- g^^^ ^ 
sanna, or the evening hymn, because ^°^ j'he ^'tH^^ 
it does not appear that either of these ^J^^s.^or*^ the "song 
were used in the service of the cate- 
chumens. The hosanna was but a part of the 
great doxology, " Glory be to God on high," and 
only used in the communion service, where we shall 
speak of it hereafter. And the evening hymn has 
been mentioned®' before in the former Book, where 
we have given an account of the daily evening ser- 
\ace, and showed it to be rather a private hymn, 
than any part of the public worship of the church. 
In it was contained the Nunc diniittis, or song of 
Simeon, " Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart 
in peace, according to thy word," &c. But whether 
any of this was used in public, or only by Christians 
in their private devotions in their families at their 
setting up of lights, is what I ingenuously confess 
I am not yet able, from any ancient records, to de- 
termine. For though there is frequent mention of 
the Xvxva^/ia among the Greeks, and of the lucer- 
narium among the Latins, as of a public office, for 
vespers or evening prayers ; yet I will not assert, 
that this hymn was a part of that office, without 
clearer proof, but leave it to further disquisition and 
inquiry. The only thing we find more of the Nunc 
dimittis, is in the Life of Maria j^lgyptiaca, who 
died about the year 525, of whom it is said, that a 
little before her death she received the eucharist, 
repeated the creed and the Lord's prayer, and sung 
the Nunc dimittis, '* Lord, now lettest thou thy serv- 
ant depart in peace, according to thy word."" But 
this was only an act of private devotion, and whe- 
ther it was then received into the public offices of 
the church remains uncertain. 

But we are more certain of the use „ _^ , 

Sect. 6. 

of the hymn, called Benedicite, or song o^the\on^'ti"i\i 
of the three children in the burning ">ree children. 
fiery furnace. For not only Athanasius** directs 
virgins to use it in their private devotions, but the 
fourth council of Toledo*^* says, it was used in the 

^ Hieron. Ep.30. cap. 4. Sonabant psalmi, aurata tecta 
teiuplorum reboans in sublime quatiebat alleluia. 

^' Dionys. de Hierarch. Eccles. cap. 4. 

" Aug. Ep. 119. ad Januar. cap. 15. Omnibus diebus 
Dominicis ad altare stantes oramus, et alleluia canitur, quod 
significat actionem nostram futuiam non esse nisi laudare 
Deum, &c. 

^^ Vid. Justin. Quaest. ad Orthodox, qu. 50. 

'"' Cone. Turon. 2. can. 19. Patrum statuta praeceperunt, 
ut ad sextam, sex psalmi dicantur cum alleluia; et ad duo- 
decimam duodecim, itemque cum alleluia. 

^* Isidor. de Offic. lib. 1. c. 1.3. In Afrieanis ecclesiis non 
omni tempore, sed tantum Dominicis diebus et 50 post Do- 
mini resiirrectionem alleluia cantatur: verum apud nos 
secundum antiquam Hispaniarum traditionem praeter dies 
jejiiniorum et quadragesimrc omni tempore canitur alleluia. 

*' Hieron. Ep. 18. ad Marcellam. Quocunque te verteris, 

arator stivam retinens alleluia decantat. 

^^ Id. Ep. 27. Epitaph. Paulae, cap. 16. Post alleluia 
cantatum, quo signo vocabantur ad collectam, nulli residere 
licitum erat. 

^^ Sidon. lib. 2. Ep. 10. Curvorum hinc chorus helciario- 
rura, responsantibus alleluia ripis, ad Christum levat amni- 
cum celeusma. 

^^ Paulin. Ep. 12. ad Sever. 

•" Aug. de Cantico Novo, cap. 2. t. 9. Celeusma nostrum 
dulce cantemus alleluia. 

"' Book XIII. chap. II. sect. 5. 

^- Vita Marias .^gypt. ap. Durautum de Ritibus, lib. 1. 
cap. 16. n. 9. 

"^ Athan. de Virgin, p. 1057. 

"* Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 13. Hymnum quoque trium pup- 
rorum, in quo universa coeli terraeque creatura Deum col- 
laudat, et quern ecclesia catliolica per totum orbem diffusa 

Chap. II. 



church over all the world, and therefore orders it 
to be sung by the clergy of Spain and Gallicia every 
Lord's day, and on the festivals of the martyrs, un- 
der pain of excommunication. L'Estrange"* thinks 
this is the first time there is any mention made of 
this hymn, as of public use in the church: but 
Chrysostom lived two hundred years before this 
council, and he makes the same observation as the 
council does, that it was sung in all places"^ through- 
out the world, and would continue to be sung in 
future generations. The Lectionarium Gallicanum, 
published by Mabillon,*' appoints this hymn to be 
sung after the reading of the Prophets, much after 
the same manner as it is now ordered to be sung 
between the first and second lesson in the liturgy 
of our church. 

g^^j ^ The use of the Mac/nijicat, or song 

o^o^l'/lThfho"^ of the holy Virgin, " My soul doth 
Virgin. magnify the Lord," &c., is not quite 

so ancient : for the first time we meet with it as 
prescribed for public use, is in the Rules of Cassarius 
Arelatensis and Aurelian,® who order it to be sung 
in the French churches at morning ser\ace. And 
that was about the year 506. 

Some learned persons reckon the 
■w^r first the singing of the Creed into the psalm- 

Creed began to be . i f • 

sung as a hymn in odv ot the church, and speak oi it as 

the church. -^ . ' ^ . 

an ancient custom : but herein they 
mistake by suffering themselves to be imposed upon 
by modern authors. Bishop Wettenhal says,*''' it is 
no improbable conjecture, that the hymn which 
the primitive Christians are said by Pliny to have 
sung to Christ as God, was their creed ; and that 
it is certain, the Nicene Creed has been sung in the 
church in a manner from the very compiling of 
it. For this he cites Platina in the Life of Pope 
Mark, who affirms, that it was ordained by that 
pope, that on all solemn days, immediately after the 
Gospel, the Creed should be sung with a loud voice 
by the clergy and people, in that form wherein it 
was explained by the Nicene council. When yet it 
is certain, on the other hand, that the Creed was 
never so much as barely repeated in the Roman 
church in time of Divine service, till the year 
1014, when Benedict VIII. brought it into use, 
to comply with the practice of the French and 
Spanish churches, as has been showed at large 
in a former Book,™ where we have noted, that it 

was never read publicly in the Greek churcli, but 
once a year, till Peter Fullo brought it into the 
church of Antioch, anno 471, and Timotheus into 
the church of Constantinople, anno 51 1, from whose 
example it was taken by the third council of Toledo, 
anno 589, and brought into custom in the Spanish 
churches. After which it was four whole centuries 
before it gained admittance in the church of Rome. 
So little reason is there to depend upon the author- 
ity of modern authors, in cases where they plainly 
contradict the testimony of more ancient and credi- 
ble writers. And this is a good argument, as Bishop 
Stillingfleet well urges it," to show the differences 
betwixt the old Galilean and Roman offices, and 
that the church of England did not follow pre- 
cisely the model of the Roman offices, but those 
that were more ancientl}' received in the general 
practice of the Galilean and British churches. 

There remains one hymn more, the ^^^^ ^ 
Te Beum, which is now in use among ^^^^'^roTJlThj^n 
us, the author and original of which ^'' ■""""• 
is variously disputed. The common opinion ascribes 
it to St. Ambrose and St. Austin jointly; others to 
St. Ambrose singly," because he is known to have 
composed hymns for the use of the church. Two 
things are chiefly said in favour of these opinions, 
which have no real weight or force in them. I. 
That the Chronicle of Dacius, one of St. Ambrose's 
successors, says, he composed it. 2. That it is ap- 
proved as his hymn in the fourth council of Toledo, 
anno 633. But to the first it is replied by learned 
men, that the pretended Chronicon of Dacius is a 
mere counterfeit, and altogether spurious. Mabil- 
lon" proves it to be at least five hundred years 
younger than its reputed author : whence the story 
that is so formally told in it, is concluded to be a 
mere fiction, and invention of later ages. The story 
is this, as Spondanus," a favom'er of it, reports it 
out of Dacius : That when St. Austin was baptized 
by St. Ambrose, whilst they were at the font, they 
sung this hymn by inspiration, as the Spirit gave 
them utterance, and so published it in the sight and 
audience of all the people. But the authority of 
the story resting merely upon the foundation of this 
fabulous writer, there is no credit to be given to it. 
Neither is there any greater weight to be laid upon 
what is alleged from the council of Toledo : for the 
council only says. That some hymns were composed 

celebrat, quiilam sacerdotes in missa Dominicorum dieriim 
et in solennitatibus martyrum canere negligunt. Proinde 
sanctum concilium instituit, ut per omnes Hispanioe eccle- 
sias vel Galliciae, in omnium missarum solennitate idem in 
publico (al. pulpiti)) decantetur, &c. 

^ L'Estrauge, Alliance of Div. Offic. chap. 3. p. 79. 

^ Chrj'S. Quod nemo laeditur nisi a seipso, t.. 4. p. 593. 
Qoi'jw iravray^ Ti'/s olKi^f^tv^^i doo/xiutji', Kal acrOijcro/uti'iji/ 
£15 Tri<s (Ufxa TttDra yEi/Sfis. 

" Mabillon. de Liturg. Gallic, lib. 2. p. 108. 
2 Y 2 

•" Apud Mabillon. de Cursu Gallican. p. 407. 

«" Wettenhal, Gift of Singing, chap. .3. p. .330. 

•" Book X. chap. 4. sect. 17. 

" Stilling. Orig. Britan. chap. 1. p. 237. 

"- Comber of Liturgies, p. 180. 

" Mabil. Analecta Veterum, t. 1. p. 5. 

■' Spondan. anno .388. n. 9. In quibus fontibus, prout 
Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illis, Te Deum laudamus, can- 
tantes, cunctis qui aderant audientibus et videntibus, edide- 
runt. Ex Chronico Dacii, lib. I. c. 10. 



Book XIV. 

for the use of the church by St. Hilary and St. Am- 
brose, without any particular mention of this hymn ; 
so that it might as well be ascribed to St. Hilary 
as St. Ambrose, for any thing that is said in that 
council. The truth of the matter is, that it was 
composed by a French writer about a hundred 
years after St. Ambrose's death, for the use of the 
GalHcan church. Pagi" says, Gavantus found it in 
some MSS. ascribed to St. Abundius; and others 
have the name of Sisebutus prefixed to it. Bishop 
Usher'" found it in two MSS. ascribed to Nicettus, 
bishop of Triers, who lived about the year 535. 
And he is now by learned men generally reputed 
the author of it. The learned Benedictins, who 
lately published St. Ambi-ose's works, judge St. 
Ambrose not to be the author of it : and Dr. Cave, 
though he was once" of a different judgment, yet 
upon maturer consideration'' subscribes to theii- 
opinion. Wherefore the most rational conclusion 
is that of Bishop Stillingfleet,'' that it was composed 
by Nicettus, and that we must look on this hymn 
as owing its original to the Gallican church ; since 
not long after the time of Nicettus it is mentioned 
in the Rule of St. Benedict, cap. II, and the Rule 
of Ctesarius Arelatensis, cap. 21, and the Rule of 
Aurelian, where they prescribe the use of it : but 
Menardus^" is confident, there is no mention of this 
hymn in any writers of credit before them. 

But though St. Ambrose cannot be 
The'hymns'of St. allowcd to be tlic autlior of this hymn, 

Ambrose. . 

yet there is no doubt to be made but 
that he composed hymns for the use of the church, 
some of which are yet extant. For St. Austin" 
mentions one of his evening hymns in several 
places, Deus Creator omnium, &c. ; which I for- 
bear to relate here at length, because I have done 
it in the former Book.'^ Again, St. Austin in his Re- 
tractations "' speaks of another hymn composed by 
St. Ambrose, upon the repentance of Peter after the 
crowing of the cock, part of which he there relates, 
and says, it was used to be sung by many in his 
time. Du Pin thinks*^ most of those hymns which 

" Pagi, Critic, in Baron, an. 388. n. 11. 

'" Usser. de Symbolo, p. 3. 

" Cave, Hist. Liter, vol. 1. p. 215. 

'^ Id. Hist. Liter, vol. 2. p. 75. Ambrosii esse, nuUo 
idoneo testimomo probari potest, et fabulam pro origine 
iiabere videtur. 

'■' Stillingfl. Orig. Britan. chap. 4. p. 222. 

•** Menard. Not. in Gregor. Sacramentar. p. 35L 

•*' Aug. Confess, lib. 9. cap. 12. It. de Musica, lib. 6. cap. 
2 6117." 

s- Book XIII. chap. 5. sect. 7. 

^ Aug. Retract, lib. 1. cap. 21. Cantatur ore multornm 
in versibus beatissimi Ambrosii, ubi de gallo gallinaceo ait, 
Hoc, ipsa Petra ecclesia canente, culpam diluit. 

" Du Pin, Bibliothec. Cent. 4. p. 231. 

^^ Breviar. Horn. Hebdom. 4. Quadragcsimaedie Sabbati. 
O Crux ave spes unica, 
Hoc passionis tempore, 

are now the daily office of the Roman service, are 
taken from St. Ambrose, but that the rest are in a 
different style, and owing to other authors. Par- 
ticularly that the hymn, Vexilla Regis prodeunt, is 
none of his, which is now used in the Romish 
church in the fourth week of Lent, so notorious for 
their kneeling down to the cross, and worshipping 
it in these words : ^'^ Hail, cross, our only hope, in 
this time of passion, increase the righteousness of 
the pious, and grant pardon of sins to the guilty. 
We are sure this could not be the composition of 
St. Ambrose, nor any writer of that age ; being so 
much the reverse of the practice of the ancient 
church, in whose hymns or other devotions there is 
not the least footstep of worshipping the cross, or 
any material image of God, as has been demon- 
strated in a former part of this work,"" where the his- 
tory of images has been handled ex professo, in con- 
sidering the way of adorning the ancient churches. 

There were many other hymns, 
and some whole books of hymns, com- The"^hymn8'of st. 

Hilary, Claudiaiius 

posed by other writers of the church, o„^^"'="^' *"■* 
of which we have httle remaining be- 
sides the bare names, and therefore it will be suf- 
ficient just to mention them. St. Jerom says,'' 
St. Hilary, bishop of Poictiers, composed a book of 
hymns : and these we are sure were, many years 
after his death, of famous note and use in the 
Spanish churches, being ratified and confirmed in 
the fourth council of Toledo."** But none of these 
are come to our hands, except a morning hymn"'* 
prefixed before his works, which he sent with an 
epistle to his daughter Abra. It is a prayer to 
Christ for preservation from the perils of day and 
night, savouring of ancient piety, and concluding 
with the common glorification of " Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost." Sidonius Apollinaris™ says also, that 
Claudianus Mamercus collected the psalms and 
hymns and lessons proper for the festivals in the 
church of Vienna in France, and made some hymns 
of his own, one of which he highly '* commends for 
its elegancy, loftiness, and sweetness, as exceeding 

Auge piis justitiam, 
Reisque dona veniam. 
«« Book VIII. chap. 8. sect. 6, &c. 
" Hieron. de Scriptor. Eccl. cap. 110. 
ss Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 12. 

"" Hilar. Epist. ad Fil. Abram. Interim tibi hymnum 
matutiuum et serotinum misi, ut memor mei semper sis. 
The hymn begins thus, Lucis largitor optimc, &c. ; and 
ends in these words of the do.xology, 
Gloria tibi Domine, 
Gloria Unigenito, 
Cum Spiritu Paracleto. 
Nunc et per omne saculum. 
*• Sidon. lib. 4. Ep. 11. Psalmorum hie modulator et 
phonascus, instructas docuit sonare classes. Hie solennibus 
annuis paravit, quoe quo tempore lecta convenirent. 

"• Id. lib. 4. Ep. 3. Jam vero de hymno tuo si percunctere 
quod sentiam, commaticus est, copiosus, dulcis, elatus, et 

Chap. III. 



any of the ancient lyrics, in the greatness of its 
composure and historical truth. Savaro says, in his 
notes upon the place, that it is the same which is 
now in the Roman Breviary, and because it answers 
the character which Sidonius gives it, and has none 
of the superstition of a modern composure in it, 
(such as the Vexilla Regis, fathered upon St. Am- 
brose,) I think it not improper to transcribe in the 
margin here,'- for the use of the learned reader. 
And say further, that if every thing in the Roman 
Breviary had been in this strain, it had much more 
resembled the piety and simplicity of the ancient 
hymns, and been free from those marks of supersti- 
tion and idolatry, which now it labours under, by 
mixing the follies of the modern superstitious ad- 
mirers of the worship of the Virgin Mary and the 
cross, which were so great a deviation from the 
ancient worship, and stood so much in need of re- 
formation. There were many other hymns for the 
use of particular churches, composed by learned 
men, as Nepos, and Athenogenes, and Ephrem Syrus, 
not to mention those spoken of by Pliny and Ter- 
tuUian, and frequently by Eusebius; nor those which 
Paulus Samosatensis caused in his anger to be cast 
out of the church of Antioch ; nor those which 
Sozomen,'' says were made upon a special occasion, 
when the people of Antioch had incensed Theodo- 
sius, by throwing down his statues; which were 
both sung in the church, and before Theodosius 
himself, by the singing boys, as he sat at table. Of 
all which we have no further account but only the 
bare mention of them in their several authors. As 
for those composed by Gregory Nazianzen, Paulinus, 
Prudentius, and other Christian poets, they were not 
designed for public use in the church, but only to 
antidote men against the poison of heresies, or set 
forth the praises of the martyrs, or recommend the 
practice of virtue in a private way : for which rea- 
son I take no notice of them in this place, being 
only concerned to give an account of such hymns 
as related to the ancient psalmody, as a part of the 
public service of the church. And so I have done 
with the first part of their worship in the missa 
catechiimenorum, or service of the catechumens. 



Next to the psalmody and hymns, we 

are to take a view of their way of lmsous'' of tii» 

T ,, n • i 1 ■ 1 Scripturesomctinies 

reading the Scriptures, which was an- mixed .vith p»ain.s 

. and hjiiiiis, and 

other part of the service oi the cate- sunietinR-Brtadafttr 
chumens, at which (as has been ob- 
served before) all sorts of persons were allowed to 
be present for instruction. Which is an argument 
of itself, sufficient (if there were no other) to prove, 
that they were always read in a known tongue : of 
which I need say no more here, because it has been 
so fully evinced by great variety of arguments in the 
last Book. What we are now to observe further, 
relates to the manner and circumstances of this 
service. Where, first of all, it is proper to remark, 
that though many times the psalms, and lessons, 
and hymns were so intermixed, (as now they are 
in our liturgy,) that it is hard to tell which came first 
in order, or with which the service began ; yet in 
some places it was plainly otherwise ; for the psalms 
were first sung all together, only with short prayers 
between them, and then the lessons were read by 
themselves, to such a number as the rules of every 
church appointed. Of which I have given suffi- 
cient proof out of Cassian and St. Jerom, in the 
beginning of the last chapter, which may supersede 
all further confirmation in this place. 
The next thing worthy of our ob- 
servation, is the number of the lessons. The' ks^is rend 

... , , -, both out of the Old 

which were always two at least, and and New Testa- 
ment, except in the 

sometimes three or four, and those <^'|"'''-'' f Rome, 

wjiere only Epistle 

partly out of the Old Testament, and ^^^ ^°^i"'^ ""^ 
partly out of the New. Only the church 
of Rome seems to have been a little singular in this 
matter; for, as Bishop Stillingfleet' observes out of 
Walafridus Strabo^ and others of her old ritualists, 
for 400 years, till the time of Pope Celestine, they 
had neither psalms nor lessons out of the Old Tes- 
tament read before the sacrifice, but only Epistle 
and Gospel. In other churches they had lessons 

quoslibet lyricos dithyrambos amoenitate poetica et histo- 
tica veritate supereminet. 

"- Breviar. Rom. Dominica 5. Quadragesimee, sive in Pas- 
sione Domini ad Matutinum. 

Pange lingua gloriosi Morsu in mortem corruit, 

Praclium certaminis, Ipse lignum tunc notavit, 

Et super crucis trophaeum Damna ligni ut solveret. 

Die triumphum nobilem, u » i ■ 

„ ,. ^, , .' Hoc opus nostraj salutis 

Uuaiiter redemptor orbis <~v j i 

, , . ^. Urdo depoposcerat, 

Immolatus vicerit. », ,.•,. j.^ 

Multitormis proditoris 

De parentis protoplasti Ars ut artem falleret, 

Fraude factor condolens, Et medelam ferret inde, 

Quando pomi noxialis Hostis unde laeserat. 

Quando venit ergo sacri 
Plenitudo temporis, 
Missus est ab arce Patris 
Natus orbis conditor : 
Ac de ventre virginali 
Caro factus prodiit. 

Vagit infans inter arcta 
Conditus preesepia: 
Membra pannis involuta 

Virgo mater alligat; 

Et raanus pedesque et crura 

Stricta cingit fascia. 

Gloria et honor Deo 
Usquequaque altissimo, 
Una Patri, Filioque, 
Inclito Paraclito, 
Cui laus est et potestas 
Per a;terna sajcula. Amen. 

"' Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 23. 

' Stilling. Orig. Britan. chap. 4. p. 215. 

2 Strabo de Keb. Eccl. cap. 22. 



Book XIV. 

out of the Old Testament as well as the New. 
Cassian' says, In Egypt, after the singing of the 
psalms, they had two lessons read, one out of the 
Old Testament, and the other out of the New : only 
on Saturdays and Sundays, and the fifty days of 
Pentecost, they were both out of the New Testament, 
one out of the Acts of the Apostles or the Epistles, 
and the other out of the Gospels. The author of 
the Constitutions* speaks of four lessons, two out 
of Moses and the Prophets, besides the Psalms, and 
then two out of the Epistles or Acts of the Apostles 
and the Gospels. Again,^ he mentions the reading 
of the Prophets on S unday s. And in another place," 
the Law and the Prophets, the Psalms and the Gos- 
pels. And, again, the Law and the Prophets,' and 
the Epistles, and the Acts, and the Gospels. So 
Justin Martyr, describing the business of the Chris- 
tian assemblies on the Lord's day, speaks of the 
reading of the writings of the prophets, as well as 
the apostles.* In like manner Chrysostom, reprov- 
ing some who were veiy negligent at church, says,' 
Tell me what prophet was read to-day, what apostle ? 
implying, that the one was read as well as the other. 
Particularly he tells us, that the Book of Genesis 
was always read in Lent, of which more by and by, 
in the following observation. St. Basil, in one of 
his homilies '° upon baptism in Lent, takes notice 
of the several lessons that were read that day, be- 
sides the psalms, whereof one was out of the 1st of 
Isaiah, the second out of Acts ii., and the third out 
of Matthew xi. And in another homily " he speaks 
of the Psalms and Proverbs, and Epistles and Gos- 
pels, as read that day. Maximus Taurinensis, in 
one of his homilies upon the Epiphany,'^ says, The 
lessons were out of Isaiah Ix., Matt, ii., and John 
i., for that festival. St. Austin sometimes only 
mentions Epistle and Gospel. But in other places 
he expressly mentions " the reading of the Prophets, 
and particularly mentions the prophet Micah, and 
those words of the 6th chapter, " What doth the 
Lord require of thee, but to do justly, to love mercy, 
and to walk humbly with thy God;" which were 
the theme for his discourse upon the lesson for the 
day. In the French churches there is still more 
evidence for this practice : for Cssarius Arelaten- 
sis," in one of his homilies, cited by Mabillon, uses 

this argument to the people, why they should stay 
the whole time of Divine service, because the lessons 
were not so properly called missa or Divine service, 
as was the oblation or consecration of the body and 
blood of Christ ; for they might read at home, or 
hear others read the lessons, whether out of the 
prophets, or apostles, or evangelists ; but they could 
not hear or see the consecration any where else but 
only in the house of God. Where it is plainly im- 
plied, that the lessons were then read in the church 
as well out of the Prophets, as the Epistles and Gos- 
pels. And so in the relation of the conference be- 
tween the catholics and Arians in the time of Gun- 
dobadus, king of Burgundy, which we have had 
occasion to mention before '^ out of the same learned 
writer, it is said, that in the vigil held the night 
before the conference, four lessons were read, one 
out of Moses, another out of the prophet Esaias, a 
third out of the Gospel, and the last out of the 
Epistles. And in the old Lectionarium Gallicanum, 
published by Mabillon, there is always a lesson out 
of the Old Testament before the Epistle and Gospel ; 
and on the sahhatum sanctum, or Saturday before 
Easter,'^ there are no less than twelve lessons ap- 
pointed out of Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Isaiah, 
Ezekiel, Daniel, and Jonah, beside the Epistle and 
Gospel which follow after. It further appears from 
the canons of the council of Laodicea," and the 
third council of Cai'thage,'* and St. Cyril's Cate- 
chetical Discourses," that all the books of the Old 
Testament were then read in the church, as well as 
the New. For they give us catalogues of what 
books might or might not be read in the church, 
among which all the books of the Old Testament 
are specified as such as were then actually read in 
the public service ; and Cyril allows his catechu- 
mens to read no other books in private but the 
books of the Old and New Testament, which he 
thought they might safely read, because they were 
both publicly read in the church. 

The next observation to be made is, s^^.f 3 
upon their method of reading the cert;T."tire?\nl 
Scriptures, which seems always to be 
done by some rule, though this might vary in differ- 
ent churches. St. Austin tells us^" there were some 
lessons so fixed and appropriated to certain times 

' Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 6. ■* Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. 

'^ Idem, lib. 2. cap. 59. " Idem, lib. 5. cap. 19. 

' Idem, lib. 8. cap. 5. " Justin. Apol. 2. p. 98. 

^ Chrys. Horn. 24. in Rom. p. 270. Horn. 3. de David et 
Saul. t. 2. p. It>37. 

'» Basil. Horn. 13. de Bapt. t. 1. p. 409. 

" Ibid. Horn. 21. in Lacizis, p. 4G0. 

'- Maxim. Taurin. Hom. 4. in Epiphan. 

'3 Aug. Hom. 237. de Temp. p. 3&4. 

•^ Cajsar. Arelat. De non recedendo ab Ecclesia, &c. ap. 
Mabillon. de Liturg. Gallic, lib. 1. cap. 4. n. 4. Nnn tunc 
fiunt misspe, quando divinae lectiones in ecclesia recitantur, 
sed quando munera offeruntur, et corpus vol sanguis Domini 

consecratur: nam lectiones, sive propheticas, sive apostoli- 
cas, sive evangelicas, etiam in domibus vestris aut ipsi 
legore, aut alios legentes audire potestis ; consecrationera 
vero corporis et sanguinis Domini non alibi, nisi in domo 
Dei, audire vel videre poteritis. 

'5 Book XIV. chap. I. sect. 2. 

'" Lectionar. Gallican. ap. Mabillon. de Liturg. Gallic, 
lib. 2. p. 138. 

'' Cone. Laodic. can. 59 et 60. 

"* Cone. Carth. 3. can. 47. 

'■' Cyril. Catech. 4. n. 22. p. 67. 

'•^" Aug. Expos, in I Joan, in Praefat. t. 9. p. 235. Inter- 
posita est solennitas sanctorum dierum, quibus certas e% 

Chap. III. 



and seasons, that no others might be read in their 
stead. And he particnlarly instances in the festival 
of Easter, when for four days successively the his- 
tory of Christ's resurrection-' was read out of the 
four Gospels. On the day of his passion " they read 
the history of his sufferings out of St. Matthew's 
Gospel only. And all the time between Easter and 
Pentecost,^ he says, they read the Acts of the Apos- 
tles. This last particular is frequently mentioned 
by St. Chrysostom, who has a whole sermon to give 
an account of the reasons of it. There he takes 
notice of many things together relating to this matter 
of reading the lessons by rule and order. First, he 
tell us-* how, by the appointment of the church, on 
the day of our Saviour's passion all such Scriptures 
were read, as had any relation to the cross ; then 
how, on the great sabbath, or Saturday before Easter, 
they read all such portions of Scripture as contained 
the history of his being betrayed, crucified, dead, and 
buried. He adds also,^ that on Easier day they 
read such passages as gave an account of his resur- 
rection ; and on every festival, the things that re- 
lated to that festival. But it seemed a difficulty, 
why then the Acts of the Apostles, which contain 
the history of their mira.cles done after Pentecost, 
should not rather be read after Pentecost, than be- 
fore it ? To this he answers. That the miracles of 
the apostles, contained in that book, were the great 
demonstration of our Saviour's resurrection : and 
therefore the church appointed that book to be read 
always between Easter and Pentecost, immediately 
after om- Saviour's resurrection, to give men the 
e%'idences and proofs of that holy mystery, which 
was the completion of their redemption. So that 
though the lessons for other festivals related the 
things that were done at those festivals ; yet, for a 
particular reason, the Acts of the Apostles, which 
contained the history of things done after Pentecost, 
were read before Pentecost, because they were more 
proper for the time immediately following our Sa- 
viour's resurrection. And upon this account it be- 
came a general rule over the whole church, to read 
the Acts at this time, as not only Chrysostom testi- 
fies here, but in many other places of his writings. 
In his homily upon those words, " Saul yet breath- 
ing out threatenings and slaughter against the disci- 
ples," Acts ix., he gives this reason why he could 

not preach in order upon every part of that book,^ 
because the law of the church commanded it to be 
laid aside after Pentecost, and the reading of it to 
conclude with the end of the present festival. In 
another place" he says, it was appointed by law to 
be read on that festival, and not usually read in any 
other part of the year. And in another place^ he 
gives this reason why he broke off his sermons upon 
Genesis in the Passion Week, because the interven- 
tion of other solemnities obliged him to preach then 
upon other subjects, agreeable to what was read in 
the church, as against the traitor Judas, and upon 
the passion, and our Saviour's resurrection, at which 
time he took in hand the Acts of the Apostles, and 
preached upon them from Easter to Pentecost. Cas- 
sian^ says, the same order was observed among the 
Egj-ptians : and it appears from the ancient Lec- 
tionarium Gallicanum, that it was so in the French 
churches : for there almost on every day between Eas- 
ter and Pentecost, except the rogation days, and some 
few others, two lessons are ordered to be read out of 
the x\pocalypse and the Acts of the Apostles. Whence 
it may be concluded further, that the reading of 
the Apocalypse was also in a great measure ap- 
propriated to this season in the Galilean church. 
And so it was in the Spanish churches, by an order 
of the fourth council of Toledo, which enjoins the 
reading of it*" in this interval under pain of excom- 
munication. In Lent they usually read the Book 
of Genesis, as is plain from Chrysostom, whose fa- 
mous homilies called av^piavng, because they are 
abovit the statues of the emperor, which the people 
of Antioch had seditiously thrown down, were 
preached in Lent : and in one of these" he says, he 
would preach upon the Book that had been read 
that day, which was the Book of Genesis, and the 
first words, " In the beginning God created heaven 
and earth," were the subject of his discourse. In 
another sermon,^ preached upon the same test in 
the beginning of Lent, he says, the words had been 
read in the lesson that day. And for this very rea- 
son he preached two whole Lents upon the Book of 
Genesis, because it was then read of com-se in the 
church. For the first thirty-two of those homilies 
were preached at Constantinople in Lent, in the 
third year after he was made bishop, anno 400, or 
401 ; but the festivals of the Passion, and Easter, 

evangelio lectiones oportet in eeclesia recitari, quae ita sunt 
annuae, ut aliae esse non possint. 

2' Vid. Aug. Serm. 139, 140, 141, 144, 148. de Tempore. 
Item, Chrys. Horn. 88. in Mat. p. 731. 

" Aug. Serm. 143. de Tempore, p. 320. 

» Aug. Tract. 6. in Joan. t. 9. p. 24. et Horn. 83. de 

^' Chrys. Horn. G3. Cur in Pentccoste Acta legantur, t. 5. 
p. 919. 

^Ibid. p. 951. 

-* Ibid. 47. t. 5. p. 637. Tfi>i; iraTipwv 6 vofxo^ KiKiva 
utTii T)/i/ T\.tvri.KO(nj]v diroTi^ia^ai to PijiXiov, &c. 

^ Ibid. 48. iu Inscriptionem Altaris, Act. 17. t. 5. p. 650. 
T); iopTtj Tayx;7 vtvofxo6t.Ti]Te.L auTo dvayivwaKtadai, &c. 

■■» Ibid". .33. in Gen. p. 478. 

-' Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 6. 

^ Cone. Tolet. 4. can. IG. Si quis Apocalypsin a I'ascha 
usque ad Pentecostcn missarum tempore in eeclesia non 
praedicaverit, excommunicationis sententiam habebit. 

3' Cbrvs. Horn. 7. ad Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 107. To (r.i- 
/xtpov v/up avayvuxjdtv ixiTayiipiKjiai fiiftXiov. 

'- Serm., 1. in Gen. i. t. 2. p. 880. TauTa yap vfuv nvt- 
yixurrfli) avfiepov. Vid. Chrvs. Horn. 6. de Paniitentia in 
Edit. Latinis. 



Book XIV. 

and Pentecost coming on, this subject was inter- 
rupted, and he preached on other subjects, as he 
himselP' tells us, suitable to those occasions. Af- 
terward he resumed his former work, and finished 
his Comment upon Genesis in thirty-two sermons 
more in the year ensuing. Which makes it plain, 
that Genesis was then read in Lent, as the Acts were 
in Pentecost, and that Chrysostom conformed his 
discourses according to the order of reading then 
established in the church. It appears further from 
St. Ambrose, that the Book of Job and Jonah were 
both read in the Passion Week. For speaking of a 
sermon which he made to the people at this time, 
he says,'* Ye have heard, children, the Book of Job 
read, which is in course appointed to be read at this 
time. And '^ again, says he, the Book of Jonah was 
read. That is, as Pagi^'* critically remarks, on the 
third day of the Passion Week. And that this was 
an ancient rule of the church, appears from Origen's 
Comment upon Job, which, St. Jerom" says, St. 
Hilary translated into Latin. For there ^ he not 
only tells us, that the Book of Job was read in the 
church in Passion Week, but also gives us the rea- 
son of it, because it was a time of fasting and ab- 
stinence, a time in which they that fasted and 
abstained had, as it were, a sort of fellow suffering 
with admirable Job, a time in which men by fasting 
and abstinence followed after the passion of Christ 
Jesus our Lord : and because the passion of Job 
was in a great measure a type and example of 
the passion and resurrection of Christ, therefore 
the history of Job's passion was with good rea- 
son read and meditated upon in these days of 
passion, these days of sanctification, these days 
of fasting. Thus far Origen: but in the'" Lec- 
tionarium Gallicanum there is no mention of the 
Book of Job, but only of Jonah on the sahbatum 
magnum, or Saturday before Easter day.*" St. Je- 
rom seems to say, that the prophet Hosea was also 
read on the vigil of our Saviour's passion. For he 
mentions a long discourse of Pierius, which he had 
read, made by that martyr on the beginning of that 
book, in an elegant but extemporary style, on the 
vigil before the Passion. St. Chrysostom,*' in one 
of his homilies upon the Gospel of St. John, which 

he was then expounding, advises his auditors to read 
at home, in the week days before, such portions of 
the Gospel as they knew were to be read and ex- 
pounded on the Lord's day following in the church. 
Which implies some certain rule and order. So 
that though we have not any complete Lectionarium, 
or calendar of lessons, now remaining, yet we are 
sure their reading of Scripture was some way me- 
thodized and brought under rule, especially for the 
gi'eater solemnities and festivals of the church. The 
first calendar of this kind is thought by some to be 
Hippolytus's Canon Paschalis, which, as I have 
showed before,*- no less men than Scaliger and Go- 
thofred take to be a rule appointing lessons proper 
for the festivals. But Bucherius and others give 
another account of it, which leaves the matter un- 
certain. There goes also under the name of St, 
Jerora, a book called his Comes or Lectionarium ; 
but critics of the best rank*' reckon this a counter- 
feit, and the work of a much later writer, because it 
mentions lessons out of the prophets and Old Tes- 
tament, whereas in St. Jerom's time, as we have 
noted before, there were no lessons read besides 
Epistles and Gospels in the church of Rome. How- 
ever, some time after there were several books of this 
kind composed for the use of the French churches. 
Sidonius Apollinaris** says, Claudianus Mamercus 
made one for the church of Vienna, anno 450. And 
Gennadius*'^ says, Musteus made another for the 
church of Marseilles, about the year 458. But both 
these are now lost, and the oldest of this kind is the 
Lectionarium Gallicanum, which Mabillon lately 
published from a manuscript, which he judges by 
the hand to be above a thousand years old, but wrote 
after the time of Gregory the Great, because it men- 
tions the festival of Genovefa,*^ who is supposed to 
live after his time. But though we have no more 
ancient calendar now remaining, yet the authorities 
alleged before do indisputably evince the thing itself, 
that the lessons of Scripture were generally appro- 
priated to times and seasons, according as the fes- 
tivals required : and for the rest, they were either 
read in order as they lie in the Bible, as Mabillon*' 
shows from the Rulfes of Csesarius and Aurelian ; or 
else were arbitrarily appointed by the bishops at 

^ Chrys. Horn. 33. in Gen. p. 480. Vid. Severiani Gaba- 
lensis, Horn. 1. in Gen. ap. Combefis. Auctar. Noviss. p. 
214. Et Aug. Serm. 71. de Temp. 

^' Ambros. Ep. 33. ad Marcellin. Soror. p. IGO. Audistis, 
filii, librum legi Job, qui solenni et munere est decursus et 

^^ Ibid. p. 162. Seqiicnti die lectus est de more liber Jon<x>. 

'^ Pagi, Critic, in Baron, an. 387. n. 4. 

*' Hieron. cont. Vigilant. 

38 Origen in Job, lib. ]. p. 366. In conventu ecclesia; in 
(liebns Sanctis legitur Passio Job, in dicbus jejunii, in die- 
bus abstinentias, &c. 

^-'Lectionar. Gallic, ap. Mabillon. de Litiirg. Gallic, p. 139. 

'"' Hieron. Procem. in Hoseam, ad Pammach. Pierii quo- 

que legi tractatum longissimum, quern in exordio hiijus pro- 
pheta; die vigiliarum Dominicae passionis e.Ktemporali et 
diserto sermone prof'udit. 

■" Chrys. Horn. 10. in Joan. al. II. edit. Savil. p. 597. 

'-' Book XIII. chap. 5. sect. 6. 

"•' Vid. Stilling. Orig. Britan. chap. 4. p. 229. et Cave, 
Hist. Literar. vol. I. p. 225. 

** Sidon. lib. 4. Ep. II. Hie solennibus annuis paravit, 
quoe quo tempore lecta convenirent. 

■•^ (jennad. de Scriptor. cap. 79. Excerpsit de Scripturis 
lectiones totius anni festivis diebus aptas ; respousoria 
psalmorum capitula tempoiibus et lectiouibus congruentia. 

^'' Lectionar. Gallic, ap. Mabil. p. 114. 

" Mabil. de Cursu Gallicano, p. 406. 

Chap. III. 



discretion, as sometimes particular psalms were 
upon emergent occasions, according to the 'observa- 
tion that has been made^' in speaking of that sub- 
ject. St. Austin says expressly,^" he sometimes 
ordered a lesson to be read agreeable to the subject 
of the psalm upon which he was preaching. And 
Ferrarius^" gives several other instances, both out of 
St. Austin'' and Chrysologus,'- to the same purpose, 
which need not here be repeated. 

The next question may be concern- 
By whom the inff thc Dcrsons by whom the Scrip- 

Scriptures were an- ^ ^ ■,,.i -, ■ i i i 

rientiy read in the turcs wcrc publicly read m the church. 
Which is a question that has been in 
some measure answered before, in speaking of the 
order of readers.^' Where I showed, that for the 
two first centuries, before the order of readers was 
instituted, it is probable the Scriptures were read 
by the deacons, or else in imitation of the Jewish 
church, by such as the bishop or president for that 
time appointed. But in the time of St. Cyprian, it 
was the pecuhar office of the readers, which were 
become an inferior order of the clergy, to read all 
the lessons of Scripture, and even the Gospel, as 
well as other parts, as appears from several'* of Cy- 
prian's epistles. Here I must add, that in after 
ages the reading of the Gospel was in some churches 
confined to the office of the deacons and presbyters. 
For so the author of the Constitutions'' words it: 
After the other lessons are read by the readers, let a 
deacon or a presbyter read the Gospels. And so 
St. Jerom reminds Sabinianus'^ the deacon, how he 
had read the Gospels in the church. And Socrates" 
notes the same of Sabbatius, a presbyter in the No- 
vatian church. Sozomen says," At Alexandria the 
Gospel was read only by the archdeacon ; in other 
places, by the deacons ; in others, only by the pres- 
byters, and on the greater festivals by the bishop, 
as at Constantinople on Easter da3^ In the French 
churches, it was the ordinary office of deacons, as 
appears from that canon of the council of Vaison, 
which says,'" That if the presbyter was sick, the 
deacon might read a homily, giving this reason for 
it, that they who were thought worthy to read the 
Gospels of Christ, were not unworthy to read the 
expositions of the holy fathers. Yet in the Spanish 
churches the ancient custom continued, that the 

readers read the Gospel as well as other lessons. 
Which may be collected from that canon of the first 
council of Toledo,** which allows no one that had 
done public penance, ever to be ordained, unless it 
were to the office of a reader, in case of great neces- 
sity, and then he should read neither the Epistle 
nor the Gospel. Which implies, that other readers, 
who were never under penance, read both thc Gos- 
pel and all other lessons, as Albaspintcus " in his 
notes rightly observes upon it. 

But in one thing that learned per- 
son seems to be mistaken, when he wheoferthe 

, „ _. c .1 r' 1 J'T's'le and Gospel 

supposes that^- rcadm<ir of the Gospel were read twice, first 

, I . , to tliecateclmmens, 

to have been in the communion ser- 
vice. For anciently the Scriptures, 
and even the Gospel itself, were only read in the 
service of the catechumens. Cardinal Bona® in- 
deed says, the ancient custom was to read the Gos- 
pel only to the faithful, and that the council of 
Orange in France,"'' and the council of Valentia in 
Spain,*" were the first that ordered it otherwise. 
But nothing is plainer, than that the reading of the 
Gospel was always before the sermon, and the ser- 
mon was always before the communion service be- 
gan, in the presence of the catechumens, and before 
their dismission, ordinaril}^, being designed chiefly 
for their instruction. Therefore, though some ill 
custom might have crept into the churches of 
France and Spain, excluding the catechumens from 
hearing the Gospel and the sermon, which those 
councils endeavoured to correct ; yet that is far 
from proving it to be the ancient custom, to confine 
the hearing of the Gospel to the faithful only : and 
a man cannot look into the homilies of St. Austin, 
or St. Chrysostom, but he will find this mistake every 
where confuted. For they always speak of reading 
the Gospel before the homily, and the homily made 
in the presence of the catechumens : and the contrary 
supposition is merely owing to a common prejudice 
and conceit, that the ancient service was in all things 
like the modern, where the Gospel is twice read, first 
among the lessons, and then with the Epistle, by 
itself in the communion service ; whereas anciently 
they were both read in the ordinary course of the 
lessons, in that part of the service only, which was 
properly called the service of the catechumens. 

*8 Book XIV. chap. 1. sect. 6. 

■" Aug. in Psal. xe. Ser. 2. p. 412. Propterea fecimus 
ipsam lectionem Evangelii recitari, ubi Domiuus teutatus 
est, per ea verba psalmi quae hie audistis. 

^t" Ferrar. de Ritu Concionum, lib. I. cap. 17. 

"' Aug. Ser. 2.3. de Verbis Domini. Ser. 121. de Diversis. 
Tract. 12. in Joan. 

" Chrysolog. Ser. 6G et 118. ■" Book III. chap. 5. 

^ Cypr. Ep. 34. al. 39. Ep. .38. ^^ Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. 

^ Hieron. Ep. 48. ad Sabinian. Evangelium Christi quasi 
(liacnnus lectitabas. 

" Socrat. lib. 7. cap. 5. ^^ Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

'' Cone. Vasens. 2. can. 2. Si enim digni sunt diaconi, 

quae Christus in Evangelic locutus est, legere, quare indigni 
judicentur sanctorum patrum expositiones publice recitare? 

"" Cone. Tolet. I. can. 2. Pcenitentes non admittantur 
ad clerum, nisi tantum si necessitas aut usus e.xegerit, et 
tunc inter lectores deputentur, ita ut Evangelia aut Aposto- 
lum non legant. Vid. can. 4. ibid. 

"' Albaspin. Not. in Cone. Tol. 1. can. 2. Liquido px 
his constat lectores non Evangelium tantum, sed et lectiones 

"- Albaspin. Not. in Can. 4. Cone. Carthag. .3. 

•^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 7. n. 1. 

"' Cone. Arausican. 1. can. 18. 

"' Cone. Valentin, can. 1. 



Book XIV. 

The next thing worthy our observa- 

The solemnity and tion, is the solemnitv and ceremony- 
ceremonies of read- .11.11 . • I 

iiig the lessons. With which thc ancicHts appointed 

Where fii-st of the ^ '■ 

salutation. Pax lo- thc Scriptures to be Tcad. The reader, 

I'tSf belore readmg. ^ ' 

before he began to read, was com- 
monly used to say, Pax vobis, Peace be wdth you, 
which was the usual form of salutation at the en- 
trance of all offices in the church. St. Cyprian*" 
plainly alludes to this, when, speaking of a new 
reader whom he had ordained to the office the Lord's 
day before, he says, Aiispicatus est pacem, dmn dedi- 
cat lectionem, He began to use the salutation, Peace 
be with you, when he first began to read. I know 
none of the commentators that take notice of this 
custom in Cyprian, or make any remark upon the 
phrase ; but this is evidently the sense of it, and so 
the learned Albaspinajus *" understands it. This 
custom seems to have continued in Africa till the 
third council of Carthage*® made an order to the 
contrary, that the reader should no longer salute the 
people. This form of salutation. Peace be with you, 
to which the people usually answered, And with 
thy Spirit, was commonly the office of a bishop, or 
presbyter, or deacon, in the performance of their 
several functions in the church, as is noted by 
Chrysostom,*' in many places : and, therefore, this 
council took away this power from the readers, and 
put it into the hands of the deacons or the other 
superior ministers of the church. So that, as the 
reader had used to say before reading, Peace be with 
you, this canon only ordered that it should be said 
by some other minister. For that it was used either 
by the reader, or some other minister before he be- 
gan to read, appears from St. Austin, who, writing 
against the Donatists, says,'" nothing could be more 
perverse than their own practice, who, before the 
reader began to read the Epistle, said to him. Peace 
be with thee, and yet separated from the peace of 
those churches to which the Epistles were written. 
g^^^ , St. Austin, in another place, men- 

someUm?'s"usri"i,y tious the blshop's uslug this form of 
IteVblfore ™eTead'- salutatlon as soou as he came into the 
egan o rea . cliurch, immediately before the reader 
began to read the lessons, which in Africa, in those 
daj'^s, was the first part of the service, with a respon- 
sory psalm between every lesson. I went to church, 
says he," I saluted the people, that is, said, Peace 

be unto you ; and then, silence being made, the so- 
lemn lessons of the Holy Scriptures were read in 
order. This custom of saluting the people in this 
form is also mentioned by Chrysostom, in several 
places. When we are come into the church,'" says 
he, we say immediately, Peace be unto you, accord- 
ing to this law, and ye answer. And with thy spirit. 
Again," The bishop, at his entrance into the church, 
says always, Peace be unto you, as a proper saluta- 
tion when he comes into his Father's house. And 
in another place,'* When the bishop enters the 
church, he immediately says, Peace be with you all: 
when he begins his sermon, he says again. Peace be 
with you all, &c. Now, considering that this was 
the common salutation at the beginning of all offices, 
and that the Scriptures began to be read as soon as 
the bishop came into the church, it is plain that 
such a form of salutation was always used by one 
or other before the reading of thc Scriptures. 

St. Chrysostom takes notice of two sect. s. 
other customs relating to this matter, joined suence before 

the reader ben:an, 

as introductory to the reading and and required atten- 

•^ ^ lion: as the reader 

hearing the Scriptures with greater also did before ^ery 

o 1 O lesson, saymg, Thus 

advantage : that is, the deacon's en- ^^'^^ '''^ ^"''''• 
joining silence, and requiring attention, and the 
reader himself, after the naming any lesson, say- 
ing, Thus saith the Lord. The deacon, says he, 
who is the common minister of the church, first 
stands up and cries with a loud voice," ITpoo'xw/tfj', 
Let us give attention : this he repeats several times, 
and after that the reader names the prophet, Isaiah, 
suppose, or any other ; and before he begins to read, 
he also cries aloud, Jah \kyii Kvptof, Thus saith the 
Lord. So, again, in another place,'" When the reader 
rises up and says. Thus saith the Lord ; and the dea- 
con stands up, and commands all men to keep si- 
lence, he does not say this to honour the reader, 
but God, who speaks to all by him. This enjoining 
of silence is spoken of by St. Ambrose" and others; 
but it differed from another act of the deacon's un- 
der the same name, Silentimn indicere, which was 
calling upon the people to fall to their private pray- 
ers, of which we shall have occasion to say more 
in the next Book, chap. I. 

Mabillon observes,'" That at the sect. 9. 
naming of the lessons out of the the Prophet m'slis- 

-r-, 1 , Ti • ii il 1 "* *be people in 

Prophets or Epistles, the people some- some places said, 

'•« Cypr. Ep. 33. al. 38. ad Clcr. Carthag. p. 75. 

'■' Albaspin. Not. in Cone. Carthag. 3. can. 4. 

"* Cone. Carth. 3. can. 4. Ut lectures pnpuhim non salutent. 

"■' Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. Horn. 3. in Colos. p. 
13.37 et ia38. 

'" Aug. Ep. 165. Quid autem perversius et insanius, quam 
lectoribuscasdem Epistulas legentibtisdicere, Pa.\ tecum, et 
ab earuni ecclesiarum pace separare, quibus ipsa; Epist(jbc 
seripta; sunt ? 

" Aug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 22. cap. 8. p. I4S9. Procedimus 
ad populum, plena erat ecclesia, persouabat vocibus gaudio- 
rmn : Deo gratias, Deo laudes. Salutavi populum. 

Facto tandem silentio, Scripturarum Divinarum sunt lecta 

'' Chrys. Horn. 33. in Matt. p. 318. KotyjJ iratri ti;i' 
ilpnvi]v iiriXt'yo/xf.v £t(rtoyT£S evQiui^KaTa tok voixoutKiivov. 

'3 Ibid. Horn. 36. in 1 Cor. p. G53. 

'< Ibid. Horn. 3. in Colos. p. 13.38. 

'^ Ibid. Horn. 19. in Act. Apost. 

'Mbid. Horn. 3. in2Thess. 

" Ambros. Praefat. in Psalmos. Quantum laboratur in 
ecclesia ut fiat silentium, cum lectiones Icj^untur, &c. Vid. 
Aug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 22. c. 8. 

'8 Mabil. de Liturg. Gallic, lib. 1. cap. 2. n. 10. 

Chap. III. 



Di-o gratias, and timcs Said, Deo gratius, Thanks be to 
of'"it."' " '" "" God, as it is in the Mozarabic liturgy. 
But we have httle notice of this elsewhere. Only 
St. Austin says, it was a very common phrase 
among the monks " when they met a brother Chris- 
tian, to say, Deo r/ratias, Thanks be to God ; for 
which the CircumceUions, or Ar/onisfici, as they 
called themselves, among the Donatists, were wont 
to insult them, though they themselves often used 
to say, Deo laudes, which in their mouth was more 
to be dreaded than the roaring of a lion. It ap- 
pears also from the Acts of Eradius his election to 
be his successor, that it was a usual acclamation 
upon many other occasions ; for as soon as he had 
nominated Eradius to be his successor, the people 
cried out for a long time together,"*** Deo r/rafias, 
Chrisfo laudes, Thanks be to God, Praise be to 
Christ. What therefore was so common upon other 
occasions, might veiy probably be said by way of 
acclamation at the naming of the lessons of the 
Holy Scriptures. Grotius says," it was also cus- 
toTnary at the end of the Epistle for the people to 
answer Amen; and that hence it was, that at the 
end of all St. Paul's Epistles the word. Amen, was 
added by the church. I know not upon what 
grounds he asserts this, and therefore I shall let it 
rest upon the authority of that learned man, with- 
out affirming or denying his assertion. 

j,^^( ,g At the reading of the Gospel it was 

thfGo''speTau"fo«f a general custom for all the people to 
;f;,ct"fGl!fr;"be"?o staud up : and some of the middle- 
age ritualists take notice of their say- 
ing, Glory be to thee, O Lord, at the naming of 
it. The author of the homily De Circo vel Hip- 
podromo,^'- under the name of St. Chrysostom, says, 
When the deacon goes about to read the Gospel, 
we all presently rise up, and say. Glory be to thee, 
O Lord. But as that homily is known to be none 
of Chrysostom's, we cannot certainly say it was the 
custom in his days. But the custom of rising up 
at the reading of the Gospel is certainly as old as 
Chiysostom ; for he speaks of it in one of his ho- 
milies on St. Matthew:^ If the letters of a king 
are read in the theatre with great silence ; much 
more ought we to compose ourselves, and stand up 
with attentive ears, when the letters not of an 

earthly king, but of the Lord of angels, are read 
to us. 

The author of the Constitutions'" mentions the 
same : When the Gospel is read, let the presbyters 
and deacons and all the people stand with profound 
silence. And so Isidore of Pelusium:*^ When the 
true Shepherd appears at the opening of the holy 
Gospels, then the bishop himself rises up, and lays 
aside his pastoral habit or authority, signifying 
thereby, that then the Lord himself, the author 
of the pastoral function, his God and his Master, 
is present. This was every where observed, except 
at Alexandria, where it is noted by Sozomen "^ as a 
singular thing in that church, that the bishop did 
not use to rise up when the Gospel was read. And 
Cassian*' observes it as no less singular in the 
monks of Egypt, that, excepting the reader, who al- 
waj-s stood up, the rest sat upon low seats both 
when the Psalms and the lessons out of the Old or 
New Testament were reading ; which was only in- 
dulged them because of their excessive watchings, 
and fastings, and labours. In other places, sitting 
at the Gospel was reckoned a corruption and abuse : 
insomuch that Philostorgius tells us,^' That Theo- 
philus, the Arian bishop, who went to the Indies, 
corrected it as an indecency that had crept in there 
against the rules of the church. And Anastasius 
did the same at Rome, as is said in his Life by the 
author of the Pontifical;''' for he made a decree, 
that as often as the holj^ Gospels were read, the 
priests should not sit, but stand in a bowing pos- 
ture. In Africa, the general custom was not only 
to stand at the Gospel, but at all the other lessons 
out of Scripture : for they gave equal honour to 
every part of the word of God, insomuch as that 
their sermons and homilies, and whatever was re- 
hearsed in the church, was heard standing, as we 
shall see more in the next chapter. Here it will 
be sufficient to observe, that Cyprian's readers not 
only stood up to read, but that all the people stood 
about them when they read the Scriptures.^" And 
in St. Austin's time the custom was the same : 
for he says," the longest lessons were then heard 
by all sorts and sexes standing, except only such as 
through some infirmitj^ in their feet or weakness of 
body were disabled, who upon that account were 

" Aug. in Psal. cxxxii. p. 630. A quibus plus timetur, 
Deo laudes, quam fremitus leonis, hi etiam insultare nobis 
audent, quia fratres, cum vident homines, Deo gratias, 

^ Anjr. Ep. 110. de Actis Eradii. A pnpulo acclamatum 
est trigesies sexies; Deo gratias, Christo laudes. 

^' (irot. Annot. in Philem. ver. 25. 

" Chrys. Horn. 52. de Circo, t. 6. p. 491. 

«Chrys. Hom. 1. in Matt. p. 11. 

■" Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. 

" Isidor. Pelus. lib. 1. Ep. 136. ''^ Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

'■ Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 12. 

<" Philostorg. lib. 3. c. 5. 

^' Pontifical. Vit. Anastas. Hie constituit, ut quotiescun- 
que sancta Evangelia recitarentur, sacerdotes non sederent 
sed curvi starent. 

^ Cypr. Ep. 34. al. .39. p. 78. In loco altiore constitui 
oportet, ubi ab omni populo circumstante conspecti, &c. 

" Aug. Hom. 26. ex 50. t. 10. p. 174. Quando passiones 
prolixa; aut certe aliquce lectiones longiores leguntur, qui 
stare not possunt, humilitcr et cum silentio sedentes, atten- 
tis auribus audiant qune lejjuntur, &c. Note, that this homily 
is by Mabillon, and the Benedictins, in their new edition 
ascribed it to Cffisarius Arelatensis: if it be his. it proves the 
custom of standing to hear the lessons, to have been accord- 
ing to the usage of the French churches. 



Book XIV. 

indulged sitting, but no others whatsoever. Bona"" 
thinks there was no certain answer made when 
the Gospel was ended. For some said only, Amen, 
as it is in the Mozarabic liturgy, and the Rule of 
St. Benedict. Which Alexander Hales interprets 
the same as saying, God grant we may persevere in 
the doctrine of the gospel. Others said, Deo gratias, 
Thanks be to God ; and others, Laus tibi Christe, 
Praise be to thee, O Christ. But all this is said 
only out of the middle-age writers, whilst there is a 
perfect silence as to this matter in the more ancient 
writers of the church. 

There was one ceremony more an- 
Lightsc'arri'ed be- cicnt, which St. Jcrom makcs Dcculiar 

fore the Gospel in i -o i i i ■ i 

the Eastern to thc Eastcm churchcs, which was 


the carrpng lights before the Gospel 
when it was to be read. He says,"' They had no such 
custom in the Western church, either as burning 
candles by day at the monuments of the martyrs, 
(as Vigilantius falsely accused them,) nor at any 
other time, save only when they met in the night, 
to give light to their assemblies : but in the Eastern 
church it was otherwise ; for without any regard 
to the relics of the martyrs, whenever the Gospel 
was read, they lighted candles, partly to demon- 
strate their joy for the good news which the Gospel 
brought, and partly by a corporeal symbol to re- 
present that light of which the psalmist speaks, 
" Thy word is a lamp to my feet, and a light unto 
my paths." I know no other author beside St. 
Jerom that mentions this, and as far as his author- 
ity will prevail it may be credited, and no further. 
Dr. Cave judges'* it might not be much older than 
his time : however it was, it is no argument to 
patronize the burning of lamps and wax candles, 
without the same reason, in churches at noon-day. 
It is further observable, that in 
Threemir iburics- somc churchcs, upon soHie solemu 

sons sometimes read , i i i i 

out of the Gospels occasious, they had three or four les- 

on the same day. 

sons read out of the Gospels on the 
same day. St. Austin says,"^ he would have had 
four lessons read out of the four Gospels on the 
day of our Saviour's passion ; but the people were 
disturbed at it, as what they had not been accus- 
tomed to, so he was forced to wave it. But the 
custom prevailed in the French churches. For in 
the old Lectionarium Gallicanum, published liy Ma- 
billon, the lessons of several festivals are thus ap- 
pointed : On the feast of Epiphany, there is one 

lesson out of St. Matthew ii. for morning service, 
and three more out of Matthew, Luke, and John, 
for the communion service. So on the parascece, 
or day of our Saviour's passion, there is one lesson 
of the Gospel for morning service, another for the 
second, another for the third, another for the sixth, 
another for the ninth hours of prayer,"" collected 
out of the four Gospels by way of harmony or catena. 
Whence we may observe, that the old Galilean 
liturgy (from whence our English service is thought 
chiefly to be dei'ived, and not from the Roman," 
by learned men) had distinct offices for morning 
and communion service, and distinct Gos^jels for 
each service on solemn days, as ours now has for 
all the festivals, which probably were designed at 
first for distinct offices, though they are now com- 
monly read together in the greatest part of our 

There is another distinction made , , , 

hect. 13. 

by some between the longer and shorter'fe'sfons, and 
shorter lessons. The longer lessons lecordingtoDurTn- 
are said"* by Durantus to be used at 
the long nocturnal or antelucan service, and the 
lesser at the other canonical hours of prayer. So 
that this distinction could have no place till the 
canonical hours were settled in the church ; which 
was not till the fourth or fifth century, as has been 
showed in another place."" Radulphus Tungrensis,'"" 
whom Durantus cites, speaks somewhat of this dis- 
tinction in his time, and says the lesser sort of les- 
sons were called vulgarly, capitula, chapters, and 
designed for the praise of God. Which makes it 
more probable, that these lesser lessons were no 
other than the Psalms, or antiphonal hymns col- 
lected out of the Psalms, for the service of the se- 
veral hours of devotion. Which are expressly called 
capitella de Psahnis, chapters out of the Psalms, by 
the council of Agde,"" and were the same as an- 
tiphonal hymns, collected out of the Psalms, and 
to be said alternately by way of responses. So that, 
whatever may be said of the middle ages, there 
seems to be no ground for this distinction of greater 
and lesser lessons in the ancient service, save only 
as we take the reading of the Psalms for lessons of 

It is true, indeed, St. Austin, in one 
of his homilies,'"- which Mabillon and what^'^migiit or 
the Benedictins in their late edition hy way of lessons tn 

the church. 

ascribe to Csesanus, bishop of Aries, 

■^ Bona, Rer. Litiirg. lib. 2. cap. 7. n. 4. 

•'^ Hioron. cont. Vigilant, cap. 3. Cerens autem non 
rlara luce accendimus, siciit friistra cahimniaris, sed ut 

iioctis teuebras hoc solatio temperemus Absque inar- 

tvrum reliqiiiis per totas Orientis ecclesias, quum legendum 
est Evangelium, acccnduntur luminaria jam sole rutilante, 
noil utique ad fugandas tenebras, sed ad signum lajtitia; de- 
monstrandum, &c. 

"' Cave, Prim. Christ, lib. ]. c. 7. p. 203. 

'■ Aug. Serin. 141. de Tempore, p. 320. 

»" Vid. Mabillon. de Liturg. Gallic, p. 116. et 134. 

»' Vid. Stillingfleet, Orig. Britan. chap. 4. 

'•* Durant. de Ritib. lib. 3. cap. 18. n. 4et 5. 

"" Book XIII. chap. 9. sect. 8. 

""> Radulph. de Canon. Observant. Propos. 8 et 13. 

"" Cone. Agathen. can. 30. In conclusione matutinarum 
vel vespertinarum et missarum, post hymnos capitella de 
Psalmis dici, &c. 

'"■^ Aug. Horn. 26. e.\ 50. qune est Horn. 300. in Appendice 
Edit. Benedictin. 

Chap. III. 



speaks of longer and shorter lessons ; but it is not 
in relation to the long morning service, and the 
shorter service of the canonical hours, but upon a 
quite different occasion. For there it is supposed, 
that besides the lessons of Scripture, sometimes 
other lessons were read out of the homilies of the 
fathers, or the acts of the martyrs, which, because 
they were sometimes very prolix, an indulgence was 
therefore granted to infimi persons to sit down to 
hear them read. And this leads us to a new ob- 
servation and further remark upon the ancient prac- 
tice, that in some churches, at least, other things 
were allowed to be read by way of lesson and in- 
struction, besides the canonical Scriptures, such as 
the passions of the martyrs on their proper festi- 
vals, and the homilies of the fathers, and the epis- 
tles and tracts of pious men, and the letters com- 
municatory of one church to another, with other 
things of the like nature. That the passions of the 
martyrs were sometimes read among the lessons in 
the church, appears not only from the foresaid 
homily of Caesarius or St. Austin, but from a rule 
made in the third council"" of Carthage, which for- 
bids all other books to be read in the church besides 
the canonical Scripture, except the passions of the 
martyrs on their anniversary days of commemora- 
tion. Eusebius probably collected'"* the passions 
of the martyrs for this very purpose ; as Paulinus, 
bishop of Nola, did after him, which Johannes Di- 
aconus '"* says were used to be read in the churches. 
Thus Gelasius""' says the Acts of Pope Sylvester 
were read in many of the Roman churches, though 
not in the Lateran, because they were apocryphal, 
and written by an unknown author. And Mabil- 
lon '"' gives several other such instances out of Avi- 
tus and Ferreolus ; and in the old Lectionarium 
Gallicanum, which he published, there are fre- 
quently lessons appointed out of St. Austin and 
others upon the festivals of St. Stephen, and the 
Holy Innocents, and Julian the martyr, on Epi- 
phany, and the festivals of St. Peter and St. Paul. 
Whence some learned men'"' conjecture, not impro- 
bably, that such sort of histories and passions of 
the martyrs had particularly the name of kgenda, 
legends :' for though now that name be commonly 
taken in a worse sense, for a fabulous history, be- 

cause many lives of saints and martyrs were written 
by the monks of later ages in a mere fabulous and 
romantic way, yet anciently it had a good significa- 
tion, and in its original use denoted only such acts 
and monuments of the martyrs as were allowed by 
authority to be read in the church. The curious 
reader may find frequent references made by St. 
Austin in his homilies ^ to such lessons read out of 
the passions of the martyrs on their anniversary 
days in the church, as also in the homilies of Pope 
Leo'"* and others, which it is needless to recite in 
this place. 

But besides the passions of the martyrs, and ho- 
milies relating to them, there were also many other 
pious books read by way of moral exhortation in 
many churches. Thus Eusebius'" says, the book 
called Hermes Pastor was anciently read in the 
church. He says the same of Clemens Romanus's 
first Epistle"- to the Corinthians, that it was read 
in many churches, both in his own time, and the 
ages before him. And Dionysius, bishop of Co- 
rinth,"' says. They read not only that epistle of 
Clemens, but another written by Soter, bishop of 
Rome, which they would always continue to read. 
Sozomen says,"* The book called the Revelations of 
Peter was read once a year, on Good Friday, in 
many of the churches of Palestine. Athanasius"^ 
testifies the same of the book called At^ax?) ' kiroaTo- 
\ix)v, The Doctrine of the Apostles. And St. Je- 
rom"* saj's, The homilies of Ephrem Syrus were in 
such honour as to be read in the church after the 
reading of the Scriptures. St. Austin'" assures us, 
That the Acts of the Collation of Carthage were 
read always in the church in Lent. And in one of 
his epistles,"' he desires of Marcellinus Comes, that 
the Acts of the Trial of the Donatists, who were 
convict of the murder of the catholics, might be 
sent him, to be read in all the churches of his dio- 
cese. And it is remarkable, that in the accounts 
we have of the burning of the Bible in the Diocle- 
tian persecution, there is sometimes mention'" made 
of burning the salutary or communicatory letters, 
which were sent from one church to another. St. 
Austin adds further. That when any one received a 
signal mercy from God, the relation of it was many 
times '"" read publicly in the church. Of which he 

"" Cone. Carth. 3. can. 47. Liceat legi passiones mar- 
tyrum cum anniversarii eorum dies celebrantur. 

'" Euseb. lib. 5. cap. 4. speaks of these collections. 

'"^ Joan. Diac. PraBfat. ad Vit. Gregor. Magni. 

"«i Gelas. Decret. ap. Crab. Cone. t. 1. p. 992. 

"" Mabil. de Ciirsu Gallicano, p. 403 et 4U7. 

'"s Vid. Chainier. Panstratia, t. 1. <le Canon. Script, lib. 
1. cap. 4. n. I. p. 101. 

'»= Vid. Aug. Serm. 12. de Sanctis, p. 408. Serrn. 45. de 
Diversis, p. 508. Item, Serm. 63. p. 553. Serm. 93. p. 564. 
Serm. 101, 10.3, 105, 109. de Diversis. 

"" Leo. Serm. de Maccabceis. 

'" Euseb. lib. 3. cap. 3. Hieron. de Scriptor. cap. 10. 

"- Euseb. lib. 3. cap. 16. 

"3 Ap. Euseb. lib. 4. cap. 23. "* Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

•15 Athan. Ep. ad Ruffin. t. 2. p. 39. 

"^ Hieron. de Scriptor. cap. 115. 

"' Aug. de Gestis cum Emerito, t. 7. p. 215. 

lis Aug. Ep. 158. Gesta quoc promisit prajstantia tua, 
vchementer expecto, et in ecdesia H ipponensi jam jam cupio 
recitari, ac si fieri potest, per ouines ecclesias etiam in nos- 
tra dicccesi constitutas. 

"' Gesta Purgationis Felicis et Caeciliani, ad calcem 
Optati, p. 276. Inde cathedram tulimus, et epistolas salu- 
tatorias, et ostia omnia comburimus secundum sacrum pra:- 

'*> Aug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 22. cap. 8. p. 1489. Libelli 
eorum, quibeneficia percipiunt, recitaatur in populo, &c. 



Book XIV. 

gives several instances in his own and other churches 
of Africa. And St. Chrysostom says, sometimes 
the emperor's letters '-' were read in the church, and 
heard with great attention, which he urges as an 
argument, why men should hear with reverence the 
writings of the prophets, because they come from 
God, and their epistles are from heaven. Such cir- 
cular epistles also as were sent from one church to 
another, to notify the time of keeping Easter, (which 
were called heortastical or festival epistles,) were 
generally published '" in their churches : but these 
I mention not as lessons, but only hint the custom 
incidentally, corresponding to that of our reading 
briefs for charity, or the circular letters of bishops, 
or notifying holidays, or bans of marriage, or things 
of the like kind relating to the public. 

As to those books which we now 
Thosf which we call apocryphal, they were read in 

now call apocry- , , . 

phai books were an- somc churchcs, but not lu all. ror 

ciently read in some i /• t 

churches, but not in the churcli of Jerusalem they were 

in all. "^ 

utterly forbidden, as appears plainly 
from Cyril's Catechisms, where he directs'^ the 
catechumens to read no apocryphal books, but only 
such books as were securely read in the church : 
and then he specifies what books w^ere then read in 
the church, viz. all the canonical books which are 
now in our Bibles, except the Revelation, without 
any mention at all of the apocryphal books ; which 
is a certain argument that they were not allowed to 
be read in the church of Jerusulem, as I have more 
fully demonstrated in another place.'-* The like 
determination was made for some other churches 
by the council of Laodicea,'"^ which forbids all but 
the canonical books to be read in the church, and 
likewise specifies what she means by canonical 
books, viz. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, 
Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Esther, four 
books of Kings, two of Paralipomena or Chronicles, 
two of Esdras, The book of one hundred and fifty 
Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Job, 
twelve Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations 
and Epistles of Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel, the four 
Gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, the seven Catho- 
lic Epistles, fourteeen Epistles of St. Paul. Where 
none of the apocryphal books, nor the Revelation, 
are mentioned, which is a plain evidence that none 

of them were read in the churches of that district. 
After the same manner the author of the Constitu- 
tions,'-^ giving orders about what books of the Old 
Testament should be read in the church, mentions 
the five books of Moses, and Joshua, and Judges, 
Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, (which he 
means by the histories of their return from Baby- 
lon,) the books of Job and Solomon, the sixteen 
Prophets, and the Psalms, but says nothing of any 
of the apocryphal books ; which argues, that he did 
not find them to be read in the rituals of those 
churches whence he made his collections. 

However, in other churches they were allowed to 
be read'^' with a mark of distinction, as books of 
piety and moral instruction, to edify the people ; 
but they neither gave them the name of canonical 
books, nor made use of them to confirm articles of 
faith. This is expressly said by St. Jerom. And 
Ruffin,'^ who was presbyter of Aquileia, delivers 
the same as the ancient tradition and practice of 
that church, when these books were neither reckoned 
canonical, nor yet in the worst sense apocryphal, 
but Cralled ecclesiastical, because they were read in 
the church, but not used to confirm matters of 
faith. Among these he reckons the Wisdom of 
Solomon, and Ecclesiasticus, and Tobit, and Judith, 
and Maccabees, and Hermes Pastor, and the book 
called the Two Ways, or the Judgment of Peter. 
Athanasius '-^ also ranks these books, not among 
the canonical, but among those that might at least 
be read to or by the catechumens, among which he 
reckons Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus, and Tobit, and 
Judith, and Esther, and the Doctrine of the Apostles, 
and the Shepherd, that is, Hermes Pastor. So in 
the Lectionarium Gallicanum, published by Mabil- 
lon, there are lessons appointed out of Tobit, and 
Judith, and Esther, particularly in the Rogation 
Week, for several days together. 

In some churches these books were 
also read under the general name of And" fn some 

churches, under the 

canonical Scripture, taking that word title of canonical 

'^ ' '^ Scripture, takuig 

in a large sense, for such books as ;'"•' ""'■'' '" » 

t) ' larger sense. 

were in the rule, or canon, or cata- 
logue of books authorized to be read in the church. 
Thus at least we must understand the canon of the 
third council of Carthage,''" which ordered that 

'21 Chrys. Horn. 3. in Thes. p. 1-501. 

•22 Vid. Cassian. CoUat. 10. cap. 2. 

'23 Cyril. Catech. 4. n. 22. p. 66 et 67. 

'2< Book X. chap. 1. sect. 7. '" Cone. Laodic. can. 59. 

'26 Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. 

'2' Hieron. Preefat. in Libros Salomonis. Sicut ergo 
Judith et Tobiae et MacchabaBovum libros legit quidem 
ecclesia, sad eos inter canonicas Scripturas non recipit: sic 
et hsec duo vohrmina (Sapientiara et Ecclesiasticum) legit 
ad aedificationem plebis, non ad auctoritatem ecclesiastico- 
rum dogmatum confirmandam. 

'2^ Ruffin. in Symbolum, ad calcem Cypriani. Oxon. p. 
26. Sciendum tamen est, quod et alii libri sunt, qui non 
canonici, sed ecclesiastic! a majoribus appellati sunt: ut 

est Sapientia Solomonis, et alia Sapientia quae dicitur Filii 

Syrach. Ejusdem ordinis est libellus Tobiae, et Judith, 

et Maccabaeorum libri. In Novo vero Testamento libellus, 
qui dicitur, Pastoris sive Hermatis, qui appellatur, Duse 
Viue, sive Judicium Petri; quae omnia legi quidem in eccle- 
siis voluerunt, non tamen proferri ad auctoritatem ex his 
fidei confirmandam. 

'23Athan. Ep. Heortastic. ad Ruifin. t. 2. p. 39. It. 
Synops. Scriptur. ibid. p. 55. 

"" Cone. Carth. 3. can. 47. Prseter Scripturas canonicas 
nihil in ecclesia Icgatur sub nomine Divinarum Scriptura- 
rum. Sunt autera canonicae Scripturae, id est. Genesis, &c. 

Salomonis libri quinque Tobias, Judith, Hester, Esdree 

libri duo, JMaccabasorum libri duo. 

Chap. III. 



notliing but the canonical writings should be read 
in the church under the name of the Divine Scrip- 
tures, among which canonical Scriptures there are 
reckoned Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, under the 
name of Solomon, together with Tobit, Judith, 
Hester, and the Maccabees. St. Austin seems to have 
followed this canon, making all these books canoni- 
cal, but giving preference to some above the other, 
as they were more or less generally received by the 
churches. In his book of Christian Doctrine'" he 
ctills all the apocryphal books canonical, but he 
does not allow them so great authority as the rest, 
because they were not generally received as such 
by the churches. He says the Books "^ of Wisdom 
and Ecclesiasticus were none of Solomon's, but yet 
received into authority by the Western church. By 
which he must mean the Roman church, where 
Pope Innocent had received them.'^^ For in the 
Eastern church their canonical authority was always 
rejected : and in many of the Western churches ; 
for neither Ruffin at Aquileia, nor Philastrius at 
Brixia in Italy,"* nor Hilary at Poictiers in France,"^ 
gi'ant them any authority in the canon of Scripture. 
Nay, Hilary of Aries"" expressly told St. Austin, 
that the churches of France were offended at him, 
because he had used a proof out of the Book of 
Wisdom, which was not canonical. And it is re- 
markable, that at Rome itself Gregory the Great, 
having occasion to quote a text out of Maccabees, 
makes a prefatory excuse for alleging a text out of 
a book that was not canonical,'" but only published 
for the edification of the church. And even St. 
Austin himself,'^ in answer to the French divines, 
pleads no further for the Divine authority of the 
Book of Wisdom, which he had cited as canonical, 
but that it was so received by the Christians of 

Africa before him ; which, by his own rule laid 
down before in his book of Christian Doctrine, did 
not make it in the highest sense canonical, because 
it was rejected by all the churches of the East, and 
a great part of the West, from the authority of 
canonical Scripture. So that though these books 
were read in the African church under the name of 
canonical Scripture, yet they were not esteemed of 
equal authority with the rest, because they were re- 
puted by all the world besides as apocryphal, or, as 
some call them, ecclesiastical only, being such as 
were allowed to be read in the church for moral in- 
struction and edification, but not used to confirm 
articles of faith. And this is the account which 
Cajetan himself gave of the practice of the church, 
before the council of Trent defined a new canon of 
Scripture. He says, They are not "" canonical, that 
is, regular, to confirm articles of faith : yet they may 
be called canonical, that is, regular, for the edifica- 
tion of the people, as being received and authorized 
in the canon of the Bible only for this end. And 
with this distinction he thinks we are to understand 
both St. Austin and the coimcil of Carthage, all 
whose sayings are to be reduced to the rule of St. 
Jerom. But if any think that St. Austin or the 
African church meant more, it may be said, their 
authority is of no weight against the general consent 
of the whole church in all ages besides, from the 
first settling of the canon down to the council of 
Trent; the proof of which consent is so fully and 
unanswerably made out by Bishop Cosins, in that 
excellent book, called his Scholastical History of 
the Canon of Scripture, where he produces the tes- 
timonies of the writers of every age distinctly in 
their order, that little more can be added to it,"° 
and it is wholly needless to detain the reader upon 

"' Aug. de Doctrin. Christ, lib. 2. cap. 8. Tenebit hunc 
modum in Scripturis canonicis, ut eas quae ab omnibus acci- 
piuntur ecclesiis, proeponat eis quas quacdam non accipiunt. 
In eis vero quae non accipiuntur ab omnibus, praeponat eas 
quas plures graviovesque accipiunt, eis quas pauciores mi- 
norisque authnritatis ecclesiae tenent. 

'*- Aug. de Civ, Dei, lib. 17. cap. 20. Non esse ipsius, 
non dubitant doctiores, eos taraen in authoritatem maxime 
Occidentalis antiquitus recepit ecclesia. 

"' Innocent. Ep. 3. ad Esuper. cap. 7. 

"' Philastr. de Haeres. cap. 40. de Apocryphis. Et 
cap. 9. 

'^^ Hilar. Praefat. in Psalmos. 

''" Ibid. Arelat. Epist. ad Aug. inter Oper. Aug. t. 7. p. 
54.'). lUud etiam testimonium quod posuisti, raptus est ne 
malitia mutaret intellectum ejus, tanquam non canonicum 
definiunt omittendum. 

"' Greg. Magn. Moral, in Job. lib. 19. cap. 13. Qua de re 
non inordinate agimus, si ex libris licet non canonicis, sed 
tamen ad a^dificationem ccclesice aeditis, testimonium pro- 

'•» Aug. dc Prxdestin. lib. I. cap. 14. t. 7. p. 55.3. Non 
debuit repudiari sententia bbri Sapientiap, qui meruit in ec- 
clesia Christi de gradu lectorum ecclesiae Christi tarn longa 
annositate.recitari, et ab omnibus Christianis, ab episcopis 

usque ad extremos laicos, fideles, pcenitentes, catechumenos, 
cum veneratione Divinae authoritatis audiri. 

'^'Cajetan. in fine Comment, in Histor. Vet. Test. Ad 
Hieronymi limam reducenda sunt tam verba conciliorum 
quam doctorum. Et juxta illius sententiam libri isti non 
sunt canonici, id est, regulares, ad firmandum ea quae sunt 
fidei ; possinit tamen dici canonici, id est, regulares, ad aedi- 
ficationem fidelium, utpote in canone Bibli<E ad hoc re- 
cepti et authorati. Cum hac distinctione disccrnere po- 
teris dicta Augustini et scripta in proviuciali concilio Car- 

'^'' To the testimonies cited by Bishop Cosins, the learned 
reader may add this of Franciscus Georgius Venetus, a 
Franciscan, who lived a little before the Reformation : 
Problem, in Scriptur. t. 6. sect. 5. Problem. 184. Par. 1622. 
4to. Cur Raphael venit in comitatum Tobiae? Respond. 
Quamvis historia sit sine certo auctore, nee in canone ha- 
beatur, tamen quia admittitur legenda in ecclesia tanquam 
vera, hiijus quoque rei rationem assignare conabimur. Here 
he plainly rejects the Book of Tobit out of the canon, and 
speaks of it no otherwise than as of a common hisloiT, which 
was allowed to be read iu the church. Which words are so 
displeasing to the curators of the Roman Index Expur- 
gatorius, that they order it to be struck out, with many other 
passages of the same author, where he reflects on the Vulgar 



Book XIV. 

that subject ; it being sufficient to our present pur- 
pose, to have observed, that these books of contro- 
verted authority were read, either under the name 
of apocrj^hal, or ecclesiastical, or canonical, in 
most of the ancient churches. 

There is one thing more, which it 
A short account of will not bc improper to give a short 

the translations of n i n i 

Scripture iisedinlhe aCCOUUt of, bcforC WC put aU Cnd tO 
ancient church. 

this chapter ; that is, of the transla- 
tions of Scripture that were commonly used in the 
ancient church. I mean not here to prove again 
(what has been abundantly done before in the last 
Book) that the Scriptures were translated and read 
in the vulgar language in every church ; but the 
thing I would observe in this place, is only this : 
that they generally read the translations of the 
Septuagint, where Greek was the vulgar language, 
or else such translations into other languages, as 
were derived from it. For they had no translation 
of the Bible from the Hebrew, till the time of St. 
Jerom, in the Latin church, but only such as were 
made from the Greek translation of the Septuagint. 
The Septuagint was used all over the Greek church, 
except perhaps that part of Syria where Syriac was 
the most vulgar language, that is, in Osdroene and 
Mesopotamia, where they had a Syriac translation 
made from the Hebrew not long after the time of 
the apostles. This was called the Old Translation, 
in opposition to another, which was made from the 
Septuagint in after ages. In all other parts of the 
East the Septuagint was the common translation. 
But this by tract of time and variety of copies was 
much corrupted, upon which account it was revised 
and corrected by several learned men, which la- 
boured in this work, particularly by Origen and 
Hesychius the Egyptian, and Lucian of Antioch, 
two martyrs who suffered in the Diocletian persecu- 
tion. Hence, as St. Jerom"' informs us, there came 
to be three famous exemplars or editions of the 
Septuagint used in the Eastern churches. Alex- 
andria and Egypt followed the copy revised by He- 
sychius. Constantinople andall the Asiatic churches 
as far as Antioch used that of Lucian. The churches 
of Palestine and Arabia read the copy corrected by 
Origen, and published by Eusebius and Pamphilus. 
And so between these three editions, the whole 
world was divided. Origen did two things further 
in this matter. First, He published an edition of the 

Bible, which he called his Hexapla, because it was 
in six columns : the first was the Hebrew in Hebrew 
characters,'" the second the Hebrew in Greek cha- 
racters, the third the translation of Aquila the Jew, 
the fourth the translation of Symmachus, the fifth 
the translation of the Septuagint, and the sixth the 
translation of Theodotion the Ebionite. To these 
he afterward added two other translations found at 
Nicopolis and Jericho, and these made up his Oc- 
tapla. And in process of time, he published another 
lesser edition, containing only the four translations, 
of the Septuagint, Aquila, Symmachus, and Theo- 
dotion, which he called his Tetrapla. Secondly, 
He published the Septuagint with the additions of 
Theodotion mixed with it, to supply the places 
where it was defective, which additions he marked 
with an asterisk to distinguish them ; and such places 
as were redundant in the Septuagint, and not to be 
found in the Hebrew, nor in Theodotion, he also 
marked with an obelisk or straight line for distinction 
also. But this mixing of the two translations to- 
gether in process of time occasioned some confusion, 
and St. Jerom complains of it '" as a bold under- 
taking, and therefore he set about a new edition and 
translation'" of the Septuagint for the use of the 
Latin church. Hitherto all churches used the trans- 
lation of the Septuagint, except the Syrian churches, 
as was said before, and except on the Book of Da- 
niel, which in all churches was read according to the 
translation of Theodotion, as the same St. Jerom 
informs us in several places,'" particularly in his 
preface upon Daniel,'" because, by some means or 
other, the Septuagint translation of that book was 
more corrupt than any other part of Scripture. But 
there were abundance of faults in that translation 
in other places, partly by the design of the interpret- 
ers, (who added some things of their own, and left 
out others, and often changed the sense at pleasure, 
especially in texts that had any relation to the holy 
Trinity, as St. Jerom shows at large in his preface 
upon the Pentateuch, where he exposes the story of 
their having distinct cells, and their being esteemed 
inspired writers,) and partly from the great variety 
of copies, and the great corruptions that were crept 
into them by the ignorance or negligence of transcrib- 
ers ; and this both in the Septuagint copies them- 
selves, and the Latin translations that were made 
from them. Upon this account St. Jerom, by the in- 

translation as corrupt and false, and corrects its errors from 
the original Hebrew, of which he was a considerable master, 
though in other things he had his failings. Vid. Index 
Libror. Prohibitoriim et Expurgandorum, per Sotomajor. p. 
417. Madriti, 16G7. fol. 

'*' Librum Paralipomcnon. Alexandria 
et iEgvptus in Septuagintasuis Hesychium laudat auctorera. 
Constantinopolis usque Autiochiam Luciani martyris exem- 
plaria probat. MediiE inter has provinciae Palicstinos co- 
dices legunt, qiios ab Origene elaborates Eusebius et Pam- 
philus vulgaverunt : totusque orbis hac inter se veritate 


"- Vid. Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 16. 

H3 Hieron. Proefat. in Paralipom. 

'" Ibid. Proefat. in Josue. 

'^^ Ibid. Prffifat. in Josue. It. Com. in Daniel. 4. et 
Apolog. 2. cont. Ruffin. 

"" Hieron. Prajfat. in Daniel. Danielem prophetam 
juxta Septuaginta interpretes Domini Salvatoris ecclesia 
non legunt, utentes Theodotionis editione : et hoc cur acci- 

derit nescio. Hoc unum affirmare possum, quod niidtiim 

a veritate discordet, et recto judicio repudiatus sit. 




stigation of Chromatins and Heliodore, and other 
pious bishops of the Latin church, set about a transla- 
tion of the Psalms and Old Testament from the ori- 
ginal HebreAV. but this met with great opposition for 
some time ; for though many applauded it, and read 
it in the churches, yet others opposed it, and Ruflin 
and others bitterly inveighed against it, as reflecting 
on the church, which had used and recommended the 
Septuagint, and the translations made from it, ever 
since the time of the apostles. St. Austin'" himself 
dissuaded him from the undertaking, and when it 
w-as finished, he would not suffer it to be read in his 
diocese for fear of giving scandal to the people ; 
telling him, further,"* what a tumult had been raised 
in one of the churches of Africa, by a bishop's in- 
troducing his translation, which he was forced to 
lay aside again for fear all his people should have 
deserted him. But in other places it met with a 
kinder reception ; for by degi'ees it came to be used 
by learned men in their expositions. Gregory the 
Great makes use of both translations,'" caUing 
St. Jerom's the New Translation, and the other the 
Old ; which was otherwise called the Itala, and Vul- 
gata, and Communis, because it was the most com- 
mon and vulgar translation used in all the Latin 
and Italic churches. The present Vulgar Latin 
translation is supposed by learned men neither to be 
the ancient Vulgar, nor St. Jerom's New one, but a 
mixture of both together.'^ The Psalms, in the 
present Vulgar, are not from the Hebrew, but are of 
St. Jerom's Translation from the Septuagint of Ln- 
cian's Emendation. The other books come nearer 
the Hebrew than they do to the Septuagint, which 
shows that they have something of St. Jerom's 
Translation. But the Psalms were always read at 
Rome according to the Old Version, and continued 
so to be used till Pope Pius V. ordered St. Jerom's 
Version, with Emendations from the Septuagint, to 
be put in its place. And so the Old Translation of 
the Psalms came to be called the Roman Psalter; 
and St. Jerom's New Translation, the Galilean Psal- 
ter, because it was immediately received in the Gal- 
ilean church. This is observed both by Mabillon'^' 
and Bona,"- out of Berno Augiensis and Strabo, 
who say, The French and Germans took the New 
Translation of the Psalms corrected from the Sep- 
tuagint by St. Jerom, whilst the Romans continued 
to use the old Vulgar corrupt edition : which is still 
read in the Vatican church at Rome, and the Am- 
brosian church at Milan, and St. Mark's at Venice: 
and Bona is so free as to say, he thinks it had been 
more for the honour and benefit of the church to 
have kept still to the Old Version of the Psalter, 

since now there is a great disagreement between the 
Breviary and the Missal, whilst the same Psalms arc 
sung diirerent ways,'-'^ in the Missal according to the 
Old Translation, and in the Breviary according to 
the New one : which he speaks of as a mistake, but 
tenderly, because though it was a deviation from the 
old rule observed in Gregory's Sacramentarium, and 
the Missa Mozarabica, and the Ambrosian Liturgy, 
yet it was Pope Pius's order that made the cor- 

I might here have added several other things re- 
lating to the ancient way of dividing the several 
books of Scripture into chapters, and verses, and 
canons, and sections, and sub-sections, very much 
differing from the present way of dividing them into 
chapter and verse : but because observations of this 
kind are very intricate of themselves, and have no 
relation to the service of the church, which is the 
subject in hand, I shall omit them here, with many 
other miscellany rites of the same nature, which will 
be more proper to be explained in a critical discourse 
by themselves ; and now proceed to the next part 
of the service of the church in the missa catcchu- 
menorum, which was the sermon or homily, imme- 
diately after the reading of the Psalms and other 
Scriptures, before any prayers were made either for 
particular orders of men, such as catechumens, 
energumens, penitents, &c., or for the general state 
of Christ's church. 



Immediately after the reachng of the ^ , , 

^ Sect. ]. 

Psalms and lessons out of the Scrip- ci^nVcXThom'i- 
tures, before the catechumens were iTiocuHm,'Ii'''<rarto- 
dismissed, followed the sermon, which '""' *'^' 
the bishop, or some other appointed by him, made 
to the people. This being done in the presence of 
the catechumens, Avas therefore usually reckoned a 
part of the missa catechumenorum, or ante-commu- 
nion service. Such discourses were commonly 
termed homilies, from the Greek oniMai, which sig- 
nifies indifferently any discourse of instruction to 
the people, whether composed by the preacher him- 
self, or read out of a book composed by another; 
though we now generally restrain it to the latter 
sense in our modern way of speaking. Among the 

'" Aug. Ep. 19. ad Hieron. '« Aug. Ep. 10. ad Hieron. 
us Greg. M. Ep. ad Leandr. ante Moral, in Job. et lib. 
20. Moral, cap. 3. 

"» Vide Walton. Prolegom. 10. n. 9. 
'^' Mabil. de Ciirsu GaUicano, p. 398. 
•2 Z 

'" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 3. n. 4. 

'■•' Bona, ibid. n. 5. Haec autem dissonantia, ablato nunc 
Veteri Psalterio, saepeoccurrit. Ca;terum istahocloconotare 
libuit, non ut quenquam carperem, sed ne prisca ecclesisB ' 
disci plina ignoraretur. 



Book XIV. 

Latins, they were frequently called tracfatus, as ap- 
pears from many passages of Cyprian, Optatus, St' 
Ambrose, St. Austin, St. Jerom, Gaudentius, Chry- 
sologus, and many others collected by Ferrarius,' 
Avhich I think it needless to recite. Only I shall 
observe one thing, that this word signifies any ex- 
position or handUng of Scripture, as well by way of 
writing, as preaching : and in both senses the trac- 
tciforcs, the preachers and expositors of Scripture, 
were opposed to the canontci et authentici, the pro- 
phets, evangelists, and apostles, who wrote by in- 
spiration, and whose authority was absolutely in- 
fallible and authentic; which could not be said of 
any expositors, however excellent or learned, who 
dictated their thoughts without any such peculiar 
assistance. This distinction is often inculcated by 
St. Austin : I confess, says he, writing to St. Je- 
rom," I have learned to pay this reverence and 
honour only to those books of Scripture which are 
called canonical, that I most firmly believe none of 
the authors of them was guilty of any error in writ- 
ing. And if I find any thing in those books which 
seems contrary to truth, I make no doubt but that it 
is either a corruption of the copy, or that the trans- 
lator did not hit the sense, or that I myself do not 
understand it. But I read all others with this cau- 
tion and reserve, that however eminent they be for 
piety and learning, I do not believe what they say 
to be true merely because it was their opinion ; but 
because they persuade me either by those canonical 
authors, or by probable reason, which cames the 
appearance of truth. So again, in his book De 
Catechizandis Rudibus,^ he distinguishes the in- 
spired writers, by the name of canonical, from all 
others, whom he calls tractators and expositors of 
Scripture. As Claudianus Mamertus speaks' of all 
expositors under the name of tractators, but of the 
holy penmen themselves under the title of authen- 
tics. St. Austin * and St. Jerom * often speak of 
preaching under the name of disputations. Tertul- 
lian' calls them allocutions; dividing the whole 
service into these four parts, reading the Scriptures, 
singing the Psalms, making allocutions, and send- 

ing up prayers. Among the Greeks they are fre- 
quently called Xoyoi, which answers to the Latin 
word sermones, and the English sermons. The most 
ancient name is that of evangcJium, and ivayyiXiKia- 
Bai, appropriated more peculiarly to the preaching 
of the apostles; and therefore seldom or never 
ascribed to any others by ecclesiastical writers. A 
more general name in Scripture, is that of SiSatrKu- 
Xia, doctrine and teaching : whence preachers of 
the word are called SiddaKoXoi, doctors and teachers, 
by St. Paul, I Cor. xii. 2S, 29, which Vincentius 
Lirinensis observes to be the same as tractatores^ in 
after ages. St. Paul also uses the word Kti^vyfia, for 
preaching, 1 Cor. ii. 4, and in many other places* 
of his Epistles. And so it is sometimes used by ec- 
clesiastical writers after him. But we must carefully 
note, that more commonly the words Ktjpvaaeiv and 
Ktjpvyna among the Greeks, as also pradicatio and 
prcedicare among the Latins, signify a very different 
thing, viz. that part of the deacon's office, which 
he performed as the common K^pw^ or preeco of the 
church, dictating the usual forms of prayer to the 
people, in which they were to join, and calling upon 
them as their guide and director in all other parts 
of|Divine service. This I have had occasion to 
speak more largely of in a former Book,'" where we 
have particularly considered the ordinary office of 
deacons, and showed, that they had no authority 
in ordinary cases either to preach, or consecrate the 
eucharist, or baptize, but whatever they did of this 
kind, was either in case of great necessity, or by 
special commission and direction. And therefore 
those ancient canons which speak of their predica- 
tion," are not to be understood of their preaching 
sermons, but of their proclaiming to the people such 
directions in performing Divine oflSces, as they 
were concerned to give them by virtue of their 
office, as the common heralds and criers of the 

The deacons indeed, in cases of ^^^^ ^ 
exigence, were allowed to read the pe^''offi«o?Mrh'o'i^ 
homilies of the fathers, as they did o'rdina''rv' M^es^and 

,11 /•ri'j. ^ ' ^ • A.^ not of tiencous. 

the lessons or Scripture : which is the 

' Ferrar. de liitu Concion. lib. 1. cap. 1. 

- Aug. Ep. 19. ad Hieron. cap. ]. Ego enim fateor cha- 
ritati tuae, solis eis Scripturariim libris qui jam canonici ap- 
pellantur, didici hunc tiniorem lionoremqiie deferre, et nul- 
hiiu eoruni auctorem scribendo aliquid errasse firmissime 
credam. Ac si aliquid ia eis offendero literis, quod videa- 
tur contrarium vcritali : nihil aliud, quam vel mendosum 
esse codicem, vel intcrpretem non asseqiuitum esse quod 
dictum est, vel me minime intellexisse, non amhigam. Alios 
autem ita lego, ut, quanta libet sanctitate doctrinaque prae- 
polleaut, non ideo ve.runi putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt ; 
sed quia mihi per illos auctores canonicos, vel probabili ra- 
tione, quod a veio non abhorreat, persuadere potuerunt. 

3 Aug. de Catechiz. lludibus, cap. 8. t. 4. p. 298. Si li- 
bris ei persuasum esse videris, sive cauonicis sive utilium 
tractatorum, &c. 

^ .Mamert. de Statu Animas, lib. 2. cap. 10. Sed nimc 

locus et tempus est, ut sicut a philosophis ad tractatores, a 
tractatoribus ad authenticos gradum consequar, ita,&c. It. 
lib. 1. cap. 2. Post authenticorum plurimos tractatores, &c. 

* Aug. Tract. 89. in Joan. Confess, lib. 5. cap. 13. Horn. 
50 et 81. de Diversis. 

« Hieron. Ep. 22. ad Eustoch. cap. 15. 

' Tertul. de Aniraa, cap. 9. Jam vero prout Scriptures 
leguntur, aut Psalmi canuntur, aut adlocutiones proferuutur, 
aut petitiones delegantur, &c. So frequently in Gregory 
the Great the sermon is called simply, Locutio. Horn. 5, 9, 
14, et 22. in Ezekiel. 

* Vincent. Commonitor. cap. 40. Doctores, qui tracta- 
tores nunc appellantur. 

9 Vid. 1 Cor. i. 21. It 1 Cor. xiv. 15; 2 Tim. iv. 17 ; 
Tit. i. 3. 

•"Book II. chap. 20. sect. 10 and 11. 

" Cone. Ancyran. can. 2. Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 39. 

Chap. IV. 



reason assigned by the council of Vaison'- for per- 
mitting them so to do, when the presbyter was sick 
or infirm. For if deacons were worthy to read what 
Christ has spoken in the Gospel, why should they 
be thought unworthy to rehearse publicly the ex- 
positions or homilies of the fathers ? But except- 
ing such cases, we very rarely find any permission 
so much as to read a homily granted them. For 
preaching anciently was one of the chief offices of 
a bishop : insomuch that in the African churches 
a presbyter was never known to preach before a bi- 
shop in his cathedral church till St. Austin's time, 
but the bishop always discharged this office him- 
self, and St. Austin was the first presbyter in that 
part of the world, that ever was allowed to preach 
in the presence of his bishop, as has been showed 
out of Possidius," the writer of his Life, in a 
former Book." It is true, in the Eastern churches 
presbyters were sometimes allowed to preach in the 
great church before the bishop ; but that was not 
to discharge him of the duty ; for still he preached 
a sermon at the same time after them, as we shall 
see from the practice of Chrj^sostom and Flavian at 
Antioch, and other examples hereafter. 

In the lesser churches of the city and countrj^ 
about, this office was devolved upon presbyters, as 
the bishop's proper assistants ; and the deacons, ex- 
cept in the forementioned cases, were not author- 
ized to perform it. So that this office of preach- 
ing the Gospel, was then esteemed the proper office 
of bishops and presbyters ; the bishop discharging 
it personally in his cathedral church, in conjunc- 
tion with his presbj^ters, or alone without them ; 
and vicariously by his presbyters, where he could 
not be present, in the lesser churches. There are a 
great many serious passages in the ancient records 
relating to this matter, as well in the imperial laws 
as the canons of the church, and the writings of 
the most considerable fathers, partly impressing 
this as a necessary duty of the episcopal and pas- 
toral function, and partly complaining of the neg- 
lect of it, and partly threatening censures and 
punishments to the offenders. St. Chrysostom,'* on 
those words to Timothy, " A bishop must be apt to 
teach," dtdoKUKov, says. Other qualifications, such as 
those, " He must be sober, vigilant, of good be- 
haviour, given to hospitality," &c., may be in sub- 
jects; but because a bishop ought to have those 
qualifications that belong to rulers, the apostle 

therefore added, "He must be apt to leach:" for 
this is not required of subjects ; but is most espe- 
cially required of those who have the office of 
governing committed to them. And again, on those 
words to Titus, " Holding fast the faithful word, as 
he hath been taught," (or, which relates to teaching, 
Tov Kara SiSaxriv \6yov,) " that he maybe able by sound 
doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gain- 
sayers," he says, St. Paul converted the world, not 
so much by his miracles, as by his continual preach- 
ing : and therefore a bishop must be able to exhort 
by sound doctrine, that is, to preserve his flock, and 
overthrow its enemies. And unless he be such a 
one, all is lost. For he that knows not how to op- 
pose the enemy, and captivate every thought to the 
obedience of Christ, and pull down the vain imagin- 
ations of men, as he knows not how to teach ac- 
cording to sound doctrine, so he ought to be far" 
from the teaching throne, Troppoj i^io ^povov SiSav- 
KaXiKov ; where it is observable, that Chrj^sostom 
therefore calls the bishop's throne, the throne of 
doctrine, or teaching throne, because preaching 
sound doctrine was so necessary a part of the bi- 
shop's office, that he could not be without it. St. 
Ambrose likewise, describing the office of a bishop, 
does it chiefly by styling it the office of teachifig ; 
complaining modestly of his own hard fate, in being 
forced against his will to take upon him the office 
of the priesthood," that is, to be made a bishop ; 
which obliged him to teach others, before he had 
well learned himself. For he was made bishop of a 
catechumen. Sidonius Apollinaris makes the same 
description of the office of a bishop, complaining, in 
the like modest way with St. Ambrose,'' of the weight 
of the profession that was laid upon his shoulders^ 
when, by being made a bishop against his will, he 
was forced to teach before he had learned, and 
preach good to others before he had done any 
himself : hke a barren tree, when he had no works 
to show for fruit, he was forced to scatter words 
for leaves : meaning the necessity of preaching, 
that was laid upon him by taking the office of 
a bishop. St. Cyril of Alexandria, in like manner, 
calls the office of a bishop," a^iwua MavKaXiKov, 
the dignity or honour of teaching. And in the 
sixth general council, where Maximus, bishop of 
Antioch, was degraded for his heresy, he is said to 
be removed^" from the throne of teaching, that 
is, from the episcopal office, of which preaching 

'= Cone. Vasens. 2. can. 2. Si presbyter, aliqua infirmi- 
tate prohibente, per seipsum non potiierit praedicare, sanc- 
torum patrum homiliae a diaconibus recitentur. Sienim 
digni sunt diaconi, quae Christus in Evangelic loquutus est, 
legere : quare indigni judicentur, sanctorum patrum expo- 
sifiones publice recitare ? 

" Possid. Vit. Aug. cap. 5. '< Book 11. chap. 3. sect. 4. 

'5 Chrys. Horn. 10. in 1 Tim. iii. p. 1569. 

'« Ibid. Horn. 2. in Tit. p. 1703. 

" Ambros. de Offic. lib. 1. cap. 1. Titul. Capitis. Epis- 
2 7. 2 

copi proprium munus docere populum. Item, Cum jam ef- 
fugere non possimus ofBcium docendi, quod nobis refugien- 
tibus imposii-t sacerdotii necessitudo, &c. 

" Sidon. lib. 5. Ep. 3. Indignissimo tantse professionis 
pondus impactum est, qui miser ante compulsus docere, 
quam discere, et ante praesumens bonum praedicare, quani 
faceve, tanquam sterilis arbor, cum non babeam opera pro 
pomis, spargo verba pro foliis. 

'» Cyril. Ep. ad Monachos, in Cone. Ei)hes. par. 1. cap. 28. 

™ Cone. 6. Gencr. Act. 12. p. 937. OiiSafiw^ 6 5'fTos ko- 



Book XIV. 

was a special ingredient. The rule of the Apos- 
tolical Canons is, That a bishop who neglects his 
clergy or his people, and teaches them not'' 
the rules of piety, shall be suspended ; and if he 
persists in his neglect, shall be deposed. For it was 
his office to teach the clergy as well as the people, 
and to expound the Scriptures to them. Whence 
St. Jerom gives it as part of the character of Gregory 
Nazianzen, That he was an eloquent teacher, and 
the master under whom he learned the Scriptures, 
as he explained^ them. Some would have excused 
themselves, by saying they would teach the people 
by their example. To which St. Jerom replies,^ 
That a bishop's innocent conversation, without 
preaching, did as much harm by its silence as it did 
good by its example. For the barking of the dogs 
is as necessary as the shepherd's staff, to terrify and 
beat off the fury of the wolves. Athanasius'^ gives 
a very pathctical exhortation to Dracontius, a 
bishop newly ordained : Now that you are made 
bishop, says he, the people expect that you should 
bring them food from the doctrine of the Scrip- 
tures ; but if, while they expect it, they suffer want, 
and you only feed yourself, what excuse will you 
have, when the Lord Jesus shall come and find his 
sheep starving for want of food? St. Austin, in 
one of his homilies" upon the anniversary of his 
orc^ination, represents this part of a bishop's office 
with great concern, as a matter in which he was 
deeply interested, and nearly affected. First, he 
tells his people what a burden was laid upon 
him by God in the prophet Ezekiel, chap, xxxiii., 
which was the lesson appointed for that solemnity, 
wherein were these words, so full of terror : " I have 
made thee a watchman. If I say to the sinner. 
Thou shalt surely die, and thou boldest thy peace, 
and he die in his sins; he indeed dies justly, and 
according to his desert in his sins : but his blood 
will I require at thy hands," &c. Upon which he 
makes this reflection with regard to his own office : 
I am a steward ; if I lay not out my Lord's monej% 
but keep it by me, the gospel terrifies me. I might 
say, indeed. What have I to do to be troublesome 
unto men, to say to the wicked. Do not thus ; Do 
thus ; Desist from doing evil ? what have I to do to 
Ije thus iToublesome unto men ? I have received 
how I ought to live myself, as I am enjoined, as I 
am commanded. I will return what I have received. 
What have I to do to give account of others ? But 
the gospel terrifies me. There is nothing more 

pleasant than to seek after the Divine treasure in 
quiet ; this is sweet and good ; but to preach, to 
reprove, to coiTCCt, to edify, to take the care of every 
other man upon myself, this is a great burden, a 
great weight, a great laboiu-. Who would not fly 
fi-om such a labour ? But the gospel terrifies me. 
There we read of a certain servant, who said to his 
Lord, " I knew thee to be a hard man, reaping 
where thou hast not sowed, therefore I kept thy 
money," I would not lay it out ; " take that which is 
thine." To whom the Lord answered, " Out of thine 
own mouth will I condemn thee, O thou wicked 
servant. Thou oughtest to have given my money 
to the bank, that when I came, I might have received 
my own with usury." The curious reader may find 
a great deal more to the same purpose in St. Basil's 
Epistles,^" and Gregory Nazianzen's Complaints,^' 
and those of Cyprian,^ which I care not here to 
transcribe. But nothing is more remarkable than 
what is said by St. Chrysostom,^ in his homily upon 
the man who was to account to God for ten thou- 
sand talents ; where he thus represents the account 
which bishops must make to God : Not only secular 
magistrates, says he, but the rulers of the church, 
Tu>v tKKXijaiuiv TrpoiarioTic, must render an account of 
their government and administration; and they, 
above all others, shall suffer bitter and grievous 
punishment. For they who are intrusted with the 
ministry of the word, shall be examined most strictly 
and severely in the next world, whether they have 
not, through sloth or envy, neglected to speak any 
thing which they ought to have spoken ; and whe- 
ther they have demonstrated by their works and 
labour, that they have delivered all things faithfully, 
and concealed nothing that was profitable unto men. 
Again, He that has obtained the office of a bishop, 
by how much he is exalted to greater dignity, so 
much the more ample account shall he be required 
to give, not only of his doctrine or teaching, and 
care of the poor, but also of his examination and 
trial of those who are ordained, with a thousand 
other things of the like nature. Where it is evident, 
that teaching is reckoned as necessary a part of 
the bishop's function, as ordination : and as he 
proves the one from those words of St. Paul to 
Timothy, " Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither 
be partaker of other men's sins ;" so he proves 
the other from those words of the same apostle 
to the Hebrews, " Obey them that have the rule 
over you, and submit yourselves unto them : for 

vwv irapaoiy^tTxtL tou Xonrov tis diSaaKaXiKov KaDi<rui 
bpovov, K. T. \. 

2' Canon. Apost. c. 58. 

" Hieron. de Scriptor. cap. 117. Vir eloquentissimus 
propceptor mens, quo Scripturas explanante didici. 

^ Id. Ep. 83. ad Oceanuni. Sacerdofis innocens, sed 
absque sermone conversatio, quantum e.xempio prodest, 
tantuni silentio nocet. Nam et latratu canum, baculoque 

pastoris luporum rabies deterrendaest. Vid. Ep. 2. ad 

2^ Athan. Ep. ad Dracont. t. ]. p. 954. 

M Aug. Serm. 25. ex 50. t. 10. p. 173. 

-« Basil. Ep. 61, 69, 185, 293. 

-' Naz. Oral. 1. de Fuga, p. 15, &c. It. Tract, de Episc. 
Latine, t. 2. p. 304. et Oral. 32. p. 519. 

=* Cypr. de Lapsis, p. 123. -^ Chiys. Horn. 1. 1. 5. p. 9. 

Chap. IV. 



they watch for your souls, as they that must give 
account," Heb. xiii. 17- Which, as he truly ob- 
serves, is an argument full of terror. St. Chrysos- 
tom has abundance more to the same purpose in 
those excellent books of the priesthood, which were 
composed on purpose to describe the offices and 
duties of a bishop, among which he reckons the 
laborious work of making continual homilies'" and 
set discourses to the people. And whereas some 
were ready to plead, that a good life was the main 
thing required, to excuse their want of knowledge, 
and study, and preaching, and disputing, he an- 
swers. That both these qualifications were required ; 
they must not only do, but teach the commands of 
Christ, and guide others'' by their word and doc- 
trine, as well as their practice : each of these had 
their part in the episcopal office, and were neces- 
sary to assist one another, in order to consummate 
men's edification. With much more to the same 
purpose, which I here omit, because I have more 
fully represented it in another Book,'- where I had 
occasion to treat of the general duties of the eccle- 
siastical function. 

What is thus pathetically pressed by private men, 
is more authoritatively enjoined by the laws of the 
church and state, both concurring to enforce this 
duty. The council of Laodicea" speaks of it as a 
customary thing, for the bishop to make always a 
sermon before the catechumens were dismissed. 
And the council of Valentia in Spain does the same, 
when it orders. That catechumens, and penitents, 
and even heathens, should be allowed to hear the 
bishop's sermon,'* because they had experienced 
how that by this means many infidels had been 
brought over to the faith. These councils do not 
so much enjoin bishops to preach, as presuppose it 
to be their constant and general practice. But the 
council of Trullo '* speaks more expressly by way 
of injunction. That the rulers of churches, twv 
iKK\rimu)v TrpoiarCJ-ug, ought every day, but especially 
on the Lord's day, to teach all the clergj'^ and peo- 
ple the words of truth and godliness, gathered out 
of the Holy Scriptures. And in the imperial laws, 
there are several edicts of the secular power to the 
same purpose. In the Theodosian Code, there is one 

jointly made by the three emperors, Gratian, Valen- 
tiuian, and Theodosius, which bears this title, De 
Munere seu Officio Episcoporum in pr.cdicando 
Verbo Dei, Of the Duty and Office of Bishops in 
Preaching the Word of God. And the body of the 
edict '° charges all those with sacrilege, who either 
confound the sanctity of the Divine law by ignorance, 
or violate it by neglecting to preach it. And the 
same law now stands inserted" into the Justinian 
Code under the charge of sacrilege, both in the 
title and the body of it also. In another law of 
Arcadius and Honorius,'* bishops are styled, the 
men who, in their several districts, are to govern the 
people, by instilling into them the doctrines of the 
Christian religion, and more especially the princi- 
ples of subjection and obedience to civil magistrates, 
which were often violated by the tumultuous prac- 
tices of the monks, who were under their inspection. 
And in another law'° of Theodosius, all heretics are 
forbidden either to teach or hear their profime doc- 
trines in their unlawful assemblies : more particu- 
larly, they who were called bishops among them, 
should not presume to teach the faith, which they 
themselves had not, nor ordain ministers, when they 
themselves were really none. This supposes that 
the offices of ordination and preaching were equally 
the duties of cathohc bishops, and that the pretence 
in heretical bishops to perform them was mere 
usurpation. And upon the whole it appears, that 
as preaching was an office originally invested in 
bishops, as supreme pastors of the fiock of Christ ; 
so, by all the rules and laws of church and state, and 
all the ties of religion, they were obliged to perform 
this duty with all assiduity and diligence, as we find 
they generally did out of the sense of the great obli- 
gation that was laid upon them. And some in the 
Romish church (where this part of the episcopal 
function was for many ages scandalously neglected) 
have earnestly wished and laboured for the restora- 
tion and revival of it. Ilabertus pleads hard for it, 
and says one thing'" particularly remarkable, to ex- 
cite those to whom he writes, That he could aver 
upon certain experience in France, that there was 
more weight in the words of every bishop to the 
people, than in six hundred of the most eloquent 

^^ Chr^s. de Sacerdot. lib. 5. cap. 1. 

^' Chrys. ibid. lib. 4. cap. 8. 

^- Book VI. chap. 3. sect. 2. 

'■') Cone. Laodic. can. 19. Ilipl tou StUv, /xtxa -ras o/ii- 

Xias Tolv iTTKTKOTTUJV, Kal TtilV KaT1]}(OVfxiviOV tVX'l^ ITTLTe- 


" Cone. Valentin, can. 1. Sic enim pontificum prscdica- 
tione audita nonnutlos attractos ad fideni evidenter scimus. 

'^ Coiic. Trull, can. 19. See al^ci in Cone. Nic. 2. can. 2. 
et Cone. Ticinense, can. 5. 

=» Cod. Theod. lib. IG. Tit. 2. de Episcopis, Leo^. 2.5. Qui 
Divinae legis sanctitatem, aut nesciendo confundunt, aut 
negligendo violant et offendunt, saciilegium conimittunt. 

" Cod. Justin, lib. 9. Tit. 29. de Crimine Sacrilegii, Leg. 1. 

^Cnd. Theod. lib. 9. Tit. 40. de Poenis, Leg. IG. Ad 
episcoporum sane culpam (ul coctera) redundabit, si quid 
forte in ea parte refjionis, in qua ipsi populo ChristianiL' re- 
ligionis, doctrinoe iusinuatione moderantur, e.\ his quae fieri 
hac lege jubemus, amouachis perpetratum esse cognoveriut, 
uec viudicaverint. 

59 Cod. Theod. lib. IG. Tit. 5. de ILereticis, Leg. 21. Nus- 
quam profana prascepta vel docere vel discere : ne antis- 
tites eorundem audeant fidcra insinuare, qiiam non habeut, 
et niinistros creare, quod non sunt. 

*" Habert. Archieratic. par. 7. Obscrv. 5. p. 9L Id scio 
e.xpertusque sum, plus esse momenti in unius episcopi ad 
popidum. quam in sexcentisaliorum quantumvis orationibus 
atque elaboratis. 



Book XIV, 

and elaborate discourses of other men. But I re- 
turn to the ancient church. 

It being thus certain from what has 
The singular prac- ^ggn related, that the work of preach- 

ficeof the L-liurch of ' ^ 

Sermons" iorsefen," ing ^as Ordinarily performed by bi- 
s«omen"'and"to-^ shops thcmselves lu their own church, 
"°'^'"'' either in conjunction with their pres- 

byters, or without them; it is very wonderfully 
strange, and even astonishing and surprising, to hear 
what Sozomen" relates of the church of Rome in 
his time, that they had no sermons, either by the 
bishop or any other; which was contrary to the 
custom of all other churches. For at Alexandria, 
the bishop alone preached without his presbyters 
from the time of Arius ; and in other churches it 
was done by the bishop and presbyters together ; 
but in the church of Rome, by neither the one nor 
the other. Pagi" and Quesnel" think Sozomen 
must needs be mistaken, and that, being a Greek, 
he took this report up by uncertain rumour ; be- 
cause Pope Leo, in whose time Sozomen lived, not 
only preached constantly to the people, but declared 
it his duty so to do, professing that he was afraid" 
it should be imputed to him as a crime, if he was 
wanting in this part of his office and ministry. But 
Valesius, on the other hand, is very confident that 
Sozomen's relation is true, because Cassiodore, who 
was a senator and consul, and prtpfectus jjrcptorio 
at Rome, has the same out of Sozomen in his His- 
toria Tripartita, without any correction ; and he 
says further. That no one can produce any sermons 
preached to the people by any bishop of Rome be- 
fore those of Leo, which were not preached till after 
Sozomen wrote his history. I will not pretend to 
decide this controversy among these learned men ; 
but only say, that however it was in Sozomen's 
time, it seems to have been otherwise in the days of 
Justin Martyr, when he presented his Apology to 
Antoninus Pius and the senate of Rome, where he 
lived and wrote at that time : for there, describing 
the business of the Christian assemblies on the 
Lord's day, he expressly says. That after the read- 
ing of the writings of the apostles and prophets, the 
Trpocarwc, the bishop or president of the assembly," 
made a sermon to exhort and excite the people to 
the imitation of the good things they had heard 
read out of them. Where it must reasonably be 
supposed, that writing at Rome, and to the Roman 
senate, he spake at least of the usual custom and 

practice of the Roman church. And if it was other- 
wise in the time of Sozomen, some alteration must 
have happened in the intei-val. Perhaps they might 
have taken up the custom of reading the homilies 
of famous writers among the lessons, or immediately 
after, by the deacon, (as I have showed before, they 
read in some churches the homilies of Ephrem Syrus, 
and the books of Clemens Romanus and Hermes 
Pastor ;" and in the old Lectionariums, there are 
frequently lessons appointed out of the homihes of 
St. Austin, St. Ambrose, and others, as it is now in 
the Roman Breviary,) and this might supply the 
place of a sermon, till Leo brought up the ancient 
way of preaching in the Roman church again, which 
was afterwards discontinued for live hundred years 
together, till Pius Quintus, like another Leo, revived 
the practice, as we are told by Surius, one of their 
own writers." 

But there is another question must 
be resolved with relation to the an- whether I'aymen 

11- 111 "^'■^ ^^" allowed to 

cient church, that is, whether laymen p.^sach in the an- 

'' cient church. 

were ever allowed by authority to 
make sermons to the people ? That they did it in a 
private way as catechists in their catechetic schools 
at Alexandria and other places, there is no ques- 
tion. For Origen read lectures in their catechetic 
schools of Alexandria, before he was in orders,"' by 
the appointment of Demetrius ; and St. Jerom says,''* 
There was a long succession of famous men in that 
school, who were called ecclesiastical doctors upon 
that account. But this was a different thing from 
their public preaching in the church. Sometimes 
the monks, who were only laymen, took upon them 
to preach publicly in the church : but this was op- 
posed and censured, as a usurpation of an office 
that did not belong to them. All monks anciently, 
considered only as monks, were no more than lay- 
men, as I have fully showed^" in another place : and 
therefore, as monks, they had no title to any part of 
the ecclesiastical office or function. Particularly 
St. Jerom'*' says. The office of a monk was not to 
teach, but to mourn. And that the case of the 
monks and clergy was very different from each 
other: the clergy^- are those that feed the sheep, 
the monks are among those that are fed. And there- 
fore, when some monks in the Eastern parts about 
Antioch, presuming on their own qualifications and 
knowledge, took upon them to preach publicly in the 
churches. Pope Leo wrote two letters '^ to Maximus, 

<> Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

*^ I'agi, Critic, in Baton, an. 57. n. 3. 

43 Quesnel. Dissert. 6. de Jejuuio Sabbali, et Dissert. 1. 
(le Vita Leonis. 

■•^ Leo, Serin. 3. de Epiphania. Ut nostri nihil desit 
officii, &c. 

•"5 Justin. Apol. 2. p. 08. " Chap. 3. sect. 14. 

•" Surius, Hist. ap. Blondel. Apolog. pro Sentent. Hiero- 
iiymi, p. 58. 

« Vid. Euseb. lib. 6. c. 3. *" Hieron. de Script, cap. 36. 

^o Book 111. chap. 2. sect. 7. 

^' Hieron. Ep. 55. ad Riparium. Monachus non docentis, 
sed plangentis habet officium. 

^' Id. Ep. 1. ad Heliodor. Alia monachorum est causa, 
alia clericorum : clerici pascunt oves, ego pascor. 

'' Leo, Ep. 60. al. 62. ad Maximum, Antioch. lUud 
quoque convenit praecavere, ut prater eos qui sunt Domini 
sacerdotes, nullus sibi jus docendi et preedicaudi audeat ven- 
dicare, sive sit ille monachus, sive laiciis, qui alicujus sci- 
entia; nomine glorietur. It. Ep. 61. al.63. ad Theodorit. 

Chap. IV. 



bishop of Antioch, and Theocloret, to engage them to 
lay a restraint upon them, telling them, That besides 
the priests of the Lord, none ought to presume to 
take upon them the power of teaching or preaching, 
whether he were monk or layman, whatever know- 
ledge he could pretend to. Yet, in some cases, a 
special commission was given to a layman to preach, 
and then he might do it by the authority of the 
bisho2:)'s commission for that time. Thus Eusebius*^ 
says, Origen was approved by Alexander, bishop of 
Jerusalem, and Theoctistus of Cfcsarea, to preach 
and expound the Scriptures publicly in the church, 
when he was only a layman. And when Demetrius 
of Alexandria made a remonstrance against this, as 
an innovation, that had never been seen or heard 
of before, that a layman should preach to the peo- 
ple in the presence of bishops ; Alexander replied 
in a letter, and told him, he was much mistaken ; 
for it was a usual thing in many places, where men 
were well qualified to edify the brethren, for bishops 
to entreat them to preach to the people. As Euelpis 
was requested by Neon at Laranda, and Paulinus 
by Celsus at Iconium, and Theodorus by Atticus at 
Synada. These had all special directions from their 
bishops to preach ; and, therefore, whatever other 
irregularity or novelty there might be in the thing, 
it was not liable to the charge of usurpation. Hal- 
lier, a famous Sorbonne doctor, is of opinion, that 
they might do it by permission :" and he thinks this 
may be deduced from that canon of the fourth coun- 
cil of Carthage,^* which forbids a layman to teach 
in the presence of the clergy, except they request 
him to do it. If this relate to public teaching in 
the church, it implies, that they might do it by 
special indulgence and concession. The ancient 
author of the Comment upon the Epistles,*' under 
the name of St. Ambrose, says. That in the begin- 
ning of Christianity, for the augmentation and in- 
crease of the church, a general commission was 
granted unto all, both to preach the gospel, and 
baptize, and explain the Scriptures, in ecclesiastical 
assemblies. But when the church had spread itself 
into all places, buildings were erected, and rulers and 
other officers were appointed, that no one among 
the clergy should presume to meddle with any office, 
which he knew was not committed to his trust. And 
hence it was that deacons in his time did not preach 
to the people, nor the inferior clergy or laymen bap- 
tize. What he says of the apostles' days, must rest 

^* Euseb. lib. 6. c. 19. Epiphan. Haer. 64. seems to say_he 
was then a presbyter: but it must be a mistake. 

** Hallier. de Hierarch. Ecclesiast. lib. 1. cap. 7. p. 67. 
Laicis non nisi ex indulgentia illud attingere debere. It. 
p. 79. ibid. 

^^ Cone. Carth. 4. can. 98. Laicus, prwsentibus clericis, 
nisi ipsis rogantibus, docere non audeat. 

" Ambros. Com. in Ephes. iv. p. 948. Ut cresCeret plebs 
et multiplicaretur, omnibus inter initia concessum est et 
evangelizareetbaptizare, etScripturasinecclcsiaexplanare. 

upon his authority : if he means an unlimited com- 
mission to all in general, without previous qualifi- 
cations, and examination of them, his opinion is 
certainly singular. But if he means only, that all 
who had extraordinary measures of spiritual gifts, 
were allowed to exercise those gifts sometimes in 
preaching in public assemblies, without any external 
ordination, besides the gift of the Spirit of pro- 
phecy; that is no more than what the best inter- 
preters of those words of St. Paul, I Cor. xiv. 31, 
" Ye may all })rophesy one by one," commonly allow: 
that is, all who had the gift of prophecy, not every 
Christian, might use the word of exhortation in the 
church.'' But then, as such extraordinary gifts of 
the Spirit of prophecy were in a manner peculiar to 
the apostolical age, this could not be a rule to the 
following ages of the church. And, therefore, w-hen 
once these gifts were ceased, the church went pru- 
dently by another rule, to allow none but such as 
WTre called b}'^ an ordinary commission, to perform 
this office, except where some extraordinary natural 
endowments, (such as were in Origen,) answering 
in some measure to those spiritual gifts, made it 
proper to grant a licence to laymen to exercise their 
talents for the benefit of the church. Or else, when 
necessity imposed the duty on deacons to i)erform 
the office of preaching, when the bishop and pres- 
byters were by sickness or other means debarred 
from it. For the foresaid author plainly says. That 
deacons in his time did not ordinarily pradicarc in 
popido, preach to the people ; as being an office to 
which they had no ordinary commission. And the 
same is said by the author of the Constitutions,** 
and many others. Therefore, since deacons were 
not allowed this power, but only in some specia' 
cases, it is the less to be wondered, that, after the 
ceasing of spiritual gifts, it should generally be de- 
nied to laymen. 

As to women, w^hatever gifts they 
could pretend to, they were never al- women never ai- 
lowed to preach publicly in the church, 
either by the apostles* rules, or those of succeeding 
ages. The apostle says expressly, " Let your women 
keep silence in the churches : for it is not permitted 
unto them to speak : but they are commanded to be 
under obedience, as also saith the law," I Cor. xiv. 
34. And, " if they w-ill learn any thing, let them 
ask their husbands at home ; for it is a shame for 
women to speak in the church." And again, I Tim. 

At ubi autem omnia loca circumplexa est ecclesia, conven- 
ticula conslituta sunt, et rectoreset cajtera officia inecclesiis 
sunt ordinata, ut nullus de clero auderet, qui ordinatus non 
esset, praesumere officium, quod sciret non sibi crcditum vel 
concessum. Hinc ergo est, unde nunc neque diaconi in 
populo praedicant, neque clerici vel laici baptizant. 

^ Vide Bezam et Estium in loc. 

^ Constit. lib. 3. cap. 20. Vigil. Ep. ad Rusticum. Cone. 
t. 5. p. 554. 



Book XIV. 

ii. 11, "Let the woman also learn in silence with 
all subjection. But I suiTcr not a woman to teach, 
nor to visnrp authority over the man, but to be in 
silence." And this rule was always strictly observed 
in the ancient church. The same council of Car- 
thage, which allows laymen to teach by permission, 
expressly forbids women to do it in any case : Let 
not a woman, however learned or holy,™ presume to 
teach men in a public assembly. But they might 
teach women in private, as private catechists, to 
prepare catechumens for baptism. For the same 
council of Carthage requires"' this as one qualifica- 
tion in deaconesses when they were ordained, that 
they should be so well instructed and expert in 
their office, as to be able to teach the ignorant and 
rustic women, how to make their responses to the 
interrogatories, which the minister should put to 
them in baptism, and how to order their conversa- 
tion afterward. And the author of the Short Notes 
upon St. Paul's Epistles, under the name of St. 
Jerom,*^ says. That deaconesses were thus employed 
in all the Eastern churches, both to minister to 
their own sex in baptism, and in the ministry of 
the word, to teach women privately, but not in pub- 
lic. This matter was carried much further in many 
heretical assemblies ; for they ordained women 
priests, which the author of the Constitutions calls 
a heathenish'^ practice; for the Christian law al- 
lowed of no such custom. TertuUian says. They 
allowed" women to teach and dispute in their as- 
semblies, and to exorcise demoniacs, and administer 
baptism : all which w^as expressly, he says,**^ against 
the rule of the apostle, 1 Cor. xiv. 35, which is so 
far from allowing them to teach, that it does not 
allow them to ask questions or dispute publicly in 
the church. And whereas some pretended the au- 
thority of St, Paul for this, from a book called. 
The Acts of Paul and Thecla, he says. That was a 
spurious book, and the author of it was convict, 
and confessed the forgery, and was censured for it 
by the church. The Montanists were a noted sect 
for giving this liberty to women, under pretence of 
inspiration by the Spirit ; so that they had not only 
their prophetesses, such as Prisca and Maximilla, 
the first followers of Montanus, but also their wo- 
men bishops, and women presbyters, as Quintilla 
and Priscilla, who, as Epiphanius ""' and St. Austin"' 

inform us, were dignified among the Pepuzians (a 
subdivision of tlie Montanists) with the highest 
offices of the priesthood. Epiphanius brings"" the 
same charge against the Collyridians, so called 
from their offering collyria, or cakes, in sacrifice to 
the Virgin Mary, against whom he disputes at large, 
not only for their idolatry in offering sacrifice to 
her, but also for their presumption in putting wo- 
men into the priest's office ; which was a thing 
never done among the people of God from the be- 
ginning of the world ; and if it had been allowed 
to any, would doubtless have been granted to the 
Virgin Mary. Firmilian, in his letter to Cyprian,"* 
mentions another such woman among the Cata- 
phrj'gians, who pretended by the Spirit of prophecy, 
to preach, and pray, and baptize, and offer the eu- 
charist in their public assemblies. So that this 
was a common practice among the heretics, but al- 
ways refuted and opposed by the church of God, 
which always kept strictly to the apostle's rule, not 
to suffer a woman to teach publicly in the church, 
whatever sanctity or learning she could pretend to, 
but to reserve this office to men, for whom it was 
originally appointed. 

Having thus examined what per- ^^^^ g 

sons were allowed to execute this office, m'Ms°sometimls^1n 
we are next to inquire after what man- ""^ ^"'^ "''^'""^• 
net it was performed. And here we may observe, 
that they had sometimes two or three sermons 
preached in the same assembly, first by the presby- 
ters, and then by the bishop, who usually, when 
present, closed up this part of the service with his 
paternal exhortation. The author of the Constitu- 
tions'" gives this rule about it : When the Gospel is 
read, let the presbyters one by one, but not all, 
speak the word of exhortation to the people, and 
last of all the bishop, who is the governor or pilot 
of the ship. And that thus it was in the Eastern 
churches, whose customs that author chiefly re- 
presents, appears evidently from St. Chrysostom's 
sermons, which he preached when he was presbyter 
at Antioch. For in these he plainly speaks of 
Flavian the bishop as designing to preach after him, 
whom he usually complimented in some such form 
as this : It is now time" for me to keep silence, that 
our master may have time to speak. And again," 
Let us remember these things, and now attend to 

™ Cone. Carthag. 4. can. 99. Mulier, quamvis docta et 
sancta, viros in conventu docere non praisumat. 

•" Ibid. can. 12. Viduoe vel sauctimoniales, qua3 ad 
ministerium baptizandarum inulieruin eliguntur, tam in- 
structa; sint ad officium, ut possint apto et sano sermone 
docere imperilas et rusticas mulieres, tempore quo bapti- 
zanda; sunt, qualiter baptizatori interrogataj respondeant; 
et qualiter, accepto baptismate, vivant. 

^ Hieron. Com. in Rom. xvi. 1. Sicut etiam nunc in 
Orieutalibus diaconissoe mulieres in suo sexu miuistrare 
videntur in baptismo, sive in ministcrio verbi, quia privatim 
docuisse femiaas invenimus, &c. 

«' Constit. lib. 3. cap. 9. "♦ Tertul. de Pra;script. cap. 41. 

^ Idem, de Baptismo, cap. 17. Vid. De Velandis Virgin, 
cap. 9. 

"" Epiphan. Haer. 49. Pepuzian. n. 2. 

" Aug. Ha;r. 27. Pepuzian. Tantum dantes raulieribus 
principatum, ut sacerdotio quoque apud eos honorentur. 

^^ Epiphan. Haer. 78. AntiJicomarian. n. 23. et Ha;r. 79. 

"» Firmil. Ep. 75. ad Cypr. p. 223. 

"> Constit. lib. 2. cap. 57. 

" Chrys. Horn. 2. de Verbis Esai. t. 3. p. 853. 

" Horn. 3. ibid. p. 861. 

Chap. IV. 



the more perfect admonition of our good master. 
It would be as endless as it is needless, to relate all 
the passages that " occur in Chrysostom or other 
writers, such as St. Basil, Gregory Nyssen, Theo- 
doret, St. Austin,'* and St. Jerom," who particularly 
reflects upon the contrary practice in some churches, 
(meaning Egypt and Africa,) where the bishops al- 
lowed none to preach but themselves ; which he 
thought was an indecent contempt of their presby- 
ters, as if they either envied or disdained to hear 
them; when yet the apostolical rule was, "If any 
thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the 
first hold his peace : for ye may all prophesy, one 
by one, that all may learn, and all may be comfort- 
ed," 1 Cor. xiv. 30, 31. When two or more bi- 
shops happened to be present in the same assembly, 
it was usual for several of them to preach one 
after another, reserving the last place for the 
most honourable person ; as St. Jerom tells us,'* 
that Epiphanius, and John, bishop of Jerusa- 
lem, preached together in the church of Jerusa- 
lem ; and nothing was more common than this 
practice at Constantinople, where a multitude of 
bishops were often present to attend the court, or 
advise with the patriarch about the affairs of the 

J, In some places they had sermons 

in^tZTt^l7tnl everyday, especially in Lent, and the 
"'=""'• festival days of Easter. St. Chrysos- 

tom's homilies upon Genesis, were preached in a 
running course of two Lents, one day after another, 
as any one may perceive that peruses them. His 
famous homilies De Statuis were preached in Lent 
after the same manner. And it were easy to note 
some scores of passages in his other sermons, espe- 
cially in his first, third, and fifth volumes," which 
make mention of their being preached successively 
one day after another. St. Jerom" observes the 
same practice among the monks of Egypt, where 
it was customary every day, after the singing of the 
Psalms, and reading of the Scriptures, and repeating 
of their prayers, for the father (that was the title of 

the presbyter that presided over them) to make (hem 
a sermon, to elevate their minds to the contempla- 
tion of the glory of the next world, which made 
every one of them, with a gentle sigh, and eyes lift 
up to heaven, to say within himself, " Oh that I had 
wings like a dove, for then would I flee away and be 
at rest ! " Pamphilus, in his Apology for Origen, re- 
lates the same thing of him, that he was used to make 
sermons extempore almost every day" to the peo- 
ple : and a man cannot look into St. Austin's homi- 
lies, but he will find references made almost every 
where to the sermon made ho-i, and hesterno die, 
the day before,'" which either denotes some day in 
the weekly course, or at least some festival of a 
martyr. For the festivals of the martyrs were al- 
ways kept with great solemnity, and they never 
omitted to make a panegyrical homily upon those 
days, to excite the people to imitate the virtue of 
the martyrs ; as appears from St. Austin's sermons 
De Sanctis, and abundance throughout St. Chrysos- 
tom's works upon such occasions." In France also 
Csesarius, the famous bishop of Aries, preached 
almost every day. For he is said, by the writer of 
his Life,'- to have made homiUes to the people fre- 
quently both at morning and evening prayer, that 
none of them might have the excuse of ignorance 
to plead in their behalf. And the council of TruUo 
has a canon to promote this practice.** 
And this leads us to another ob- 

, 1 • 1 • Sect. 8. 

servation proper to be made in this sermons twi« a 

^ ^ ^ day m many places. 

matter, which is, that in many places 
they had sermons twice a day, for the better edifica- 
tion of the people. Mr. Thorndike'* and Hamon 
L'Estrange '^ make a little question of this as to the 
extent of the practice. The former says, there are 
examples of preaching as well evening as morning 
in the ancient church, but only at particular times, 
and on particular occasions, and therefore he is not 
satisfied of any rule or custom of the church. The 
other says, the custom only prevailed at Csesarea in 
Cappadocia, where St. Basil lived, and at Cyprus. 
St. Basil preached some of his homilies upon the 

"3 Horn. 31. de Philogonio, t. 1. p. 399. Horn. 48. de Ro- 
mano, t. 1. p. 621. Horn. 53. de Puenitentia, Tit. 1. p. 662. 
Horn. 59. de Babyla, p. 721. Horn. 31. de Natali Christi, t. 
5. p. 476. Horn. 47 et 66. ibid. Horn, in Psal. xlviii. p. 813. 
Horn. 36. in I Cor. p. 652. 

'^ Basil. Horn. 18. inBarlaam. t. 1. p. 443. Nyssen. Orat. 
in sui Ordinal, t. 2. p. 41. Theod. in 1 Cor. xiv. 31. Aug. 
Ser. in Psal. xciv., xcv., et cxxxi. 

" Hieron. Ep. 2. ad Nepotian. 

'" Hieron. Ep. 61. ad Pammach. cap. 4. 

" Chrys. t. 1. Horn. 9, 25,-32, 40, 42, 46, 49, 71. T. 3. in 
Psal. xliv. et 1. Horn. 1, 2, 4, et 5. de Verbis Esaia;. T. 5. 
Horn. 2. de Lazaro. Horn. 30, 34, 48, 56, 62, 63, &c. 

" Hieron. Ep. 22. ad Eustoch. cap. 15. Post horani no- 
nam in commune concurritur, Psalmi resonant, Scripturn; re- 
citantur ex more. Et completis orationibus, cunctisque resi- 
dentibus, medius, quern patrem vocant, incipit disputare, &c. 

" Pamphil. Apol. pro Orig. inter Opera Orig. t. I. p. 

756. Tractatus pane quotidie habebat in ecclesia, &c. 

s" Vid. Aug. Serm. in Psal. 1. Serm. 2. in Psal. Iviii. 
Serm. in Psal. Ixiii. Serm. 2. in Psal. Ixviii. Serm. 2. in 
Psal. Ixx. Serm. 2. in Psal. .\c. Serm. 2. in Psal. ci. et pas- 
sim in Sermonibus de Tempore et de Sanctis. 

**' Chrys. t. 1. Serm. 31. de Philogonio. Serm. 40. de Ju- 
ventino. Et sequentes de Pelagia, Ignatio, Romano, Me- 
titio, Juliano, Luciano, Bernice, Eustathio, &c. Aug. Serm. 
in Psal. Ixxxi. See also what has been observed before of 
their preaching on Saturdays, and the stationary days, in 
the former Book. 

*■- Cyprian. Tolonensis, Vit. Ca;sarii, cap. 4. ap. Mabillon, 
de Cursu Gallicano, p. 401. Frequenter etiam admatutinos, 
et lucernarium propter advenientes recitabat homilias, ut 
nuUus esset qui se do ignorantia cxcusaret. 

" Cduc. 'I'rullan. can. 19. 

*' Thorndike of Religious Assemblies, chap. 10. p. 405. 

" L'Estrange of Divine Offices, chap. 4. p. 98. 



Book XIV. 

Hexameron** at evening prayer. But he thinks So- 
crates'' confines the custom to those places, because 
he speaks of it as a pecuhar usage of those places, to 
have sermons made by bishops and presbyters on 
Saturdays and Sundays at candle-light in the even- 
ing. Bishop Wettenhal was of a different'* judg- 
ment : he thinks that in cities and greater churches, 
it was usual for the pastors to preach on Sundays 
both morning and afternoon. And he supports his 
opinion from several testimonies of Chrysostom, who 
entitles one of his homihes,*" An Exhortation to those 
who were ashamed to come to Sermon after Dinner. 
And in another,'" he inveighs against them who 
condemned his usage of preaching after dinner, as 
a new and strange custom, telling them he had 
much more reason to condemn that wicked custom 
then prevailing among some, to rise from table to 
sleep. In another place, he defends his practice 
from our Saviour's long sermon to his disciples after 
his last supper."' And in another homily, preached 
to the people of Antioch,"' he highly commends 
them for coming to church in the afternoon in a 
full audience. All these are cited by Wettenhal, to 
w^hich may be added what he says in his homily of 
Satan's temptations,*' that the bishop attended his 
sermons which he preached both morning and 
afternoon. For that sermon was preached in the 
afternoon, the same day that he had preached his 
twenty-first sermon to the newly baptized, as he 
there expressly tells us. So again, it appears that 
the fifteenth and nineteenth homilies to the people 
of Antioch, against oaths, were preached on the 
same day.'^ And his homily of bearing reproof 
patiently, was an evening sermon. For there'* he 
thus addresses himself to the people : Be not weary, 
though the evening now be come upon us. For all 
our discourse is in defence of Paul, that Paul who 
taught his disciples three years night and day. In 
his homily'" upon Elias and the widow, he says, 
one of his Lent discourses was broken off by the 
evening coming upon them. And in one of his 
homilies upon Genesis,"' he as plainly intimates, 
that he was then preaching an evening sermon. 
For he makes this apostrophe to the people : I am 
expounding the Scriptures, and ye all turn your 

eyes from me to the lamps, and him that is lighting 
the lamps. What negligence is this, so to forsake 
me, and set your minds on him ! For I am lighting 
a fire from the Holy Scriptures, and in my tongue 
is a burning lamp of doctrine. This is a greater 
and a better light than that. For we do not set up 
a light like that moistened with oil, but we inflame 
souls that are watered with piety, with a desire of 
hearing. The whole allusion and similitude shows, 
that he was preaching an evening sermon, when 
candles were lighting, which gave him the hint to 
draw the comparison between the material hght of 
the lamps, and the spiritual light of the Scriptures. 
And in his third homily of repentance,"* to name no 
more, he says. He would continue his discourse to 
the evening, 'iwg tampaQ, that he might finish the 
subject he was then handling. From all which it 
is apparent, this was no occasional usage in St. 
Chrysostom's church, but his constant and ordinary 
practice. And in the Latin church we sometimes 
meet with examples of this kind, though not so fre- 
quent. St. Austin not only preached every day, but 
sometimes twice on the same day. As is evident 
from the two sennons on the 88th Psalm, in the 
latter of which " he says, he had preached before 
in the morning, and remained in their debt for 
the afternoon. Gaudentius also, bishop of Brixia,'"" 
speaks of his having preached twice on the vigil 
before Easter. And it is probable, the same solemn- 
ity was observed in like manner in other places. 
For at this solemnity, especially, they made a dis- 
tinction in their sermons, preaching one to the cate- 
chumens, and another to the neophytes, or persons 
newly baptized ; as Gaudentius says in the same 
place, that his second sermon was preached to the 
neophytes. The like is said by St. Ambrose,"" and 
Theodoret,'"" and St. Austin,'"' as I have had occa- 
sion to show in another place, in speaking of the 
distinction that was made '"* between the catechu- 
mens and the faithful : to the former, they preached 
only upon moral subjects ; to the latter, upon mys- 
tical points of religion, and abstruser articles of 
faith. Therefoi'e St. Austin '"* says in another place. 
There were some points which required more intent 
auditors, and therefore the preacher was not to 

86 Vide Basil, in Hexameron. Horn. 2, 7, 9. 

8' Socrat. lib. 6. cap. 21. 

*" Wettenhal, Duty of Preaching, chap. 3. p. 779. 

" Chrj's. Horn. 10. in Genes. 

"' Horn. 1. de Lazaro. 

»' Horn. 9. ad Pop. Antioch. p. 121. 

"2 Horn. 10. ad Pop. Antioch. p. 132. 

^ Horn. 25. de Diabolo Tentatore, t. 1. p. 318 et 319. 

« Horn. 15. ad Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 198. 

^' Horn. 13. de ferendis Reprehen. t. 5. p. 194. 

96 Horn. 54. in Heliam et Viduam, t. 5. p. 722. 

" Horn. 4. in Gen. t. 2. p. 902. 

"» Horn. 3. de Poenit. t. 4. p. 559. 

** Aug. Serm. 2. in Psal. l.xxxviii. Ad reliqua psalmi. 


quo in matutino locuti sumus, aninium intendite, et pium 
debitum exigite. 

""' Gaudent. Tract. 4. Carnalem Judaicoe Paschae ob- 
servantiam, spiritualibus typis refertam, trino jam tractatu 
docuimus ; semel hesterno die, et bis in vigiliis. It. Tract. 
5. Oportebat in ilia node vigiliarum secundo tractatu — 
congrua neophytis explanari. 

"" Ambros. de iis qui Mysteriis initiantur, cap. 1. 

'"2 Theod. Quaest. 15. in Num. 

103 Aug. Serm. 1. ad Neophytos, in Append, t. 10. p. 845. 

'»' Book I. chap. 4. sect. 8. 

105 Aug. Tract. 62. in Joan. Intentiorflagitatur auditor : 
et ideo eum prsecipitare non debet, sed diflferre potius dis- 

Chap. IV. 



hasten them, but defer them to another opportunity. 
And in another homily,'"* upon Easter day, he ex- 
cuses the shortness of it, because he was to preach 
again to the infants, as they then called all persons 
newly baptized. Cyril's Mystical Catechisms were 
of this kind. And probably those Mystical Homihes 
of Origen, whereof he wrote two books, mentioned 
by Rufhn'"" and St. Jerom, were of the same nature. 
However, we have seen sufficient evidence other- 
wise for more sermons than one upon the same day 
upon many occasions. 

But this is chiefly to be understood 

Sect. 9. o ■ • 11 11 f • 

Not 60 fre<)uent in of citics and large churches ; tor in 

country villages. ^ 

the country parishes there was not 
such frequent preaching. St. Chrysostom says, 
They that lived in the city"* enjoyed continual 
teaching, but they that dwelt in the country had 
not such plenty ; therefore God compensated this 
want of teachers with a greater abundance of mar- 
tyrs, and so ordered it that more martyrs lay buried 
in the country than in the city ; where, though they 
could not hear the tongues of their teachers con- 
tinually, yet they always heard the voice of the mar- 
tyrs speaking to them from their graves, and that 
^vith greater force of eloquence and persuasion than 
living teachers could do ; as he there goes on after 
his manner to describe it. There were sometimes 
great assemblies held at these monuments of the 
martyrs :' for on their anniversary festivals the 
whole city went forth to celebrate their memorials 
in the churches where they lay buried ; as Chrysos- 
tom tells us, both here and in other places : '"' but 
at other times their chief resort for preaching was 
to the city churches. It was not till the beginning 
of the sixth century, that preaching was generally 
set up throughout the country parishes in the 
French church ; but about that time an order was 
made in the council of Vaison, anno 529, That for 
the edification of all the churches, and the greater 
benefit of the whole body of the people, presbyters 
should have power"" to preach, not only in the 
cities, but in all the country parishes ; and if the 
presbyter was infirm, a deacon should read one of 
the homilies of the holy fathers. So that in this 
respect the state of the present church may be 
reckoned happier than that of the ancient church ; 
since there is scarce a country parish among us, but 
has a sermon preached every Lord's day throughout 
the year by a presbyter or deacon. 

The next thing to be observed is. 

Sect. 10. , . T~. . 

Of their different their diiierent sorts of sermons, and 

ways of preacmng. 

different ways of preaching. I have 

already noted'" some difference to have been made 
between sermons to the catechumens, and sermons 
to tlie faithful ; but that was chiefly in the matter 
and subject of them. What I observe here, relates 
more to the manner and method of preaching, in 
which respect they were distinguished into four 
kinds: I. Expositions of Scripture. 2. Panegyrical 
discourses upon the saints and martyrs. 3. Sermons 
upon particular times, occasions, and festivals. 4. 
Sermons upon particular doctrines, and moral sub- 
jects, to illustrate the truth against heresy, and 
recommend the practice of virtue in opposition to 
immorality and ungodliness. There are examples 
of all these kinds in St. Chrysostom's and St. 
Austin's homilies, the two great standards and pat- 
terns of preaching in the Greek and Latin church. 
St. Austin has some homilies upon whole books of 
Scripture, as those upon the Psalms, and St. John's 
Gospel. He has others, styled De Sanctis, which 
are panegyrics upon the saints and martyrs ; others, 
styled De Tempore, which are upon the festivals 
and great solemnities of the church, such as the 
Nativity, Epiphany, Lent, Passion, Easter, Pente- 
cost, and the Lord's days throughout the year ; 
others, styled De Diversis, which are a miscellany 
upon doctrinal points and moral subjects. So like- 
wise in Chrysostom, we have his homilies by way 
of exposition on the whole Book of Genesis, the 
Psalms, the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. John, 
and all St. Paul's Epistles. Then, again, his pane- 
g5'rics upon the saints and martjTS ; his homilies 
upon the noted festivals, Easter, Pentecost, &c. ; 
and, lastly, his moral and doctrinal discourses upon 
various subjects, repentance, faith, charity, humility, 
the truth of the Christian religion, the Divinity of 
Christ, and such important subjects as the occasion 
of the times, and the opposition of Jews, Gentiles, 
and heretics, required him to discourse upon, in a 
plain and familiar way to the people. His homihes 
by way of exposition of any book of Scripture, 
usually consist but of two parts, an exposition of 
some portion of a chapter, and an ethicon, or moral 
conclusion, upon some useful subject, which the 
last part of the words expounded gave him the 
hint or occasion to discourse upon. But his other 
homilies are commonly introduced with a useful 
preface, not relating always to the subject that was 
to follow, but such as the occasional necessities of 
his auditory, either in matters of reproof or com- 
mendation, seemed to require. But in both these 
ways, he still excelled in this, that he always ex- 
pounded the Scripture in its most natural and 

los Anc^. Horn. 82. de Diversis. Satis sint -fobis pauca 
ista, quoniam et post laboraturi sumus, et de sacramentis 
altaris hodie iufantibus disputandum est. 

'"' Ruffin. Invect. 2. cont. Hierou. cited by Valesius, 
Not. in Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 24. 

'"8 Chi-ys. Horn. 65. de Martyribiis, t. 5. p. 973. 

"" Ibid. 72. de S. Droside, t. 5. p. 989 et 990. 

"" Cone. Vasens. 2. can. 2. Hoc etiam pro aedificatione 
omnium ecclesiaiiim, et pro utilitate totius pnpuli nobis 
placuit, ut non solum in civitatibus, sed etiam in omnibus 
parochiis, verbum faciendi daremus presbytcris potesta- 
tem, &c. "' See before, sect. 8. 



Book XIV. 

genuine sense, (not giving way to tropological 
descants, as too many others did,) and made such 
useful observations and reflections upon it, as were 
pertinent and proper, which he applied to his hear- 
ers with the strongest reasoning, and utmost force 
of Divine eloquence, becoming the seriousness and 
gravity of a Christian orator. It is a just character, 
which a late learned critic"- gives him, and there- 
fore I think it not improper here to transcribe it, for 
the encouragement of all young students to read 
him. " His eloquence is popular, and very proper 
for preaching ; his style is natural, easy, and grave ; 
he equally avoids negligence and affectation ; he is 
neither too plain nor too florid ; he is smooth, yet 
not effeminate ; he uses all the figures that are usual 
to good orators very properly, without employing 
false strokes of wit ; and he never introduces into 
his discourses any notions of poets or profane 
authors ; neither does he divert his auditory with 
jests. His composition is noble, his expressions 
elegant, his method just, and his thoughts sublime; 
he speaks like a good father and a good pastor ; he 
often directs his words to the people, and expresses 
them with a tenderness and charity becoming a 
holy bishop; he teaches the principal truths of 
Christianity with a wonderful clearness, and diverts 
with a marvellous art, and an agreeable way of 
ranging his notions, and persuades by the strength 
and solidity of his reasons ; his instructions are easy, 
his descriptions and relations pleasant ; his induce- 
ments so meek and insinuating, that one is pleased 
to be so persuaded ; his discourses, how long soever, 
are not tedious, there are still some new things that 
keep the reader awake, and yet he hath no false 
beauties nor useless figures ; his only aim is to con- 
vert Jiis auditors, or to instruct them in necessary 
truths ; he neglects all reflections that have more 
of subtilty than profit ; he never busies himself to 
resolve hard questions, nor to give mystical senses, 
to make a show of his wit or eloquence; he searches 
not into mysteries, neither endeavours to compre- 
hend them ; he is contented to propose, after an 
easy way, palpable and sensible truths, which none 
can be ignorant of without danger of failing of sal- 
vation; he particularly applies himself to moral 
heads, and very seldom handleth speculative truths ; 
he affects not to appear learned, and never boasts 
of his erudition ; and yet, whatever the subject be, 
he speaks with terms so strong, so proper, and so 
well chosen, that one may easily perceive he had a 
profound knowledge of all sorts of matters, and par- 
ticularly of true divinity." This is the character 
which that judicious critic gives that famous and 
eloquent preacher; and he that will dihgently peruse 
his homilies, (especially those of his first and fifth 

volumes, which contain his most elaborate dis- 
courses, as also those on St. Matthew, St. John, and 
St. Paul's Epistles, where he excels in his moral 
applications,) will find his sermons to answer the 
character that is given of them, only making some 
allowances for the different way and method then 
used, not so agreeable to the model of sermons in 
the present age. I had once some thoughts of pub- 
lishing a volume of his select discourses, which I 
translated for my own entertainment, when I was 
unfortunately cut off from other studies for a whole 
j^ear : but because they are not altogether of the 
present stamp, and many men have a different taste 
and relish of things, I choose rather to encourage 
men to read them in the original, where they may 
select what they find proper for their use or imita- 
tion. As for those who can endure to read nothing 
but what is either modern, or dressed up in the 
modern dress, I neither court them to read Chrysos- 
tom, nor any other ancient father ; but to others, 
who can be at pains to peruse, and judiciously select 
the beauties of style, the strains of piety, and the 
flights of divine and manly eloquence, that almost 
every where display themselves in this author, I 
dare venture to say, they will never think their time 
lost, nor find themselves wholly disappointed in 
their expectation. St. Basil's homilies come the 
nearest to St. Chrysostom's, in solidity of matter, 
beauty of style, ingenuity of thought, and sharpness 
and vivacity of expression. A vein of piety runs 
equally through them both, and by some St. Basil's 
are reckoned to come nearer to the Attic purity and 
perfection. Next after these, the two Gregories, 
Nyssen and Nazianzen, are esteemed the greatest 
masters of divine eloquence ; though the latter is 
rather luxuriant and tedious, by his too frequent and 
long similitudes and digressions. Those of Ephrem 
Syrus were also of great repute in the ancient 
church, having the honour to be read as lessons 
after the readingof the Scriptures in many churches, 
as has been noted before out of St. Jerom."' They 
are highly commended by Sozomen "* and Photius,"^ 
for the beauty of their style and sublime thoughts, 
which were not wholly lost by being translated out 
of Syriac into Greek. Gregory Nyssen"" is more 
copious in his praise, and he particularly observes, 
that his discourses of morality were so full of com- 
passionate and affecting expressions, that they were 
able to move the hardest heart. For who that is 
proud, says he, would not become the humblest of 
men, by reading his discourse of humility ? Who 
would not be inflamed with a divine fire, by reading 
his treatise of charity ? Who would not wish to be 
chaste in heart and spirit, by reading the praises he 
has given to virginity ? Who would not be frighted, 

"= Dii Pin, Bibliothcc. vol. 3. p. 34. 
"^ Hieron. de Scriptor. cap. 115. 

'" Sozom. lib. 3. cap. 16. "^ Phot. Cod. 196. 

"= Nyssen. Vit. Ephrem Syri, t. 3. p. GUI 

Chap. IV. 



to hear the discourse he has made upon the last 
judgment, wherein he has represented it so lively, 
that nothing can be added to it but the real appear- 
ance of judgment itself? This is a character that 
would tempt any man to look into them. It is dis- 
puted now among the critics, whether those homi- 
lies that go under his name be his genuine oflspring. 
Some utterly reject them, and they who say most 
in their defence, own that they may have lost some- 
thing of their native beauty and majesty, by being 
translated out of Syriac into Greek, and then out 
of Greek into Latin. And therefore I will not so 
confidently assert, they deserve the character which 
Gregory Nyssen gives of those that were so much 
admired in his time. As for those of Origen, and 
others who followed him, though they have some 
flights of rhetoric, and a vein of piety in them, yet 
they are so full of allegorical and tropological inter- 
pretations, that they are neither good expositions 
nor good homilies, and fall far short of the majesty 
and simplicity of those of Chrysostom. Among the 
Latins, those few moral discourses we have of Cy- 
prian's, whether homilies or treatises, are excellent 
in their kind. And so are many of St. Austin and 
St. Ambrose, and Leo the Great, and Petrus Ra- 
vennas, who, for his eloquence, had the name of 
Chrysologus, or the Latin Chrysostom ; though his 
eloquence is of a different kind, being more like 
that of Seneca, than of Tully or Demosthenes, 
whom Chrysostom copied after. 

Sect. u. But of all these we must observe 

cours"'f"Suen?'a- auothcr distiuctiou, that though many 
mong e ancien s. ^^ them wcrc studicd and elaborate 
discourses, penned and composed beforehand, yet 
some were also extempore, spoken without any pre- 
vious composition, and taken from their mouths by 
the Taxvypd(poi, or men who understood the art of 
writing shorthand in the church. Origen was the 
first that began this way of preaching in the church. 
But Eusebius'" says, he did it not till he was above 
sixty years old, at which age, having got a con- 
firmed habit of preaching by continual use and ex- 
ercise, he suffered the raxvypaipoi, or notaries, to take 
down his sermons which he made to the people, 
which he would never allow before. Pamphilus, in 
his Apology"' for Origen, speaks the matter a little 
more plainly : for he makes it an instance of his 
sedulity in studying and preaching the word of 
God, that he not only composed a great number of 

laborious treatises upon it, but preached almost 
every day extempore sermons in the church ; which 
were taken from his mouth by the notaries, and so 
conveyed to posterity by that means only. The 
Catechetical Discourses of St. Cyril are supposed 
to be of this kind ; for at the beginning of every one, 
almost, it is said in the title to be, (rxtSiaaOdaa, which 
Suidas and other critics expound, an extempore 
discourse. St. Jerom says, Pierius thus expounded 
the Scripture."" St. Chrysostom also sometimes 
used this way of preaching, being of a ready inven- 
tion and fluent tongue. Sozomen '-" says. After his 
return from banishment, the people were so desir- 
ous to hear him, that he was forced to go up into 
the episcopal throne, and make an extempore dis- 
course to them, which is now extant'^' in his second 
tome in Latin. Suidas also gives him this cha- 
racter,'" That he had a tongue flowing like the 
cataracts of Nile, whereby he spake many of his 
panegyrics upon the martyrs extempore, without 
any hesitation. And it appears from several of his 
sermons, that he often took occasion in the middle 
of a discourse, from some accidental hint that was 
casually given, to t-urn his eloquence from the sub- 
ject in hand, and make some extempore apostrophe 
to the people, either of praise and commendation, 
or of reproof and correction, as the occasion of the 
thing required ; as in that sennon we have already 
mentioned, sect. 8, where he takes occasion, from the 
people's turning their eyes to see the lighting of the 
candles, to reprove their negligence'-^ in turning 
away their attention from him, who was holding 
forth to them a greater light from the Holy Scrip- 
tures. And there are many other such apostrophes 
and occasional reflections throughout his homilies, 
which must needs be extempore, because the occa- 
sion of them could not be foreseen, being they were 
pure contingencies, and things altogether accident- 
al. But Chrysostom was not the only man, whose 
fluency enabled him to make extempore discourses. 
For Ruffin, speaking in praise of Gregorj' Nazianzen 
and St. Basil, says, There were several of their ser- 
mons extant,'" which they spake extempore in the 
church, twenty of which he himself had translated 
into Latin. Socrates gives the same account of 
Atticus, That though, whilst he was a presbyter, he 
was used to preach composed and studied sermons, 
yet afterwards, by industry and continued exercise 
having gained confidence and a freedom or fluency 

>" Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 3G. 

"* Pamphil. Apol. pro Orig. inter Opera Origen. t. I. p. 
756. Quod prae caeteris verbo Dei et doctrinse operam de- 
derit, dubium non est et ex his quae ad nos laboris et studii 
ejus certissima designantur Indicia : prsccipue vero per eos 
tractatus, quos pene quotidie in ecclesia habebat extempore, 
quos et describentes notarii ad monuraenta posteritatis 
Iradebant. Dr. Cave reckons his homilies upon Gen!, Exod., 
Levit., and Numbers, to be all extempore. Vid. Cave, 
Hist. Liter, vol. 1. p. 78. 

119 Hieron. Proopm. in Hosea. 

'-» Sozom. lib. 8. cap. 18. 

'^' Chi-)s. Sermo post Ileditum, t. 2. p. 49. in Appendice. 

'22 Suidas, Voce Joannes, t. 1. p. 1258. Tds twu fiap- 
TupiDV Sk iravijyvpiLi iiri^C^ricTEV iv Tto (rx^OLoX^nv avtfxTro- 
OlTtOS, K. T. \. 

'23 Chiys. Horn. 4. in Gen. t. 2. p. 902. 

'■-* Ruffin. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 9. Extant quoque utriusqne 
ingenii monumenta magnifica tractatuiim, quos extempore 
in ecclesiis declamabant, &c. 



Book XIY. 

of speaking, he preached extempore to the people ;'^ 
and his sermons were so well received by his audi- 
tors, that they took them down in writing. Sozo- 
men, indeed, gives a ditlerent account of them ; for 
he says,'-* His performances were so mean, that 
though they had a mixture of heathen learning in 
them, yet his auditors did not think them worth 
writing. However, they both seem to agree in this, 
that whatever characters they bare, they were ex- 
tempore discourses. Sidonius Apolhnaris '" seems 
to give the like account of Faustus, bishop of Riez 
in France ; for he says, Some of his discoiirses were 
i-epejitincs, and others elucuhratce, that is, the one 
spoken off-hand, and the others elaborate and stu- 
died. And there is nothing more certain, than that 
St. Austin did often use the extempore way. For 
he sometimes preached upon places of Scripture 
that were accidentally read in the church, and 
which he knew nothing of before he came thither. 
Of which we have an undeniable instance in one of 
his homilies,'* where he tells us, he was determined 
to preach upon a certain psalm about repentance, 
which he thought nothing of before the reader 
chanced to read it of his own accord in the church. 
And in another place he tells us,'"" When he had 
appointed the reader to read a certain psalm, upon 
which he intended to preach, the reader, in some 
hurry, read another in its room ; and this obliged 
him to preach an extempore sermon upon that 
psalm that was so accidentally read in the church. 
Possidius also, in his Life, mentions a sermon, where- 
in he left his subject that he was discoursing upon, 
to dispute against the Manichees, which he had no 
thoughts'^" to have done when he first began to 
preach ; but he reckoned it was the providence of 
God that directed him so to do, to cure the error of 
some latent Manichee in the congregation. And it 
is very probable, that many of his sermons upon the 
Psalms were extempore, because he so often uses 
the phrase, quantum Deus donaverit, as God should 
enable him to speak ; which seems to imply, that he 
spake without any previous study or composition. 
It is evident, his sermon on the 86th Psalm was of 

this kind ; for he says, he would explain it"' as God 
should enable him, seeing it was appointed by his 
holy father the bishop, then present : but such a 
sudden appointment would have been an oppression, 
were it not that the prayers of the proponent gave 
him continual assistance. For indeed they looked 
upon it as so necessary a work to preach continually, 
that when they had not time to compose before- 
hand, they doubted not but that the grace of God, 
and a peculiar assistance of the Spirit, would concur 
with their honest endeavours in such sudden under- 
takings. Nay, Gregory the Great, who also used 
this way in explaining some of the most difficult 
books of Scripture, as particularly Ezekiel, scruples '^ 
not to say, that he often found those obscure places 
of Scripture, which he could not comprehend in his 
private study, to flow in upon his understanding 
when he was preaching in public to his brethren. 

And in regard to this, they are wont g^^^ ,, 
frequently to mention the assistance prSi'n™by"the''^ 
of the Spirit, both in composing and '''""'■ 
preaching their sermons. Thus Chrysostom'^says 
in one of his sermons, when he had the happiness 
to see a large auditory, and a table well furnished 
with guests, that then he expected the grace of the 
Spirit to sound in his mind. In another,'^* I do not 
think that I spake those words of myself, but God, 
that foresaw what would happen, put those words 
into my mind. And again,'^ speaking of the preach- 
ing of Flavian his bishop, he says, It was not hu- 
man thought that poured forth his discourse, but 
the grace of the Holy Spirit : as it was not the na- 
ture of the vine, but the power of Christ, that made 
the water wine. St. Austin also often speaks of 
such illapses and assistances of the Spirit in preach- 
ing; which he sometimes calls the gift of God,"* 
sometimes the revelation of the Spirit,'" and some- 
times the help of God, and his Divine assistance. 
In one place more particularly, speaking of his un- 
willingness to preach before certain bishops when 
he was but young, he brings them in making this 
answer : If thou art in want of words, " Ask, and it 
shall be given "' thee : for it is not ye that speak," 

'-5 Socrat. lib. 7. cap. 2. 

'26 Sozom. lib. 8. cap. 27. 

'27 Sidon. lib. 9. Ep. 3. ad Faustum Regicnsem. Licet 
praedicationes tiias, nunc repentinas, nunc, cum ratio po- 
poscerit, elucubratas, raucus plausor audierim, &c. Gen- 
nadius de Scriptor. cap. 40, gives the same account of Max- 
imus Taurinensis. 

'28 Aug. Serm. 27. ex 50. t. 10. p. 175. See before, Book 
XIV. chap. 1. sect. 6. 

'25 Aug. in Psal. cxxxviii. p. 650. 

"" Possid. Vit. Aug. cap. 15. 

'" Aug. in Psal. Ixxxvi. p. .390. Hie nobis, quantum 
Dominus donare dignatur, cum vestra charitate tractandus 
modo est, propositus a beatissimo praesente patie nostro. 
Repentina propositio me gravarot, nisi me continuo propo- 
nentis sublevaret oratio. 

'^2 Greg. Magn. Horn. 19. in Ezck. p. 1144. Non hoc 

temeritate aggredior, sed humilitate. Scio enim, quia ple- 
rumque multa in sacro eloquio, qua; solus intelligere non 
potui, coram fratribus mcis positus inteUexi, &c. 

'^3 Chrys. Horn. 23. de Verbis Apost. Habentes eandem 
Fidem, &c. t. 5. p. .331. TlpoaooKu) ti^u too UvtufxaTos 
y^apiv kvi)')(ii}(TUL v/iwv t;; ciuvoia. 

'3J Hom. 2. ad Pop. Antioch. 1. 1. p. .30. 

'« Hom. 2. de Verbis Esaiee, t. 2. p. 331. 

'S6 Aug. Serm. 17. de Verbis Apost. t. 10. p. 132. Do- 
nante illo, &c. Et passim Sermon, in Psalmos, 34, 96. 

"' Aug. Serm. 15. de Verb. Apost. Ut ea quae ille nobis 
revelare dignetur, ad vos apte et salubriter proferre possi- 
mus. Vid. ibid. Serm. 14 et 15. 

138 Aug. Serm. 46. de Tempore, t. 10. p. 240. Si sermo 
deest, pete et accipies. Non enim vos estis qui loquimini: 
sed quod datur vobis, hoc ministratis nobis. It. de Doctrina 
Christi, lib. 4. cap. 15, he has more to the same purpose. 

Chap. IV. 



but ye minister what is given unto you. If a man 
would disingenuously interpret these and the like 
expressions of the ancients, he might make them 
seem to countenance that preaching by the Spirit, 
which some so vainly boast of, as if they spake 
nothing but what the Spirit immediately dictated 
to them, as it did to the apostles, by extraordinary 
inspiration. Which were to set eveiy extempore, 
as well as composed discom'se upon the same level 
of infallibility with the gospel. Which sort of en- 
thusiasm the ancients never dreamed of. For, 
notwithstanding the assistance of the Spirit they 
speak of, they always put a wide difference between 
the apostles' preaching and their own, styling the 
one infallible and authentic, as we have heard be- 
fore'^ out of St. Austin and others, and themselves 
only fallible expositors of the Scripture. All, there- 
fore, they pretended to from the assistance of the 
Spirit, was only that ordinary assistance which men 
may expect from the concurrence of the Spirit with 
their honest endeavours, as a blessing upon their 
studies and labours ; that whilst they were piously 
engaged in his service, God would not be wanting 
to them in such assistance as was proper for their 
work, especially if they humbly asked it with sin- 
cerity by fervent supplication and prayer. 

And upon this account it was usual 

Sect. 13. . , '^ , . , 

What sort of pray- tor the prcachcr many times to usher 

ere they used before ... 

Ifte'theiS"'''"'^'' ^^ ^^^ discourse with a short prayer 
for such Divine assistance, and also 
to move the people to pray for him. St. Austin, in 
the aforesaid homily, havnng mentioned the assist- 
ance of the Spirit, immediately adds, Whither shall 
I betake myself, thus violently pressed in these 
straits, but to the footstool of charity, or grace of 
the Holy Spirit ? And to that I make now my sup- 
plication,'" that he would grant me ability to speak 
something worthy of him, whereby I may at once 
fulfil my ministry, and satisfy your desire. And in 
his book of Instructions of the Christian Orator,'" 
where he prescribes many excellent rules for preach- 
ing, he lays down this, among others. That the 
Christian orator should pray both for himself and 
others before he begins to teach ; that he may be 
able to speak those things that are holy, just, and 
good ; and that his auditors may hear him with un- 

derstanding, with willingness, and with an obedient 
heart. To this end, before he looses his tongue to 
speak, he should lift up his thirsting soul to God, 
that he may be able to discharge what he has im- 
bibed, and pour forth to others that wherewith he 
has filled himself And this the rather, because 
both we and all our words are in the hand of God, 
who teaches us both what to speak, and after what 
manner to speak. And therefore, though ecclesias- 
tical men ought to learn what they are to teach, and 
to get the faculty of speaking ; yet when the hour 
of speaking comes, they should imagine that what 
our Lord says,'*- belongs to every good soul : " Take 
no thought how or what ye shall speak, for it shall 
be given to you in that hour what ye shall speak : 
for it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your 
Father that speaketh in you." If, therefore, the 
Holy Spirit speak in them, who are delivered up to 
persecutors for the name of Christ, why should he 
not also speak in those who preach Christ to them 
that are disposed to learn him? I have related 
this passage at length, both because it shows us to 
what degree they depended on the Spirit's assistance 
in preaching, and also what sort of prayers those 
were which they commonly made before sermon ; 
viz. not the common prayers of the church, (as 
some mistake, who measure all usages of the an- 
cient church by the customs of the present,) but 
these short prayers for the assistance and conduct 
of the Spirit, to direct both them and the people in 
speaking and hearing. And wherever we meet with 
any mention of prayer before sermon, it is to be 
understood only of this short sort of prayers, in 
ancient writers. Such as that of St. Austin's, in 
one of his homilies upon the Psalms, which begins 
with these words : Attend to the psalm, and the 
Lord'" grant us ability to open the mysteries that 
are contained in it. He begins another thus : My 
lords and brethren, (meaning the bishops then pre- 
sent,) and the Lord of all by them, have com- 
manded me to discourse upon this psalm, that you 
may understand it,'" so far as the Lord shall grant 
us understanding. And may he by your prayers 
assist me, that I may speak such things as I ought to 
speak, and such as ye ought to hear : that the word 
of God may be profitable to us all. In this sense 

139 Aug. Ep. 19. ad Hieron. See before in this chap. sect. 1. 

"° Aug. Horn. 46. de Tempore. His coarctatus angustiis, 
quo me conferam, nisi ad sancta vestigia charitatis? Eamque 
deprecor, ut donet mihi aliquid dignum de se dicere, quo et 
meum ministerium, et vestrum satiem desiderium. Vid. 
Hom. 51. de Divevsis. 

'" De Doctrin. Christ, lib. 4. cap. 15. Noster eloqtiens, 
orando pro se, ac pro illis quos est allocuturus, sit orator an- 
tequara dictor. al. doctor. Ipsa bora jam ut dicat acce- 
dcns, priusquam exserat proferentem linguam, ad Deum levet 
animam sitientem, ut eractet quod biberit, vel quod imple- 
verit fundat, &c. 

'*- Ibid. Ad horam vero ipsius dictionis illud potius bonae 

menti cogitet convenire quod Dominus ait: Nolite cogitare 
quomodo aut quid loquamini ; dabitur enim vobis in ilia hora 
quid loquamini : nou enim vos estis qui loquimini, sed Spi- 
ritus Patris vestri qui loquitur in vobis. Si ergo loquitur in 
eis Spiritus Sanctus qui persequentibus traduntur pro Christo, 
cur non et in eis qui tradunt discentibus Christum ? 

'" Aug. in Psal. xci. p. 417. Attendite ad psahnum: det 
nobis Dominus aperire mysteria quae hie continentur. 

'** In Psal. cxxxix. Jusserimt domini fratres, et in ipsis 
Dominus omnium, ut ipsum psalmum afferam ad vos intelli- 
gcndum, quantum Dominus donat. Adjuvet oration ibus 
vestris, ut ea dicam quae oportet me dicere et vos audire : 
uti omnibus nobis sit utilis sermo Divinus. 



♦ Book XIV. 

we are to understand St. Chrysostom, when he says, 
We must first pray,'" and then preach. So St. Paul 
does, praying in the prefaces of his Epistles, that the 
light of prayer, as the light of a candle, may lead 
the way to his discourses. Such is that prayer 
which St. Ambrose"" is said to use before his ser- 
mons : " I beseech thee, O Lord, and earnestly en- 
treat thee, give me a humble knowledge, which 
may edify ; give me a meek and prudent eloquence, 
which knows not how to be puffed up, or vaunt it- 
self upon its own worth and endowments above its 
brethren. Put into my mouth, I beseech thee, the 
\\ord of consolation, and edification, and exhort- 
ation, that I may be able to exhort those that are 
good to go on to greater perfection, and reduce 
those that walk perversely to the rule of thy right- 
eousness, both by my word and by my example. 
Let the words which thou givest to thy servant, 
be as the sharpest darts and burning arrows, which 
may penetrate and inflame the minds of my hearers 
to thy fear and love." But this seems rather to 
have been a private prayer of St. Ambrose between 
God and himself, as Bishop Wettenhal'" and Mr. 
Thorndike"' understand it : who yet are mistaken 
in one thing, when they suppose that the common 
prayers of the church came before the sermon, and 
that there were no other prayers before sermon but 
those : for nothing is more certain, than that the 
common prayers did not begin till the sermon was 
ended ; and yet there were such short prayers for 
gi'ace and assistance, as we are speaking of, pecu- 
liarly adapted to the business of preaching and 
hearing, and not respecting any other subject. And 
sometimes the people's prayers were required to be 
joined with them, as appears from thaft of St. Aus- 
tin,'" in one of his homilies iipon the Psalms, 
where he desires the people to assist him with their 
prayers to the Lord, that he M^ould grant him ability 
to explain the latent mysteries and difllculties of 
the Psalms, as well for their sakes as his own. In 
Origen's homilies upon Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, 
Numbers, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and St. Luke, 
there are abundance of such short prayers, not 
only in the beginning of his discourses, but some- 
times also in the middle of them, when any more 
abstruse passage of Scripture presented itself to 

consideration ; and generally in the close he makes 
another such short prayer in a few words suitable 
to the subject, sometimes praying for himself and 
the people, and sometimes exhorting them to pray 
for themselves and him. All which being pro- 
duced at large in a noted book of Mr. Daille's,'^" I 
shall not think it needful to transcribe them in this 
place. But I cannot omit to observe, that as St. 
Austin often began his sermon with a short prayer, 
so he usually ended it with another of the like na- 
ture ; the forms of which are some of them now 
to be found at the end of several of his homilies. 
In some of them'^' we have this form at length; 
" Let us now turn to the Lord God, our Father Al- 
mighty, with a pure heart, and give him thanks 
with all our might, beseeching his singular clemency, 
•with our whole soul, that of his good pleasure he 
would vouchsafe to hear our prayers ; that he would 
drive away the enemy from all our thoughts and 
actions by his power ; that he would increase our 
faith, govern our minds, grant us spiritual thoughts, 
and conduct us to everlasting happiness, through 
Jesus Christ his Son, our Lord, who liveth and 
reigneth with him in the unity of the Holy Ghost, 
one God, world without end. Amen." And in many 
other homilies this prayer is referred to as a known 
form'^'^ used frequently by him in the close of his 
sermons : Conversi ad Dominum, &c. But he some- 
times varied and shortened this form, as the matter 
of his sermon required. Thus in his long sermon 
upon the resurrection,'^' having said, That the saints 
in the next world will keep a perpetual sabbath, 
and have nothing to do but to sing hallelujah ; 
and' applying the words of the psalmist to this pur- 
pose, " Blessed are they that dwell in thy house, for 
they will be always praising thee ; " he concludes 
his sermon with this prayer : " Let us turn to the 
Lord, and beseech him for ourselves, and all the 
people that stand with us in the courts of his house ; 
which house may he vouchsafe to preserve and pro- 
tect, through Jesus Christ his Son our Lord, who 
liveth, and reigneth with him, world without end. 
Amen." In another of his homilies (a fragment of 
which is cited by Sirmond,'^' as it is preserved in 
Eugippius's collections out of St. Austin's works) 
he has another form in these words : " Let us turn 

'*^ Chrys. Horn. 28. de Inconiprchensibili Dei Natura, t. 

1. p. 363. UpoTipOV ti^X') '^''" TOTf. Xoyoi, K. T. \. 

'■"^ Ainbros. Orat. ap. Ferrarium ile Concionib. Veter. lib. 
1, cap. 8. Obsecio Doniine, et suppliciter ro^o, da mihi 
semper humilem scientiain, qiiaj aedificet, da mitissimam sa- 
pientem eloquentiani, quae nesciat inflari, et de suis bonis 
super fratres extolli, &c. 

1" Wettenhal, Gift of Prayer, chap. 4. p. 116. 

'^8 Thorndike's Just Weights and Measures, chap. 16. 

"' Au;^. in Psal. cxlvii. p. 099. Adsit ergo nobis apud 
Dominum Deum nostrum iste affectus precum vestrarum : 
etsi non propter nos, certe propter vos donare dignetur, 
quod hie abscondituiii latet. V'id. Homil. 50. de Diversis. 

Orate ut possimus, Sec. 

'5« Dallw. de Objecto Cultus Relig. lib. 3. cap. 13. 

'=• Aug. Serm. 30. de Verb. Dom. t. 10. Et Serm. 102. 
de Diversis, et 120. Et Serm. 18. e.x editis a Sirmondo. 

'M Aug. de Verb. Dom. 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, 31, 32, 37, 40. 
Et passim Homiliis de Diversis. 

'^^ De Divers. Ser. 121. 

ii> Fragment. Homil. e.K Eugippii Thesauro, lib. 2. cap. 
288. ap. Sirmond. Not. in Aug. Homil. 18. a se edit. Au- 
distis mo, credo, fratres mei, quando dico, conversi ad Do- 
minum benedicamus nomen ejus, de nobis perscverare in 
mandatis suis, ambulare in via eruditionis sua;, placere ill! in 
omni opere bono, &c., ne vos sine tausa amen subscribatis. 

Chap. IV. 



to the Lord, and bless his name, that we may have 
grace to persevere in his commandments, to walk 
in the way of his instructions, and please him in 
every good work," &c. From all which it is mani- 
fest, they used such short prayers both in the be- 
ginning and conclusion of their sermons, and some- 
times, as occasion required, in the middle of them 
also, and that these were distinct from the common 
prayers of the church. 

Before they began to preach, it was 

Sect. U. J o I 

The sauitation, ugual also, HI many places, to use tiie 

J'nr vobis, " Ihe ' ^ r ' 

lfmmonv,'''uJrbe- common salutatiou. Pax voh's, " Peace 

fore sermons. ^^ ^^^^ y^y^,. ^j.^ „ -pj-^g L^j.^ Jjg ^^.jj]^ 

you," which was the usual preface and introduction 
to all holy offices, to which the people answered, 
"And with thy spirit." This the author of the 
Constitutions calls, npoaprjmv, the salutation, giving 
this rule to the bishop newly ordained : After the 
reading of the Law, and the Prophets, and the Epis- 
tles, and the Acts, and the Gospels, let him'" salute 
the church, saying, " The grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the love of God the Father, and the 
fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with you all :" and 
let all the people answer, " And with thy spirit :" 
and after this salutation, fitrd t>)v irpotrfirjfftv, let 
him speak to the people the words of exhortation. 
And that this author did not impose any new cus- 
tom upon the church, appears from Chrysostom, 
who, in several of his homilies, makes mention of it. 
In his third homily upon the Colossians, he says. 
The bishop, when he first entered the church, said, 
" Peace be unto you all ;" and when he began "" to 
preach, " Peace be unto you all." And a little be- 
fore he says, the bishops used it, ev toIq irpoa priatai, 
by which he means their sermons, or at least, the 
form of salutation itself ushering in the sermon, as 
we have seen the author of the Constitutions under- 
stands it. Chrysostom'" adds. That the people re- 
turned the salutation of peace to him that gave it, 
sapng, " And with thy spirit." In another place 
he says. Nothing is comparable to peace and unity : 
and for this reason the father, the bishop, when he 
enters the church, before he goes up to his throne, 
prays for peace to all; and when he rises up to 
preach, he does not begin to discourse '^' before he 
has given the peace to all. In other places he 
opens the reason of this practice, by declaring the 
original intent and design of it. For, he says, it 
was an ancient custom in the apostles' days, when 

the rulers of the church had the gift of inspira- 
tion, and spake as they were moved by the Holy 
Ghost, for the people to say to the preacher, 
" Peace be with thy spirit :" therefore, now, when 
we begin to preach,'^" the people answer, " And with 
thy spirit:" showing, that heretofore they spake 
not by their own wisdom, but as they were moved 
by the Spirit. And though this gift of extraordi- 
nary inspiration was ceased, yet all preachers still 
were presumed to be under the conduct and assist- 
ance of the Spirit, in a lower degree : and therefore 
he says"" in another place, That the Holy Ghost 
was in their common father and teacher, meaning 
the bishop, when he went up into the episcopal 
throne, and gave the peace to them all, and they 
with one voice answered, " And with thy spirit." 
And this, not only when he went into his throne, 
but also when he preached to them, when he 
prayed, and when he stood by the holy table to 
offer the oblation. And by this we may understand 
what Sozomen'^' and others say of Chrysostom 
after his return from banishment, that the people 
forced him against his ^\^ll, before he was synodically 
reinstated, to go up into the throne, and give them 
the peace in the usual form, and preach to them. 
Optatus speaks of the same custom in Africa both 
in the beginning and end of their sermons. For 
he says,"'^ they used a double salutation ; the bishop 
never began to speak to the people, before he had 
first saluted them in the name of God. Every 
sermon in the church began in the name of God, 
and ended in the name of the same God, And by 
this he proves, that Macarius, the emperor's officer, 
did not take upon him the office of a bishop among 
the catholics, as the Donatists falsely objected 
against them. For though he spake to the people 
in the church, yet it was upon some other business, 
and not by way of preaching, which was the office 
of bishops, which they always began and ended 
vnih. this salutation : but Macarius used no such 
salutation ; and from thence he argues that he did 
not preach. Bona "" cites also Athanasius's epistle to 
Eustathius, where he inveighs against the Arian 
bishops, who, in the beginning of their sermons, used 
that kind word, " Peace be with you," and yet were 
always harassing others, and tragically engaged in 
war. But as there is no epistle under that title 
among Athanasius's works, I let it rest upon the 
credit of our author. 

'^^ Constit. lib. 8. cap. 5. 'Acnra(ra(r6to b \tipoTovi]dih 
TijU iKK\^]<Tiav, \iywv, »; X"P'^ '^"^ Kupi'ou, k.t.X. 

'5* Chrys. Horn. .3. in Colos. p. 1338. "O-rav o/ii\{i, Xtyii, 
iipi'ivij iraaiv, k.t.X. 

'^' Ibid. p. 1339. ' AvTlOOVTl.'S tuJ ^I^OVTL Tt;!/ ilpnv^V, 

'^ Horn. 52. in eos qui Pascha jejunant, t.5. p. 713. ' Avn- 
CTas oil irpoTEOov ap\tTai xij? tt/jos v/ia9 6i6a(TKa\ia9, 
4(1)1 dv airacTiv i/fxiv tipvvv tirfv^ijiai. 

^^ Chrys. Horn. 36. in 1 Cor. p. 652. 
3 A 

'™ Horn. 36. de Pentecost, t. 5. p. 553. 

"^1 Sozom. lib. 8. cap. 18. 

x'- Optat. lib. 3. ad calcem, lib. 7. p. 112. Episcopalis 
tractatus probatur salutatione geminata. Non enim aliquid 
incipit episcopus ad populum dicere, nisi primo in nomine 
Dei populum salutaverit. Similes sunt exitus initiis. Om- 
nis tractatus in ecclesia a nomine Dei incipitur, et ejusdem 
Dei nomine tenninatur, &c. It. lib. 3. p. 73. Salutas de 
pace, qui non amas. 

'"^ Bona^ Rerum Liturgic. lib. 2. cap. 5. n, 1, 



Book XIV. 

But I cannot but observe, that 
But' the use of among- all the short prayers used by 

Ave Marias before ° . ,. i • 

sermons, unknown the ancicnts before their sermons, 

to the ancients. 

there is never any mention of an 
Ave 3faria, now so common in the practice of the 
Romish church. Their addresses were all to God, 
and the invocation of the holy Virgin for grace and 
assistance before sermons was a thing not thought 
of. They who are most concerned to prove its use, 
can derive its original no higher than the beginning 
of the fifteenth centiuy. For Ferrarius"^^ ingenu- 
ously confesses, that Vincentius Ferrerius was the 
first ecclesiastical writer that ever used it before his 
seiinons. Baronius has not a syllable of its an- 
tiquity in all his Twelve Centuries ; there being a 
perfect silence both among the ancients and all the 
ritualists about it, till that Dominican preacher, in 
his abundant zeal for the worship of the holy Virgin, 
began to use it before his sermons ; from whose ex- 
ample (for he was a celebrated preacher in the age 
he lived) it gained such reputation and authority, as 
not only to be prefixed before all their sennons, but 
to be adapted and joined with the Lord's prayer in 
the Roman Breviary. Ferrarius says all he can to 
justify a novelty; but nothing can clear this hyper- 
dulia of idolatiy ; and he might have spared his 
censure of Erasmus, who says a witty thing upon 
it, That their preachers were used to invoke the 
virgin mother in the beginning of their discourses, 
as the heathen poets were used to do their muses : 
for Epiphanius would have said much severer things 
against it, had he had the like occasion given him 
to inveigh against this idolatry, as he had to censure 
that of the Collyridians : but then this idolatry was 
confined to the weaker sex, and had not yet made 
its way into the pulpits, or any part of the liturgy 
of the ancient church, when preachers were used to 
pray for grace and assistance only from Him, who is 
the proper donor of it. 

I observe further, that as their ser- 

Seet. 16. , n f T • 1 

Sometimes their mous wcrc thus usually prciaccd with 

sermons were pre- 
faced with a bene- a short prayer, so they were some- 
times introduced with a short form of 
benediction. This seems to have been peculiar to 
times of calamity and distress, or to happy deliver- 
ances out of them. There are instances of both 
kinds in Chrysostom's sermons to tlie people of An- 
tioch, when they were under apprehensions of being 
destroyed by the emperor's displeasure. His fourth 
sermon begins thus : Blessed be God, who hath 

comforted your sorrowful souls, and comforted your 
wavering minds. His eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, 
and twentieth homilies, begin much after the same 
manner. And Ms homily after his return from 
banishment,"^ is thus prefaced : What shall I say ? 
What shall I speak? Blessed be God. This was 
the word which I spake when I went away ; and 
this I repeat now at my return. And this he tells 
them he did after the example of Job, who, in ad- 
versity, as well as prosperity, said always, " Blessed 
be the name of the Lord." 

It appears further from those homi- 

, . Sect. 17. 

lies,'^ and several others both in him sometimes preach- 
ed without any text, 

and other writers, that they sometimes and sometimes upon 

' •' more texts than one. 

preached without any text ; only treat- 
ing of such matters as they thought most proper for 
the occasion. But most commonly they took their 
text out of some paragraph of the Psalms or lessons, 
as they were read. And sometimes they so ordered 
the matter, as to preach upon the Psalm, the Epis- 
tle, and Gospel, all together, when they were either 
accidentally, or by their own appointment, upon the 
same subject. Thus St. Austin preached upon the 
subject of praise and thanksgiving out of the Epis- 
tle, the Psalm, and the Gospel together,'" because 
they had all something relating to his subject. But 
they never showed so little reverence for Scripture, 
as to choose their text out of Aristotle's Ethics, as 
Sixtinus Amama"^ tells us one of the Romish 
preachers did at Paris, in the hearing of Melancthon. 

Neither did they entertain their au- g^^^ ,g 
ditory with light and ludicrous mat- wa^liVon^mpon- 
ters, or fabulous and romantic stories, ""' subjects. 
such as those with which preaching so much abound- 
ed in the age before the Reformation ; of which 
Erasmus,'"' and Faber,"" and Hottinger,'" and many 
other learned men, have made so great and so just 
complaints. There is one instance given by Hot- 
tinger, out of one of their authentic books of homi- 
lies, which, for its singular vanity, and to show the 
difference between the ancient and the modern way 
of edifying a popular auditory, I shall here tran- 
scribe out of him, as he relates it in his history. 
He says, in a book of sermons"^ composed by the 
Theological Faculty of Vienna, anno 1430, which 
was read in their monasteries and their churches, 
this ridiculous story is told, to recommend their 
relics to the people : That the thirty pieces of gold 
(though the Scripture calls them silver) which Ju- 
das had for betraying his Master, were coined by 

IG4 Ferrar. do Ritu Concioii. lib. 1. cap. 11. p. 30. 

'" Chrys. Homil. post Ilcditum, t. 2. 

"» Ibid. Horn. 3, 4, 5, 6. ad Popul. Antioch. 

'" Aug. de Verbis Apost. Serm. 10. t. 10. p. 112. Has tres 
lectiones, quantum pro tempore possumus, pcrtractemus, di- 
ceates pauca de singulis, et qtiantum conaii possumus, adju- 
vante Domino, non in aliqua earum immorantes, &e. 

"•"^ Sixtin. Amama, Orat. de Barbarie. Cited by Mr. Sel- 

ler, Life of Justin Martyr, p. 123. 

""" Erasm. Moria; Encomium, p. 176, &c. 

"" Joannes Fabcr, Declainat. de Humanae Vitee miseria, 
ap. Hottinger. Hist. Ecd. Saecul. 16. par. 4. p. 1271. 

I" Hottinger. 16. Saicul. par. 3. p. 263, &c. 

"^ Id. Saecul. 15. p. 63. St. Bernard's censure of such 
trifles is, Inter seculares nuga;, nugae sunt : in ore sacerdotis 
blasphomioe. De Consider, lib. 2. cap. 13. 

Chap. IV. 



Terah, Abraham's father; who was a famous arti- 
ficer under King Nimrod ; that he gave them to his 
son Abraham ; that Abraham therewith purchased 
the field of Ephron the Hittite ; from whence they 
came into the hands of the Ishmaehtes, who there- 
with bought Joseph, when his brethren sold him 
into Egypt; that Joseph's brethren paid them to 
Joseph, when they went to buy corn in Egypt, and 
so they came into the king of Egypt's treasury ; that 
hence they were given to Moses, when the king of 
Egypt sent him with an army to subdue Ethiopia ; 
that Moses upon this occasion gave them as a dowry 
to the queen of Sheba ; and the Ethiopian queen 
afterward made a present of them to King Solomon; 
who put them into the treasury, where they con- 
tinued, till Nebuchadnezzar, among the spoil, seized 
them in the devastation of Jerusalem ; Nebuchad- 
nezzar, having an Arabian king among his auxilia- 
ries, made a present of them unto him ; and of him 
sprang one of those Eastern kings, who came to 
worship Christ at his birth, and made a present of 
them to the Virgin Mary; and the Virgin, when 
she presented her Son in the temple, made them 
an oflering for her purification. So this very silver 
(which was gold before) was the price which Judas 
had for betrapng his Master. And these silver 
pieces are there said to be dispersed over all the 
world, and kept as sacred relics, one of which in 
gold, as big as an English noble, is showed at Rome 
in the entrance of St. Peter's church. One would 
hardly believe, that such absurd and ridiculous fic- 
tions should have been authorized from the pulpit 
among the rules of eternal life, had not undeniable 
proof been often made,'" that their breviaries and 
legends, as well as sermons, before the Reformation, 
were stuffed with such fables ; though, I believe, 
this story outdoes any in the Golden Legend, (of 
which Ludovdcus Vives "* and Melchior Canus '" 
so much complain,) and Jacobus de Voragine was 
but an ass to these men for invention. Now*, let us 
see how the ancient way of preaching differed from 
this. Justin Martyr makes it a plain, but a very 
edifying way of instruction. For he says. When 
the writings of the apostles and prophets were read, 
the bishop made a discourse to exhort and excite 
the people to imitate and transcribe into their prac- 
tice the good"^ things they had heard read out of 
them. Their subjects, as Gregory Nazianzen '" de- 
scribes the choice of them, w'ere commonly such as 
these": of the world's creation, and the soul of man ; 
of angels, as well those that kept, as those that lost 

'" See Patrick's Devotions of the Rom. Church. Lend. 
1674. 8vo. 

"* Lud. Vives de Tradend. Disciplinis, lib. 5. p. 360. 
'" Canus, Loci Theolog. lib. II. cap. 6. p. 55.3. 
'"^ Justin. Apol. 2. p. 98. •" Naz. Orat. 1. de Fuga, p. 15. 
"* Chijs. Horn. 21. de Baptismo Christi, t. 1. p. 309. 
'"' Aug. de Doctriua Christ, lib. 4. cap. 4. 
3 .4 2 

their first integrity ; of Providence, and its wise laws 
and constitutions ; of the formation of man, and his 
restoration ; of the two covenants, the types of the 
old, and the antitypes of the new ; of Christ's first 
and second coming ; of his incarnation and passion; 
of the general resurrection and end of the world; 
of the day of judgment, and the rewards of the just, 
and the punishment of the wicked ; and above all, 
of the doctrine of the Trinity, which was the prin- 
cipal article of the Christian faith. In like manner 
Chrysostom puts his auditors '"* in mind of what 
matters he had used to preach to them : of the na- 
ture of the soul, of the fabric of the body, of the 
state of immortality, of the kingdom of heaven and 
the torments of hell ; of the long-suflfering of God, 
and the methods of pardon ; of the powers of re- 
pentance, of baptism, and the forgiveness of sins ; 
of the creation of the superior and inferior world ; 
of the nature of men and angels ; of the subtlety of 
Satan, and his methods and policies ; of the differ- 
ent opinions of the Christian world ; of the true 
faith, and the gangrene of heresies, and other such 
mysteries, which it behoves a Christian to be ac- 
quainted with. 

And as they were thus careful in 
the choice of their subjects, so thev *"'' "'•'"^ 

■J ' J way most ar 

were no less careful to put their well- capaci't!et''of their 
chosen matter into the most useful '^'urpVJilur^'S 
and pleasing dress ; that they might """^ " ^'=""""''- 
answer the true ends of Christian oratory, and, as 
the wise man words it, make their apples of gold 
appear the more beautiful by being set in pictures 
of silver. The design of Christian oratory, as St. 
Austin"" observes, is, either to instruct men in the 
truth, or to refute their en'ors, or to persuade them 
to the practice of holiness and virtue, and dissuade 
them from the contrary vices. The first of these 
requires plain narration ; the second, strength of 
argument and ratiocination ; and the third, the art 
and power of mo\ang the mind and affections. And 
in doing each of these, the Christian orator, as he 
never speaks any thing but what is holy, just, and 
good, so he endeavoiu's to speak these in such a 
manner, as that he may be heard with understand- 
ing, wdth pleasm-e, and with obedience,"* as the 
chief thing of all. That he may be heard with un- 
derstanding, he speaks every thing with a natural 
plainness and perspicuity, and also a regard to 
men's capacities and apprehensions. He reckons 
the greatest oratory of no use, if it cannot be under- 
stood : For what signifies a golden key,'*' if it can- 

Sect 10. 

cred in; 
and suitable to the 

'*" Ibid. cap. ]5. Agit noster eloqucns, cum et jiista, et 
sancta et bona dicit (neque cnim alia debet dicere) : agit 
ergo quantum potest, cum ista dicit, ut iutelligentcr, ut li- 
benter, ut obedienter audiatur. 

'*' Ibid. cap. II. Quid enim prodest clavis aiirea, si ape- 
rire quod volunius non potest? Aut quid obcst lij,'nea, si hoc 
potest, quando nihil quocrimus, nisi patcre quod clausumest? 



Book XIV. 

not open what we intend ? A wooden key is of 
more use, if it will answer the true design of a key, 
which is only to open what is locked up and shut 
before. Therefore the Christian orator labours 
chiefly at perspicuity in his speech, never thinking 
he has done justice to any truth by his eloquence, 
unless he has also delivered it with a sufficient 
evidence to men of reasonable capacities and com- 
prehensions. There are some things, which are un- 
intelhgible in their own natm-e, or not to be under- 
stood by the ordinary sort of men, though they be 
spoken ^\ ith never so much plainness of the orator ; 
and therefore such things are seldom or never, with- 
out great necessity, to be handled in a popular"*- 
audience. For the same reason, he that studies 
perspicuity and evidence, will sometimes neglect 
rhetorical expressions, and not regard how sonorous, 
but how significant his words are, to intimate and 
declare his sense to the minds of his hearers. For 
there is a iJiligens negligentia, a useful negligence, 
proper in this case to ecclesiastical teachers, who 
must sometimes condescend to improprieties of 
speech, when they cannot speak otherwise to the 
apprehensions of the vulgar. As he notes, that they 
were used to say ossum, instead of os, to distinguish 
a mouth from a bone in Africa, to comply with the 
understandings'*' of their hearers. For what ad- 
vantage is there in purity of speech, when the hearer 
understands it not, seeing there is no occasion at all 
of speaking, if they, for whose sake we speak to be 
understood, apprehend not what we say ? And for 
this reason, I doubt not, there are so many African- 
isms, or idioms of the African tongue, in St. Austin, 
because he thought it more commendable sometimes 
to deviate a little from the strict gi-ammatical purity 
and propriety of the Latin tongue, than not be un- 
derstood by his hearers. This was a laudable con- 
descension in every respect, and much valued by the 
ancients, who thought it the first office of a preacher, 
to speak always to the capacity and understanding 
of his hearers. It is this which Nazianzen '*' so 
highly commends in Athanasius, that he tempered 
his style according to the difference of his auditory ; 
he condescended to speak to mean capacities in a 
lower w^ay, whilst to the acute, his words and no- 
tions were more sublime. And there was but one 
case in which they affected to speak any thing dark- 
ly and obscurely, and that was when they preached 
in a mixed auditory, w^here the catechumens were 
present, from whom they purposely intended to con- 

ceal the profounder knowledge of some of the Chris- 
tian mysteries for a time, and therefore they usually 
spake of them in a covert way, with an iaamv oi fit- 
fivTiixEvoi, The initiated know what we mean, as 
being well understood by them, though they spake 
only by hints and dark terms upon the account of 
the catechumens : of the reasons of which discipline 
and practice, I have spoken largely heretofore,''*^ 
and therefore need say no more of it in this place. 
The next thing which St. Austin commends in 
his Christian Orator, is, that he labours to be heard 
with pleasure. Ut mtcllu/cnter, tit Uhcnter. For 
though a plain declaration of truth may satisfy those 
who regard nothing but truth ; yet the greater part 
of men love sweetness and ornament of speech : 
and therefore, if it be unpleasant, the benefit of it 
will reach but very few, who are desirous to hear 
what they ought to learn, though it be in a mean 
and uncomely "" dress : but the generality of men 
are not pleased with this : some similitude be- 
tween eating and speaking : and therefore, because 
weak stomachs cannot relish their most necessary 
food, without which they cannot live, their food is 
to be seasoned to make it pleasant for them. Upon 
this account he commends the saying of an ancient 
orator, who said truly. That an orator '" ought so 
to speak, as not only to teach and instruct, but also 
to delight and move. And some hearers are to be 
induced to hear by the pleasure of a discourse, which 
arises from the sweetness, and beauties, and orna- 
ments of it. St. Chrysostom inculcates the same 
rule, in describing the office of a bishop, whose 
task, he says, was something the more difficult upon 
this account,'*' because men had generally nice and 
delicate palates, and were inclined to hear sermons 
as they heard plays, rather for pleasure than profit : 
which added to the preacher's study and labour ; 
who, though he was to contemn both popular ap- 
plause and censure, yet was he also to have such a 
regard to his auditory, as that they might hear him 
with pleasure, to their edification and advantage. It 
was not required, indeed, that every preacher should 
speak with the smoothness of Isocrates, or the lofti- 
ness of Demosthenes, or the majesty of Thucydides, 
or the sublimity of Plato, as the same St., Chrysos- 
tom'"" words it. Lower degrees of eloquence, says 
St. Austin, would please a Christian auditory, pro- 
vided he had a decent regard to the common rules 
of eloquence, to say noihrngohtiise, deforiniter, frigule, 
nothing that was blunt, nothing that was indecent 

iw Aiit;. de Doctrina Christ, lib. 4. cap. 9. 

"' Ibid. cap. 10. Cur pietatis doctorom pigeat impcritis 
loqueiitein ossum potius quain os dicere, &c. 

'»' Naz. Orat. 21. de Laud. Athan. p. 396. 

"*^ Book X. chap. 5. 

1S6 Aug. de Doctrin. Christ, lib. 4. cap. 11. Si fiat insiia- 
viter, ad paucos qiiidem studiosissimos suus pervenit t'ruc- 
tus, qui ea qua; discenda sunt, quamvis atijecte incultoque 
dicantur, scire desiderar.t. Sed quoniatn inter se habeiit 

nonnullam siniilitudinem vescentes atque dicentes, propter 
t'astidia plurimorum etiam ipsa sine quibus vivi non potest, 
alimenta condieiida sunt. 

'" Aug. ibid. cap. 12. Dixit ergo quidam eloquens, et 
venun dixit, ita dicere debere cloquenteui, ut duceat, ut dc- 
Icctet, ut flectat. — Ut teuealur ad audiendum, delectandus 
est auditor : et delectatur, si suaviter loquaris. 

1"^ Chrys. de Sacerdotio, lib. 5. cap. 1. 

'*'^ Chrys. ibid. lib. 4. cap. G. 

Chap. IV. 



or unbecoming, nothing that was cold or languid ; 
but every thing acute, ornate, rchementer, with sharp- 
ness, and handsomeness, and force : which are St. 
Austin's rules in this very case."** Or if men could 
not attain to this perfection of exotic eloquence, 
yet there was a manly and majestic eloquence, an 
art of speaking wisely, which no one could fail of, 
that would diligently study the Holy Scriptures. 
For there the subject is not only great and Divine, 
but the diction also eloquent and beautiful, as St. 
Austin shows in several instances out of the apos- 
tles and prophets ; '" the style not glittering with 
sallies, and flashes of juvenile wit, (which would not 
become a manly eloquence,) but altogether agree- 
able to the dignity and authority of the persons 
who were the inspired authors of it ; who spake 
with an eloquence becoming both themselves and 
their subjects ; such as is no ways inferior to the 
eloquence manj' times of the greatest masters and 
pretenders to it, and for its wisdom (which is the 
most true divine eloquence) far exceeds them. 
They therefore who were well versed both in the 
phrase and sense of the Scriptures, and knew how 
to make a proper use and application of them, could 
never want true eloquence to recommend their dis- 
courses with pleasure to their hearers. And, in- 
deed, the very custom of applauding the preachers 
pubUcly in the church (of which more by and by) 
is a certain evidence that they were commonly 
heard with pleasure. 

The last thing which St. Austin commends in 
the Christian orator, is, that he endeavours to be 
heard obedienter ; that is, speaks to the conviction 
and persuasion of his hearers ; convincing their 
judgments by sound and solid reasonings ; and 
raising the affections, and drawing them into com- 
pliance, by such motives, and methods, and ad- 
dresses, as are proper to work upon the several 
passions of human nature, and bend and subdue 
the will, and lead it captive into the obedience of 
faith. When the sacred orator has done this, he is 
at his utmost height : then he leads his hearers, as 
it were, willingly in triumph, having gained a com- 
plete and pleasing victory over them. For, as St. 
Austin again observes, till men are wrought into 
compliance and obedience by the orator, they are 
not properly conquered by him. For they may be 
taught '°- and pleased, and yet jneld no comi:)liance 
or practical assent ; witliout which, the two former 
are of no advantage : but when his oratory has 
gained their wills, it has then subdued all opposition, 
and gotten a complete victory. Now, this is done, 

as St. Austin there goes on to intimate, when the 
orator can bring men to love what he promises, to 
fear what he threatens, to hate what he rebukes, to 
embrace what he commends, to sorrow for what 
he aggravates as sorrowful, to rejoice at what he 
amplifies as matter of rejoicing, to commiserate 
those whom he represents before their eyes as ob- 
jects of compassion, to avoid and fly from those 
whom he brands and stigmatizes as dangerous per- 
sons, and gives them terrible apprehensions of, as 
men with whom it is not safe to converse ; and 
whatever else may be done by force of gi'and 
eloquence, to move the minds of the hearers, not to 
know what they are to do, but to do what they 
already know to be their duty to do. This he 
calls by the name of c/ramUs eloquentia, ct gravis,^^ 
grand and grave eloquence ; and opposes it to what 
he calls spumeus verborum ambitus, that light and 
frothy sort of eloquence, which consists only in a 
jingling multiplicity of words, which does not be- 
come any subject, much less the gravity of a Chris- 
tian discourse upon the weightiest and most serious 
of all subjects, where nothing is said but what is 
great, as having no regard to the affairs of this 
temporal life, but to the things of eternal happi- 
ness and eternal misery. For, if a Christian orator 
speaks of temporal things, though they be small in 
themselves, yet they are great in his way of hand- 
ling them ; because he treats of them with respect 
to justice, and charity, and piety in the use of 
them, which are great things in the smallest mat- 
ters. As when the apostle speaks of going to law 
for pecuniary matters, 1 Cor. vi. I, &c., he uses all 
the force of grand eloquence, raising his indignation 
correcting, upbraiding, rebuking, threatening, and 
showing the concern of his soul by sharpening his 
style into the utmost keenness and quickness of ex- 
pression ; not because secular affairs deserved all 
this, but for the sake of justice, charitj'', and piety, 
that were so deeply concerned in them. Thus he 
observes again,"" That a cup of cold Avater is but a 
small thing in itself, but it was great in our Lord's 
mouth, when he said. He that gives it to a disciple, 
shall not lose his reward. He adds. That he him- 
self once spake so movingly and affectionately, by 
the help of God, upon that subject to the people, 
that out of that cold water there arose a flame, 
which warmed the cold hearts of men, and inflamed 
them to do Avorks of mercy in hopes of a heavenly 
reward. But he observes further, That although a 
preacher upon this account ought never to speak 
but of great things, yet he is not always obliged to 

'^ Aug. de Doct. Christ, lib. 4. cap. 5. Cum alii faciant 
obtuse, deformiter, frigide; alii acute, ornate, vehementer; 
ilium ad hoc opus jam oportet acccdere, qui potest, dispu- 

tare vel dicere sapieuter, etiamsi non potest eloqucuter 

Sapientcr autem dicit homo tanto ma^^is vel miuus, quunto 
in Scripturis Sauctis magis minusve profecit. 

«" Ibid. cap. 6 et 7. 

'"■- Ibid. cap. 12. Ideo" autem victorioe est flcctere, quia 
fieri potest ut doceatur, ct delectetur, et non assentiatur. 
Quid autem ilia duo prodcrint, si dcsit hoc tertiuui ? 

1™ Ibid. cap. 1.3 ct ] 1. 

'»' Ibid. cap. IS. 



Book XIV. 

to this gramUter, in the way of vehement and grand 
eloquence, or the elated and lofty style ; but when 
he speaks only to inform the judgment,'"^ the sub- 
miss or low style is to be used, as more proper for 
doctrinal instruction ; and the temperate or middle 
style, when he speaks to praise or dispraise ; but 
when any thing is to be done, and they to whom he 
speaks are u'lwdlllng to do it when they ought to 
do it, then those things which are great in them- 
selves, are to be spoken granditer, in a grand and 
vehement style, or in such a way as is proper to in- 
cline and bend the wills of the hearers. And some- 
times every one of these three ways is used about 
the same subject ; the submiss style, when any 
doctrine is delivered about it ; the temperate style, 
when any commendation is to be given to it ; and 
the grand style, when the mind that is averse from 
its duty, is to be converted and forcibly induced to 
practise it. Thus ; if a man is discoursing concern- 
ing God; to show the unity of the Trinity, he 
ought only to reason in the submiss and plain way, 
that what is difficult to be conceived, may be un- 
derstood, as far as men are capable of understanding 
it. Here is no ornament required, but only plain 
documents and instruction. But when God is to be 
praised, either in himself or his works, then there 
is a fair occasion for beautiful and splendid oratory, 
to extol him whom no man can sufficiently praise. 
And, again, if his worship be neglected, or other 
things be taken in to rival him in his worship, 
whether they be idols, or devils, or any other crea- 
ture, then the evil of the practice is to be aggra- 
vated with all the grandeur and vehemence of 
oratory, to dissuade and turn men from it. And he 
gives us several instances of all the three kinds, 
both out of Scripture and the ancient writers, 
Cyprian and Ambrose, assuring us in the end, That 
what he had said of those two, might be found in 
the writings and discourses of other ecclesiastical 
men,""' who treated always of weighty subjects in a 
proper manner, that is, as the matter required, with 
perspicuity and acuteness, with ornament and beauty, 
with ardency and grandeur in their applications. 
So that if we will take St. Austin's character of 
the ancient preachers, it was, in short, this ; That 
their discourses were always upon weighty and hea- 
venly matters, and their style answerable to the 
subject, that is, plain, elegant, majestic, and nervous ; 
fitly adapted to instruct, to delight and charm, and 
to convince and persuade their hearers. And if 

their method was different from ours, or not so ex- 
act, and visible to the hearers, that must be imputed 
to custom and the times they lived in ; for every 
age has its peculiarities and proper taste of things ; 
and though I believe the modern way of methodiz- 
ing sermons to be most useful to the hearers, yet if 
the question were to be determined by the rules and 
practice of the most famous orators, whether an 
open or a concealed method were fittest to be chosen, 
the judgment and decision would fall upon the side 
of the ancients. However, if they failed in this, 
they made it up in other excellencies, by their per- 
spicuity and clearness, their elegancy and fineness, 
their sublimity of thought and expression, and above 
all, by the flaming piety of their lives, corresponding 
to their doctrine, and giving the greatest force and 
energy to all their discourses. For, as St. Austin 
truly observes in the last place,''' The life of the 
preacher has more weight in it, than the greatest 
grandeur and force of eloquence, to induce his hear- 
ers to obedience ; for he that preaches wisely and 
eloquently, but lives wickedly, may edify some who 
are desirous to learn and observe the commands of 
Christ ; as many will learn from the scribes and the 
Pharisees, who sit in Moses's chair, and say, and 
do not ; but he that Uves as he speaks, will advan- 
tage abundance more. For men are very apt to ask 
this question, Quod niihi 2})'(scijns, cur ipse non facts? 
Why dost not thou do that which thou commandest 
me to do ? and so it comes to pass, that they will 
not obediently hear him, who does not hear himself, 
but contemn both the word of God and the preacher 
together. But he whose life is unblamable, his 
very example is grand oratory, and his form of liv- 
ing an eloquent discom'se, coj^ia diccndi forma viven- 
di.^^^ And by these methods, what by their oratory, 
what by their example, the ancients gained so much 
upon their hearers, as often to receive their public 
acclamations, and hear their groanings, and see 
their tears, and, what was most delightful of all, 
found the happy effects of their labour in their holy 
obedience and sincere conversion. But of these, more 
presently, when we come to the hearers, having made 
two or three remarks more concerning the preachers. 

And among these, I must observe 
one thing .negatively, that it was no That^'^it was no 

. » . 1 . , . . . part of tlie ancient 

part or the ancient oratory to raise oratory to move tiie 

~, . /• T • 1 -1 passions by geslicu- 

the affections oi their hearers, either 'ations and vain 

images of tilings. 

by gesticulations, or the use of exter- 
nal shows and representations of things in their 

"•^Aiig. de Doct. Christ, lib. 4. cap. ]9. Et tamon cum 
doctor iste debeat reriim dictor esse magnarum, non semper 
eas debet granditer diccre; sed subraisse, cum aliciuid do- 
cetur; temperate, cum aliquid vituperatur sive laudatur. 
Cum vero aliquid agendum est, et ad eos loquitur, qui hoc 
agere debent, nee tamen voliuit, tunc ca quae magna sunt, 
dicenda sunt granditer, et ad flecteudos animos congruenter. 

'™ Ibid. cap. '21. In his autem, quos duos ex omnibus 

proponere volui, et in aliis ecclesiasticis viris, et bona et 
bene, id est sicut res postulat, acute, ornate, ardcnterque 
dicentibus, per multa eorum scripta vel dicta possunt hajc 
tria genera reperiri, et assidna lectione vel anditione, ad- 
mixta etiam exercitatione, studentibus inolescere. 

'" Ibid. cap. 27. Habet autem ut obedienter audiatur 
qnantacunque granditate dictionis majus pondus vita dicen- 
tis, &c. 'M Ibid. cap. 29. 

Chap. IV. 



sermons, as is now very common in the Romish 
church, especially when they preach upon our 
Saviour's passion, to produce a cross, and the image 
of Christ bound to a pillar, and whip it to death, 
and show the nails, and tear a veil, and many 
other the like things to create sorrow in their hear- 
ers. Ferrarius "^ owns there was no such practice 
among the ancients, and confesses, that except 
it be done very appositely and prudently, it is 
more apt to excite laughter than sorrow. And 
which of the two it oftener produces, is easy to guess, 
as well from the nature of the thing, as the com- 
plaints of wise men against it. What Ferrarius 
produces out of Chrysostom,-"" bidding the people 
take St. John Baptist's head into their hands, and 
carry it home with them, and hear it speak, is no- 
thing to the purpose ; for this is only a rhetorical 
scheme, made up of two usual figures among ora- 
tors, an hypotyposis and prosopopoeia, that is, a lively 
description of a thing, and an introduction of a per- 
son speaking ; which are figures that have a mighty 
influence upon the mind to raise in it a just con- 
cern, but are no precedents for such practices as 
rather incline men to ridicule and laughter, of which 
there is no footstep in the ancient oratory of the 

Next to the matter and style of their 
Of the'ien?th of scmions, tlic oucstion may be asked 

their sermons. . ^ •' 

concerning the length of them. Fer- 
rarius-"' and some others are very positive, that 
they were generally an hour long: but Ferrarius is 
at a loss to tell by what instrument they measured 
their hour; for he will not venture to afliirm, that 
they preached as the old Greek and Roman orators 
declaimed, by an hour glass ; which yet he might 
have said with as much truth, as that all their ser- 
mons were an hour long, from no better proof, than 
their mentioning sometimes the hour of preaching, 
which signifies no more than the time in general, as, 
" the hour of temptation," and " the hour cometh," and 
" my hour is not yet come," are often used in Scrip- 
ture. It is a more just and pertinent observation 
of Bishop Wettenhal's,^"- That their sermons were 
often very short : there are many in St. Austin's 
tenth tome, which a man may pronounce distinctly 
and deliver decently in eight minutes, and some 
almost in half the time : and such are many of 
those of Leo, Chrysologus, Maximus, Csesarius Are- 
latensis, and other Latin fathers. Some of St. Aus- 
tin's are much longer, and so are the greater part of 

Chrysostom's, Nazianzen's, Nyssen's, and Basil's; 
but scarce any of them, would last an hour, and 
many not half the time : and when it is considered, 
that they had many times two or three sermons at 
once, as I have showed it was very usual in Chry- 
sostom's church, it would be absurd to think, 
that each of them was an hour long, when the 
whole service lasted not above two hours in the 
whole; as Chrysostom""' often declares in his ser- 
mons, making that an argument to the people, why 
they should cheerfully attend Divine service, since 
of seven days in the week God had only reserved 
one to himself, and on that day exacted no more 
than two hours, like the widow's two mites, to be 
spent on his service. 

It may be inquired further. Whe- 
ther all preachers were obliged to de- whethe'r"' every 

, . - . , . mail was obliged to 

liver their own compositions, or were preach iiis own com- 

*■ ^ , position, or the ho- 

at Uberty to use the compositions of mines and sermons 

•' *■ composed by others. 

others ? To this it has been already 
answered in some measure, that the homilies of 
famous preachers, such as Chrysostom and Ephrem 
Cyrus, were often read instead of other sermons 
from the pulpit in many churches. And Mabillon 
says,-°^ those of CsBsarius Arelatensis were read in 
the French churches ; where also deacons were 
authorized by the council of Vaison,-"^ in cases of 
necessity, when the preaching presbyter was dis- 
abled, to read the homilies of the ancient fathers in 
country churches. Neither was this only the prac- 
tice of deacons, but bishops sometimes also did the 
same. For Gennadius says,^" Cyril of Alexandria 
composed many homilies, which the Grecian bishops 
committed to memory, in order to preach them. He 
says the same of Salvian,""' the eloquent presbyter 
of Marseilles, that he wrote many homilies for 
bishops, homiUas episcopis facias vmltas, which Fer- 
rarius ■^'** and Dr. Cave understand, not of homilies 
made before bishops, but for their use : whence he 
is also styled by Gennadius in the same place, epis- 
coporum magister, the teacher or master of bishops, 
because they preached the eloquent homilies which 
he composed. Ferrarius and Sirmondus^"' observe 
the same of some of the dictiones sacrce, or sermons 
of Ennodius, which are said to be written by him, 
and spoken by others : Honoratus, bishop of Nova- 
ria, is named for one. St. Austin more particularly 
considers this question, and makes a case of con- 
science of it. For having laid down all the rules of 
Christian oratory for those who had ability to com- 

I9D Ferrar. de Ritu Concion. lib. 1. cap. 31. 

=«• Chrys. Horn. 14. ad. Pop. Antioch. p. 177. 

2"' Ferrar. de Ritu Concion. lib. 1. cap. 33. 

202 Wettenhal's Gift of Preaching, chap. 2. p. 666. 

2»' Chrys. Horn. Inscript. Allaris, t. 5., p. 648. Horn. 
50. de Util. Lection. Script, ibid. p. 676. Horn. 24. de Bapt. 
Christi, t. 1. p. 309. 

■■'»' Mabil. de Liturg. Gallican. lib. 2. p. 99. 

^* Cone. Vasens. 2. can. 2. 

""^ Gennad. de Scriptor. cap. 57. Homilias etiam coni- 
posuit plurimas, quae ad declamandum Grajcia) episcopis 

-'" Gennad. ibid. cap. 67. 

208 Ferrar. de Ritu Concion. lib. 2. cap. 7. Cave, Hist. 
Litcrar. vol. 1. p. 346. Du Pin, Centur. 5. p. 146. 

-'"' Sirraond. Not. in Enuodiuna. Dictio 2. inissa Honora- 
to in Dedicatioue Basilicsc, &c. 



Book XIV. 

pose, he at last confesses, there were some who, 
though they could speak well, were not able to in- 
vent and compose a handsome discourse of their 
own : and he does not severely condemn them, or 
with a magisterial air debar them from preaching, 
but with a gi'eat deal of tenderness says favourably 
in their case,^'" that if they take that which was 
elegantly and wisely written by others, and commit 
it to memory, and preach it to the people, if they 
are called to that office, they are not to be blamed 
as doing an ill thing. For by this means there are 
many preachers of truth, which is very useful, and 
not many masters, whilst they all speak things of 
the one true Master, and there are no schisms among 
them. Neither ought such men to be deterred by 
the words of the prophet Jeremiah, (chap, xxiii. 30,) 
by whom God rebukes those who steal his words 
every one from his neighbour. For they which steal, 
take away that which they have no right or pro- 
perty in : which cannot be said of those who obey 
the word of God, but rather belongs to those who 
speak well and hve ill. From whence he concludes, 
it is very lawful for a man to preach the composi- 
tion of other more eloquent men, provided he com- 
pose his own life answerable to God's word, and 
earnestly pray to God, that he would make his word 
in his mouth edifying to others. 

I must note also, that they always 

Sect. 23. 1 T 1 1 • 

Tiieir sermons .-U- concludcd theu" scrmous, as we now 

ways concluded with 

hoi''°Trimt'' '° "'* ^°' "^^^^^ ^ doxology to the holy 
Trinity, as may be seen not only in 
the sermons of St. Austin, Chrysostom, Basil, Leo, 
Fulgentius, and others, who lived after Arius broach- 
ed his heresy against the Divinity of our Saviour ; 
but also in those of Origen, and others who lived 
before, such as Dionysius of Alexandria, and the 
rest that are mentioned by St. Basil, who had seen 
their homilies, out of which he wrote a vindication^" 
of that ancient form against some, who pretended 
to charge him with innovation for using a form, 
which, he says, the ancients had always used be- 
fore him. 

There are some other incidental 
Sermons delivered thlngs takcu notice of by Ferrarius, 

by the preacher sit- ° •' ' 

tmg, for the most which are either very minute in them- 

part. .^ 

selves, or are more proper to be spoken 
of in other places ; such as the deacon's causing si- 
lence to be made before sermons ; and the preacher's 

reading his text over again after the readers ; and 
his appointing lessons to be read agreeable to his 
subject ; and giving notice of them the week before 
to the people ; as also the reading of the Acts of 
the Martyrs before sermon upon their proper festi- 
vals ; the giving notice of Easter and Lent on the 
day of Epiphany in their sermons ; the notification 
of vigils, and fasts, and festivals, and appointing 
collections for the poor ; preaching covertly of the 
mysteries of religion before the catechumens ; com- 
plimenting the bishops that were present, in their 
sermons ; the distinction of places for the hearers ; 
the usual appellations of love and respect that were 
given them ; the usual place of the sermon, some 
eminency in the church, the ambo or reading-desk, 
or else the bishop's throne, or the steps of the altar ; 
the usual days of preaching, the Lord's day, the 
Saturday or sabbath, the vigils and festivals, the 
anniversaries of bishops' consecrations, and dedica- 
tion of churches; with some other things of the 
like nature, some of which are so minute, that they 
are scarce worth the reader's notice ; and others, that 
are more material, are accounted for and explained 
in other parts of this work. I shall, therefore, speak 
of one thing more relating to the preachers ; which 
is, of the posture in which their sermons were de- 
livered. The general received custom now is, for 
the preacher to stand, and the people to sit; but 
the ancient custom was usually the reverse of this ; 
for the preacher commonly delivered his sermon 
sitting, and the people heard it standing; though 
there was no certain rule about this, but the custom 
varied in several churches. In Africa the preacher 
commonly sat, as appears from that of Optatus^'^ 
to the Donatist bishops : When God reproves a sin- 
ner, and rebukes him that sits, the admonition is 
specially directed unto you ; for the people have not 
liberty to sit in the church. He says this upon 
occasion of those words of the psalmist, " Thou 
sattest and spakest against thine own mother's 
son." St. Austin, in like manner, speaks of his own 
preaching sitting : Why do I sit here ? Why do I 
live, but with this intention,^" that I may live with 
Christ? And again,"'^ That I may not detain you, 
especially considering that I speak sitting, and ye 
labour standing. And he intimates, that in some 
churches *" sitting was allowed both to the preacher 
and the people. St. Chrysostom also'-'" speaks of 

2'» Aug. de Doctrin. Christ, lib. 4. cap. 29. Sunt sane 
quidara, qui bene pronunciare possunt, quid autem prouun- 
cient excogitare nou possimt. Quod si ab aliis sumunt elo- 
quenter sapienterque conscriptiun, memoi-ioeque commen- 
dent, atque ad populum proferant, si earn personam gerunt, 
non improbe faciunt, &c. 

2" Basil, de Spir. Sancto, cap. 29. 

^'- Optat. lib. 4. p. 78. Dum peccatorem arguit, et se- 
deutem increpat Deus, specialiter ad vos dictum esse con- 
stat, non ad populum, qui in ecclesia sedendi non habent 

='3 Aug. Horn. 28. ox 50. t. 10. p. 179. Qiiare loquor? 
Quave hie, sedeo? Quare vivo, nisi hac iutentione, ut cum 
Christo simul vivamus ? 

-" Horn. 49. de Diversis. Ut ergo vos non diu teneam, 
prassertim quia ego sedens loquor, vos staiulo laboratis. 

^'^ Aug. de Catechizandis Rudibus, cap. 1-3. t. 4. p. 300. 
Longe consultius in quibusdam ecclesiis transmarinis non 
solum antistites sedentes loquuntur, sed ipsi etiam populo 
sodilia subjacent. 

-"^ Chrys. Horn. 1. de Poenit. t. 1. p. GG2. 

Chap. IV. 



his own sitting when he preached. And this he 
did usually in the ambo, or rcachng-desk, where he 
sat when he preached that fomous sermon upon 
Eutropius, when he fled to take sanctuary in the 
church,^" and lay trembling before the altar, as all 
the historians inform us. GregoryNyssen speaksalso 
of himself as sitting when he preached, and rising up 
to prayer'-"* in the conclusion. Which is also noted 
by Justin Martyr,"" and Origen,--'° and Athanasius,"' 
and Chrysostom,^-- whom Ferrarius cites, and remarks 
upon them, That their rising up in the close of the 
sermon to prayer, implies that they preached sitting 
before ; which is certainly a very just observation. 
Yet, after all, he pretends to assert. That standing 
to preach was the more common posture, and that 
they never used sitting but only in case of infirmity 
or old age : which shows us only how far prejudice 
will carry a man, against the clearest evidence, in 
favour of a modern custom. The observation made 
by the author of the Comments upon St. Paul's 
Epistles ^ under the name of St. Ambrose, has 
much more truth and solidity in it, That the Chris- 
tian bishops used to preach sitting, and that this 
custom was taken from the tradition of the syna- 
gogue : where Ferrarius himself owns, and proves 
it to have been the more usual custom for the 
scribes and doctors of the law to expound the 
Scriptures sitting, though there may be some in- 
stances to the contrary. Matt, xxiii. 2, it is said, 
that " the scribes and Pharisees sat in Moses's 
chair." Luke ii. 46, our Saviour was found sitting 
and disputing among the doctors in the temple. 
Again, chap. iv. 20, after he had stood up to read 
the prophet Esaias, he sat down to teach the peo- 
ple. And chap. v. 3, he sat down and taught the 
people out of the ship. John viii. 2, he sat down 
and taught the people in the temple. Matt. v. I, 
he sat and taught his disciples in the mountain. 
And Matt. xxvi. 55, " I sat daily with you teach- 
ing in the temple." This was according to the cus- 
tom of the Jewish synagogue, which was generally 
followed by the Christian church. And the in- 
stances which Ferrarius brings out of St. Chrysos- 
tom's"' and St. Austin's homilies-^ to the contrary. 

are rather exceptions to a general rule, than proper 
evidences for his own assertion. The matter is not 
indeed great in itself, it being a very indifTerent 
tiling, whether a preacher delivers his sermon stand- 
ing or sitting : but when men are representing an- 
cient practices, they ought not to make every thing 
conform to the customs and model of the present 
age, but represent things nakedly as they find them. 
We have hitherto considered what 

Sect. 25. 

relates to the preachers, and a few And heard hy the 

■* . auditors i>taiidine in 

things must be added concerning the ^™!'_^',''''"''"- ''"' 
hearers. Of whom it has been al- 
ready observed in the last paragraph, out of Op- 
tatus and St. Austin, that in the African churches 
the peojde had no licence to sit down, but were 
generally obliged to stand to hear the sermon. Fer- 
rarius'"'' has collected a multitude of testimonies 
more out of St. Austin to the same purpose, which 
it is needless to relate here. But we may observe, 
that the same custom pi'evailed also in many other 
churches. Sidonius Apollinaris speaks of it as 
the usage of the Galilean church, in those lines 
to Faustus, bishop of Riez, where he speaks of his 
preaching from the steps of the altar, the people 
standing about him:"' Scu te cotispicuis gradibus 
venerabilis arce concionaturum 2)lebs sedula circum- 
sistit. Which is further confirmed by a homily, 
that used to go under the name of St. Austin,^^ but 
is now more certainly determined by Mabillon and 
the Benedictines, in their new edition of St. Austin's 
Works, to belong to Ca?sarius, bishop of Aries, where 
he grants an indulgence to such as were diseased 
or infirm in their feet, that they should have liberty 
to sit, when the passions of the martyrs, or long 
lessons, were read, or the sermon was preached : 
but to all others, women as well as men, this privi- 
lege is utterly denied. Which implies, that stand- 
ing was then the usual posture of the hearers in the 
French churches. And that it was usual also in 
some of the Greek churches, may be infen-ed from 
that famous story which Eusebius reports of Con- 
stantine, that when he made a discourse before 
him in his own palace, he stood all the' time^ 
with the rest of the hearers : and when Eusebius 

'•^" Socrut. lib. G. cap. b. Suzora. lib. 8. cap. 5. Cassio- 
dor. Hist. Tripartita, lib. 10. cap. 4. Residens super am- 
bonem, &c. 

2'^ Nyssen. Horn. 5. de Oral. Dominica, t. 1. p. 761. 

2" Justin. Apol. 2. p. 97. 

"^'-0 Orig. Horn. 20. ui Num. Horn. 3. in Esai. Horn. 36. 
in Luc. Horn. 19. in Jerem. 

-'-' Athan. Hom. de Seinente. 

"- Chrys. Hom. coat. Hareticos, ap. Ferrarium, lib. 2. 
cap. 9. 

^■•^ Ambros. Com. in 1 Cor. xiv. 29. Hacc traditio syna- 
gogae est, quam nos vult sectari — ut sedentes disputent se- 
niores dignitate in cathedris, &c. 

-^ Chrys. Hom. 16. ad Pop. Antioch. et Hom. .33. in 

-^ Aug. Ser. 122. de Diversis. Tract. 19. in Joan, et Ser. 

2. in Psalm, xx.xii. ap. Ferrar. lib. 2. cap. 9. 

'-6 Ferrar. lib. 2. cap. 15. ex Aug. Tract. 19 et 112. in 
Joan. Hom. 28. ex 50. Ser. 49 et 122. de Diversis. Ser. 2. 
in Psal. xxxii. et cxlvii. Ser. 20. de 'Verb. Domini, &c. 

2^' Sidon. Carmen 16. ad Faustuni lleiensem. 

--■* Aug. Ser. 26. ex 50. qui est 300 novae editionis. Prop- 
ter eos qui aut pedibus dolent, aut aliqua corporis inoe- 
qualitate laborant, paterna pietate solicitus consilium dedi, 
et quodam mndo supplicavi, ut quando aut passionos pro- 
lixae. aut certe aliquic lectiones longiores leguntur. qui stare 
non possunt, humiliter et cum silcntio sedentes, attentis 
auribus audiant quae leguntur, &c. Ut quando aut lectiones 
lei^untur, aut vorbum Dei proedicatur. nulla (fu?mina) se in 
terram projiciat, nisi forte quam niniium gravis iutirmitas 

''^ Euscb. de Vit. Constant, lib. 4. cap. 33. 



Book XIV. 

requested him to sit down in the throne that was 
prepared for him, he refused, saying, It was fit that 
men should stand to hear discourses of Divine 
things. But in the churches of Italy the contrary 
custom prevailed : for St. Austin says, in the trans- 
marine churches (by which he certainly means 
those of Italy) it was prudently ordered, that not 
only the bishops sat when they preached to the 
people, but that the people also had seats to sit 
upon, lest any weak person through weariness grow 
remiss in his attention,^-*" or be forced to leave the 
assembly. And he thinks it more advisable, that 
the same indulgence should be granted, where it 
could prudently be done, in African churches. That 
it was so in Rome in the time of Justin Martyr, 
seems pretty plain from his Second Apology, where 
he says,-" That as soon as the bishop's sermon was 
ended, they all rose up to prayer together. And 
the same thing being noted by Origen"^" and Atha- 
nasius,^ makes it probable, that the same custom 
prevailed in many of the Eastern churches. Cyril 
of Jerusalem says expressly,^* that the people heard 
his discourses sitting. Consider, says he, how many 
sit here now, how many souls are present; and yet 
the Spirit works conveniently in them all. He is in 
the midst of us, and sees our behaviour, and discerns 
our hearts and consciences, and what we speak, 
and what we think. And the author of the Con- 
stitutions,"'^ who chiefly relates the customs of the 
Eastern churches, represents the people as sitting 
also to hear the sermon. And so Cassian^'" and 
St. Jerom^' say it was in all the monasteries of 
Egypt, where they sat not only at sermon, but at 
the reading of the Psalms and other lessons out of 
Scripture. So that this must be reckoned among 
those indifferent rites and customs, about which 
there was no general rule of the universal church ; 
but every one followed the custom of the place 
where he lived, and every church appointed what she 
judged most proper for the edification of the people. 
It was a peculiar custom in the 
A peculiar' cus- African church, when the preacher 

torn of the African 

churcti to quicken chauccd to citc somc remarkable text 

t he attention of the 

hearers. ^f Scripturc in the middle of his ser- 

mon, for the people to join with him in repeating 
the close of it. St. Austin takes notice of this in 
one of his sermons,^' where having begun those 

«o All", de Catechiz. Rudibus, cap. 13. Sine dubitatione 
melius fiat, ubi decenter fieri potest, ut a principio sedens 
audiat. Loncrequo consultius in quibusdam ecclesiis trans- 
mavinis ncm solum autistites sedentcs loquuntur, sed ipsi 
etiam populo sedilia subjacent, &c. 

-31 Justin. Apol. 2. p. 98. 

232 Orig. Horn. 3. in Esai. Hmn. 19. in .lerem. 

233 Athan. Horn, dc Scniente. 

234 Cyril. Catech. IG. n. 11. AoyiaaL ttoo-ol KnOi'^fodE 
vvv, K.T.X. "■'' Constit. lib. 2. cap. 58. 

236 Cassian. Instit. lib. 2. cap. 12. 

23' Hieron. Ep. 22. ad Eustoch. cap. 15. Completis ora- 

words of St. Paul, " The end of the commandment 
is " — before he would proceed any further, he called 
to the people to repeat the remainder of the verse 
with him ; upon which they all cried out immedi- 
ately, " Charity out of a pure heart." By which, 
he says, they showed that they had not been un- 
profitable hearers. And this, no doubt, was done 
to encourage the people to hear, and read, and re- 
member the Scriptures, that they might be able up- 
on occasion to repeat such useful portions of them,, 
having then liberty not only to hear, but to read 
and repeat them in their mother-tongue. Whether 
this was a custom in any other place, I cannot say; 
having met with it only in St. Austin : for which 
reason I have spoken of it only as a particular cus- 
tom of the African church, designed to quicken the 
attention of the hearers, and show that they read 
and remembered the Holy Scriptures. 

It was a much more general custom sect. 27. 

, How the people were 

for the people to testify their esteem "sed to give puwic 

r r J applauses and ac- 

for the preacher, and express their '^'*™'',,"°"^ [^^ "'^ 
admiration of his eloquence, or appro- '^''"■■'=''- 
bation of his doctrine, by public applauses and ac- 
clamations in the church. This was done sometimes 
in express words, and sometimes by other signs and 
indications of their consent and approbation. The 
Greeks commonly call it icporoe, which denotes both 
kinds of approbation, as well by clapping of hands, as 
by vocal and verbal acclamations. The first use of it, 
as Suicerus^' observes out of Casaubon,'"'wasonlyin 
the theatres. From thence it came into the senate ; 
and in process of time, into the acts of the councils, 
and the ordinary assemblies of the church. We 
are not concerned at present to inquire after synod- 
ical acclamations, but only such as were used toward 
the preachers in the church. This was sometimes 
done in words of commendation, as we find in one 
of the homilies of Paulus Emisenus,-" spoken in the 
presence of Cyril at Alexandria, where, when Paul 
had used this expression, agreeing with Cyril's doc- 
trine that had been preached before, Mary, the 
mother of God, brought forth Emanuel ; the people 
immediately cried out, O orthodox Cyril, the gift of 
God, the faith is the same, this is what we desirad 
to hear, if any man speak otherwise, let him be 
anathema. Sometimes they added other indications 
of their applause, as clapping of their hands, &c. 

tionibus, cunclisque residentibus, medius, quern Patrem vo- 
cant, incipit disputare, &c. 

23'< Aug. 36. ex editis a Sirmondo, t. 10. p. 837. Finis 
priEcepti est, (Jam vos dicite mecum : A populo acclama- 
tum est) Caritas de corde pure. Omnes dixistis, quod non 
infructuose semper audistis. Vid. Sen 13. de Verbis Dom. 
Ser. 2. de Verb. Apost. 

23" Suicer. Thesaur. Eccles. voce YipoToi, vol. 2. p. 173. 

2*" Casaub. Notis in Vulcatium Gallicau. Vit. Avidii 
Cassii, p. 89. 

2" Paul. Emisen. Horn, de Incarnat. Cone. t. 3. p. 109G. 
in Actis Concilii Ephes. par. 3. cap. 31. 

Chap. IV. 



Thus St. Jerom tells Vigilantius, The time was"" 
when he himself had applauded him with his hands 
and feet, leaping by his side, and crying out, Ortho- 
dox, for his sermon upon the resurrection. And so 
George of Alexandria tells us,**^ The people applaud- 
ed the sermons of St. Chrysostom, some by tossing 
their thin garments, others moving their plumes, 
others laying their hands upon their swords, and 
others waving their handkerchiefs, and crying out, 
Thou art worthy of the priesthood, thou art the 
thirteenth apostle, Christ hath sent thee to save 
our souls, &c. In like manner, Gregory represents 
in his Dream,^" how the people were used to applaud 
him when he preached, some by their praises, and 
others by their silent admiration; some in their 
words, and some in their minds, and others moving 
their bodies as the waves of the sea raised by the 
wind. St. Jerom refers to this, when he tells us,"" 
how Gregory Nazianzen, his master, once answered 
a difficult question, which he put to him concerning 
the sabbation, ttvTtp6irp<j>Tov, the second Sunday after 
the first, mentioned Luke vi. I will inform you, 
says he, of this matter in the church, where, when 
all the people are apiplauding me, you shall be forced 
to confess, you understand what you do not ; or if 
you alone be silent, you shall be condemned of folly 
by all the rest. The same custom is often hinted 
by Sidonius ApolUnaris,"" and Isidore of Pelusium,^" 
and in abundance of places of St. Austin "^^ and St. 
Chrysostom, cited at length by Ferrarius,"" which, 
after what has been said, I think it needless to re- 
cite in this place. The curious reader may either 
consult Ferrarius, or the passages referred to in their 
authors. To which he may add many other pas- 
sages of Chrysostom,^ and Socrates,^' and Pros- 
per,^^ not mentioned by that diligent writer, tjiough 
he spends four whole chapters upon this subject. 

I think it more material to observe 

BuC more Chris- OUt of tllC cllicf of tllOSC paSSa^eS, 
tia.llike, express '^ ° 

their- approbation by that thougli the aucicnts did uot ut- 

-*- Hieron. Ep. 75. cont. Vigilant. Recordare quaeso illius 
diei, quando, me de resurvectioiie et verilate corporis praedi- 
cante, es latere subsultabas, et plaudebas manu, et applode- 
bas pede, et orthodoxum conclamabas. 

-^ Georg. Alex. Vit. Chrys. ap. Ferrar. de Ritu Con- 
cionum, lib. 2. cap. 20. 

-^^ Naz. Somnium de Temple Anastasiae, t. 2. p. 78. 

^* Hieron. Ep. 2. ad Nepot. Praeceptor quondam mens 
Gregorius Nazianzemis rogatiis a me, ut exponeret, quid 
sibi vellet in Luca sabbatum Cf-vr^poTrpuiTov, elegauter 
lusit, Docebo te, inquiens, super bac re in ecclesia; in qua, 
mihi omni populo acclamante, cogeris invitus scire quod 
nescis ; aut certe, si solus tacueris, solus ab omnibus stul- 
titias condemnaberis. 

=« Sidon. lib. 9. Ep. 3. =" Isid. lib. .3. Ep. 34.3 et 382. 

'^*^ Aug. Serm. 5. de Verb. Domini. Serm. 19 et 28. de 
Verb. Apostoli. Serm. 25. ex Quinquaginta. Serm. 45. de 
Tempore. Tract. 57. in Joan. Serm. 27. de Diversis. Serm. 
in Psal. cxlvii. De Catechiz. Kudibiis, cap.l3. De Doctr. 
Christ, lib. 4. cap. 26. 

terly refuse or disallow those sorts of tea™ and (rmans, 
applauses, but received them \^^th auJ obedience, 
humility and thankfulness to God, as good indica- 
tions of a towardly disposition in their hearers ; yet, 
forasmuch as they were often but fallacious signs, 
they neither much commended those that gave 
them, nor those preachers that barely by their elo- 
quence obtained them ; much less those that, out of 
a worldly spirit, and a popular and vain ambition, 
laboured at nothing else but to court and affect 
them: but what they chiefly desired to effect by 
their gi-and eloquence, was to warm their hearts, 
and melt them into tears ; to work them into groans, 
and sorrow, and compunction for sin ; to bring them 
to resolutions of obedience, and compliance with 
the holy rules they preached to them ; to work in 
them a contempt of earthly things, and raise their 
souls, by all the arts of moving the affections, to a 
longing desire and aspiration after the things of 
another world. This was their gi-and aim in all 
their elaborate, and all their free and fluent dis- 
courses, and this they valued far above all the popu- 
lar applauses that could be given them. This they 
reckoned their grand eloquence, and rejoiced in 
nothing more, than when they could triumph in the 
conviction and conversion of their hearers. To this 
purpose, St. Jerom,^ in his directions to Nepotian, 
lays it down as a rule, That, in preaching, he should 
labour to excite the groans of the people, rather 
than their applauses ; and let the tears of the hear- 
ers be the commendation of the preacher. And so 
he observes =^^ it was in fact among the fathers of 
Egypt ; when they discoursed of the kingdom of 
Christ and the glories of the world to come, then 
one might behold every one, with a gentle sigh, and 
eyes lift up to heaven, say within himself, " Oh that 
I had wings like a dove, for then I would flee away, 
and be at rest !" In like manner. Prosper^ bids the 
preacher, not place his confidence in the splendour 
of his words, but in the power of their operation ; 

2« Chrj's. Horn. I, 4, et 54. in Genes. Horn. 2, 5, G. ad 
Pop. Ant. Hom. 2. in Lazar. Horn. 2. in Joan. Horn. 3et 
5. De Incomprehensib. Hom. 30. in Act. ap. Ferrar. lib. 
2. cap. 18. 

2^» Chrys. Hom. 1. De Verbis Esai. t. 3. p. 910. Hom. G. 
in Gen. p. 918. Hom. 27. in Gen. p. 358. Horn. ]. cont. Ju- 
daeos, t. 1. p. 4.3.3. Hom. ]6. in illud, Si esurierit inimicus, 
t. 5. p. 220. Hom. 56. Quod nou sit desperandiim, t. 5. 
p. 742. 

-^' Socrat. lib. 7. cap. 13. 

'■"■- Prosper, de Vita Contemplativa, lib. I. cap. 23. 

-^' Hieron. Ep. 2. ad Nepotian. Docenle te in ecclesia, 
non clamor populi, sed gemitus suscitetur; lachrynuf audi- 
torum laudes tuae sint. 

-^' Ep. 22. ad Eustoch. cap. 15. 

2o5 Prosper, de Vita Contemplativa, lib. 1. cap. 23. Non 
in verborum splendore, sed in operum virtute totam praedi- 
candi fiduciam ponat ; non vocibus delectetur populi accla- 
mantis sibi, sed fletibus : nee plausum a populo studeat 
expectare, sed gemitum. 


Book XIV. 

nor be delighted with the acclamations of the 
people, but their tears; nor study to obtain their 
applauses, but their groans. St. Austin did not 
refuse these acclamations of the people, yet he al- 
ways takes care to remind them rather to repay 
him with the fruit of their lives and actions. You 
praise the preacher^^ of the word, says he, but I 
desire the doer of it. Those praises ^' are but the 
leaves of the tree, I desire the fruit of it. I would 
not be praised by ill livers,^^ I abhor it, I detest 
it; it is a grief to me, and not a pleasure. But 
if I sav, I would not be praised by good livers, 
I should tell a lie; if I should say, I desire it, 
I am afraid of seeming desirous more of vanity 
than solidity. Therefore what shall I say ? I 
neither perfectly desire it, nor perfectly refuse it. 
I do not desire it absolutely, for fear I should be 
insnared by human praise ; I do not utterly refuse 
it, for fear I should be ungrateful to those to whom 
I preach. In his book of Christian Doctrine,^" 
where he speaks of that sort of ecclesiastical 
rhetoric, which is called grand eloquence, he says, 
A man should not think he had attained to it be- 
cause he frequently received the loud acclamations 
of the people ; for those were often gained by the 
acumen and ornaments of the submiss and moderate 
style ; and the grand eloquence did often suppress 
those acclamations by its weight, and extort tears 
in their room. He gives there a remarkable instance 
of his own preaching once an occasional sermon 
with such effect to the people of Caesarea in Mauri- 
tania. It seems, in that place a very barbarous and 
unnatural custom had for a long time prevailed, 
that at a certain season of the year, for some whole 
days together, the whole city, dividing themselves 
into two parties, were used to maintain a bloody 
fight by throvvdng stones at one another, and this 
without any regard to kindred or relation ; for 
sometimes a man slew his brother, or a father his 
son, or a son his father. Now, says St. Austin, 
I set myself with all the force of grand eloquence to 
root out and expel this cruel and inveterate evil 
out of their hearts and practice ; yet I did not take 
myself to have made any impression to purpose 
upon them, whilst I heard their acclamations, but 
when I saw their tears. For they showed indeed 
by their acclamations that they were instructed 
and pleased; but by their tears, that they w^re 
sensibly alTccted, and really converted. Which 
when I perceived, I then began to think I had got 
the victory over that barbarous custom, which had 
so long, by tradition from their ancestors, possessed 

^^ Aug. Serm. 19. de Verbis Apostoli. Tu laudas tiac- 
tantein : ego quaero faciontem. 

M7 Serm. 5. de Verbis Domini. Laudes ist;e folia sunt 
arborum, fructus quaeritur. 

■i58 Jiom. 25. e.\ 50. Laudari a male viventibiis nolo, ab- 
horreo, detcstor, dolori mihi est, noii voiuptati, &c. 

their souls ; before I saw any more visible proof in 
their actions. Whereupon, as soon as sermon was 
ended, I turned both their mouths and hearts to 
give God thanks for it. And so, by the help of 
Christ, there are now almost eight years passed 
since any thing of this kind was ever attempted 
among them. He adds. That he had made many 
other experiments of the like nature, by which he 
had learned, that men ordinarily showed what 
impressions the force of wise and powerful rhetoric 
made upon them, not so much by their acclamations 
as by their groans, and sometimes by their tears, 
and finally by their real change of life and sincere 
conversion. So that, in the judgment of this pious 
father, the best praise of a sermon, and its rhetoric, 
is the compunction of its hearers, and melting them 
into tears, and subduing their minds by bending 
them to obedience, which far exceeds the honour of 
the greatest acclamations and applauses. After 
the same manner the great orator of the East, St. 
Chrysostom, often tells his hearers, he rejoiced 
not in their applauses, but in the effects which 
his discourses had on their minds, in making them 
become new men. He says, in one place,-* they 
had made him happy in receiving his discourses 
about prayer with a ready mind ; for happy is 
the man that speaks to an obedient ear. And he 
judged of their obedience, not so much from their 
acclamations and praises, as from what he had 
observed in their actions. For when he had used 
this argument, why they should not pray against 
their enemies, because it was a provocation of 
God, and setting up a new law in opposition to 
his law ; (for God says, " Pray for your enemies ;" 
but they that pray against them do in effect pray 
God to disannul his own law ;) he says, upon his 
mentioning this and the like arguments, he had 
observed many of them to smite upon their face and 
breast, and mourn bitterly, and lift up their hands 
to heaven, and ask God pardon for such unlawful 
prayers. Which made him at the same time lift up 
his own eyes to heaven, and give God thanks, that the 
word of his doctrine had so quickly produced fruit 
in them. In another place,^" says he. What do your 
praises advantage me, when I see not your progress 
in virtue ? Or what harm shall I receive from the 
silence of my auditors, when I behold the increase 
of their piety ? The praise of the speaker is not 
the (fporoe, the acclamations of his hearers, but their 
zeal fbr piety and rehgion ; not their making a 
great stir in time of hearing, but showing diligence 
at all other times. Applause, as soon as it is out 

"^5 De Doctrina Christ, lib. 4. cap. 24. Non sane, si di- 
centi crebrius et vehementius acclametur, ideo granditer 
putandus est dicere: grande autem genus plerumque pon- 
dcre suo voces premit, sed lachrymas exprimit. 

^n" Chr3s. 56. Quod non sit desperanduni, t. 5. p. 742. 

=« Horn. IG. ibid. p. 220. 

Chap. IV. 



of the mouth, is dispersed into the air, and vanishes ; 
but when the hearers grow better, this brings an 
incorruptible and immortal reward both to the 
speaker and the hearers. The praise of your ac- 
clamations may render the orator more illustrious 
here, but the piety of your souls will give him great 
confidence before the tribunal of Christ. There- 
fore if any one love the preacher, (or if any preacher 
love his people,) let him not be enamoured with ap- 
plause, but with the benefit of the hearers. It were 
easy to transcribe many other such passages out of 
Chrysostom, where he shows a great contempt of 
such popular applauses in comparison of their obe- 
dience. I will only relate one passage more, where 
he gives a severe rebuke to all preachers, who made 
this the only aim of their discourses. Many, says 
he,""^ appear in public, and labour hard, and make 
long sennons to gain the applause of the people, in 
which they rejoice as much as if they had gained a 
kingdom ; but if their sermon ends in silence, they 
are more tormented about that silence, than about 
the pains of hell. This is the ruin of the church, 
that ye seek to hear such sermons as are apt not to 
move compunction, but pleasure, hearing them as 
you would hear a musician or a singer, with a tink- 
ling sound, and composition of words. And we act 
miserably and coldly, whilst we indulge our own 
affections, which we ought to discard. We curiously 
seek after flowers of rhetoric, and composition, and 
harmony, that we may sing to men, and not profit 
them ; that we may be had in admiration by them, 
and not teach them ; that we may raise delight, and 
not godly sorrow ; that we may go off with applause 
and praise, and no ways edify them in their morals. 
Believe me, for I would not otherwise say it, when 
I raise applause in preaching, I am then subject to 
human infirmity, (for why should not a man confess 
the truth ?) I am then ravished and highly pleased. 
But when I go home, and consider that my applaud- 
ers are gone away without fruit, though they might 
have done otherwise, I weep, and wail, and lament 
that they perish in their acclamations and praises, 
and that I have preached all in vain : and I reason 
thus with myself. What profit is there in all my la- 
bours, if my hearers reap no fruit from my words ? 
I have often thought of making it a law to forbid 
such acclamations, and to persuade you to hear in 
silence. By this it appears, that St. Chrysostom 
could rather have wished to have had this custom 
wholly banished out of the church, because it was 
so frequently abused by vain and ambitious spirits, 
who regarded nothing else but to gain the applause 
of their hearers : to which purpose, they sometimes 

suborned men to applaud them in the church, as is 
complained of Paulus Samosatcnsis by the council 
of Antioch:"'^ and sometimes aflected to preach in 
such a manner upon abstruse subjects, as neither 
the people nor themselves understood, only to be 
admired by the ignorant multitude, who, as St. Je- 
rom complains''** in this very case, are commonly 
most prone to admire what they do not understand. 
For which reason, it was the care of all jjious 
preachers, to show a tender regard to the under- 
standings of men ; and, whether it gained applause 
or not, to speak usefully, and, as far as might be, to 
the capacities and apprehensions of their hearers ; 
and by all the powers of divine eloquence, and pro- 
per arts of edification and persuasion, incline them 
to obedience and a heavenly temper. Without 
VA^iich, they imagined the success and event of their 
preaching, however eloquent and pleasing to the 
ear, was no better received than that of the prophet, 
complained of Ezek. xxxiii. 32, " Thou art unto 
them as a very lovely song of one that hath a very 
pleasant voice, and can play well on an instrument: 
for they hear thy words, but they will not do them." 
There is one thing more must be ^ ^ „„ 

G Sect. 29. 

taken notice of with relation to the iy^penn"d"by'7iie 
hearers, because it expressed a great '"■"■'"• 
deal of zeal and diligence in their attention : which 
is, that many of them learned the art of notaries, 
(the Greeks call them 6^vypa(poi, and TaxvypcKpoi, 
ready writers,) that they might be able to take down 
in writing the sermons of famous preachers, word 
for word, as they delivered them. By this means, 
some of their extempore discourses were handed 
down to posterity, which otherwise must have died 
with the speaking; as has been observed before"'* 
out of Eusebius, concerning some of Origen's, which 
he preached in his latter years. St. Austin makes 
the same observation"'^'^ concerning his own sermons 
upon the Psalms, That it pleased the brethren not 
only to receive them with their ears and heart, but 
with their pens Ukewise ; so that he was to have 
regard not only to his auditors, but his readers 
also.^"' Socrates says the same of Chrysostom's 
sermons, that some of them were pubUshed by him- 
self, and others by notaries, who took them from his 
mouth as he spake them. But they did not thus 
honour all preachers, but only those that were most 
celebrated and renowned. For Sozomen'-'* observes 
of the sermons of Atticus, That they were so mean 
after he gave himself to preach extempore, when he 
was bishop of Constantinople, that the notaries did 
not think fit to write them. These notaries were 
some of them allowed by the preacher himself, and 

="2 Chrys. Horn. 30. in Act. 
■"^ Ap. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 30. 
^' Hieron. Ep. 2. ad Nepotiau. 

-"* Euseb. lib. G. cap. 3G. et Pamphil. Apol. pro Oiig. 
cited before, sect. 11. 

-'^^ Aug. in Psal. li. p. 201. Placuit fratribus, non tan- 
tum aure et cordo, sod et stylo excipienda qure diciniiis : lit 
non auditoreni tantum, sed et lectorcm cogitare dcbeamus. 

-" Socrat. lib. 6. cap. 4. 

-'^ Sozoin. lib. 8. cap. 27. 



Book XIV. 

were therefore a sort of public notaries appointed 
for this purpose ; but others did it privately, accord- 
ing to their inclination and discretion. This differ- 
ence is hinted by Eusebius, when he says, Origen 
allowed no notaries to take his sermons, till he was 
sixty years old; and by Gregory Nazianzen, in his 
farewell sermon, where he thus takes his leave of 
his church. Farewell, ye lovers of my sermons, and 
ye pens,^® both public and private. In which he 
plainly alludes to the two sorts of notaries that wrote 
his sermons in the church. The public notaries 
were generally allowed by the author's consent to 
publish what they wrote : in which case, it was 
usual for the preacher to review his own dictates, 
and correct such mistakes, and supply such de- 
ficiencies, as might be occasioned by the haste of 
the scribe, or some things not so accurately spoken 
by themselves in sudden and extempore discourses. 
This is evident from what Gregory the Great"'" 
says in his preface to his homilies upon Ezekiel, 
That those homilies were first taken from his mouth, 
as he spake them to the people, and after eight 
years he collected them from the papers of the no- 
taries, and reviewed, and corrected, and amended 
them. So again, in his preface upon Job, he says, 
Some of his homilies were composed by himself, 
and others taken by the notaries ; and those which 
were taken by the notaries, when he had time, he 
reviewed, adding some things,"' and rejecting others, 
and leaving many things as he found them, and 
with such emendations he composed them into 
books, and published them. But many times the 
notaries published what they had written, without 
the author's knowledge or consent. In which case, 
we sometimes find them remonstrating against this 
as a clandestine practice."^ Thus Gaudentius says. 
He did not own those homilies, which were first 
taken by the notaries latently and by stealth, and 
then published by others imperfectly, and only by 
halves, with great chasms and interruptions in 
them. He would not acknowledge them for his 
discourses, «vhich the notaries had written in ex- 
treme haste, and published, without giving him any 
opportunity to supervise and correct them. And, 
probably, there may be reason for the same com- 
plaint in other writers. However, it shows a great 
diligence and attention in the hearers of those days, 

and a great respect and honour paid to their teach- 
ers, that they wovdd be at so much pains to treasure 
up and preserve their pious instruction. 

These things may be justly spoken 
to their honour, and it is no reflec- 

Two leflections 
, .... (• 1 • 'lacle b? the an- 

tion on them, or dimmution or their cicnts upon 


pt audit- 
I. The negligent 

good character, that there were some , _ , . 

^ ' and profane hearers. 

others in those times (as there will 
be in all times) who deserved a contrary cha- 
racter, either for their deficiency and want of zeal 
in this matter, or for their indiscreet and intem- 
perate zeal, in placing all religion in a sermon, and 
speaking contemptuously of prayer, or other parts 
of Divine service without it. The two errors in the 
contrary extremes, the one in excess, the other in 
defect, the ancients had sometimes occasion to re- 
buke, and they did it wdth a becoming sharpness. 
Though St. Chrysostom was so much admired, that 
the people generally said, when he was sent into 
banishment, that it was better"' the sun should 
withdraw its rays, than his mouth be shut up in 
silence ; yet he was often forced with grief to com- 
plain of some for their abstaining from religious as- 
semblies,-'* where they were scarce seen once a 
year ; of others, that they spent their time there in 
nothing but idle discourse, or laughing and jesting, 
or transacting worldly business,'" laying them- 
selves open to the assaults of the wicked spirit, 
who found their house fit for his reception, empty, 
swept and garnished ; of others, that they turned 
the church into a theatre,""' and sought for nothing 
there, but to please their ears without any other 
advantage ; and finallj', of others, who extolled his 
discourses by great applause in words, but disgraced 
them by the disobedience of their lives and actions ; 
of whom we have heard so much before. In one 
place he more particularly reproaches them that 
absented from church, with the example of the 
Jews, who could abstain from work, for ten, twenty, 
or thirty days together, without contradiction,"" 
at the command of their priest, and neither open 
their doors, nor light a fire, nor carry in water for 
any necessary use, which yet they submitted to, 
though it was an intolerable corporal slavery ; 
whereas Christians were only required to set apart 
one day in seven, and only two hours of the day 
for religious assemblies, to obtain the greatest spi- 

"^ Naz. Orat. 32. p. 528. XalptrE yparjiiSsi (pavipal 
Kal Xavdavovcrai.. 

270 Greg. Praefat. in Ezek. Homilias, quaB in beatum 
Ezekielem prophetam, ut coram populo loquebar, excepta; 
sunt, miiltis curis irruentibus in abolitinne reliqueram. Sed 
post annos octo, petentibus f'ratribus, notariorum schedulas 
requirere stiidui, easque favente Dnmino transcurrens, in 
quantum ab angustiis tribulationum licuit, emendavi, &c. 

-" Id. Proef. in Job. Cumque niihi spatia largiura suppe- 
terent, multa augens, pauca subtrahens, atqiie ita ut inventa 
sunt nonnuUa derelinquens, ea, quae me loquente excepta 
sub oculis fuerant, per libros emendando composui, &c. 

2'2 Guadent. Praefat. ad Benevolum, Bibl. Patr. t. 2. p. 
.3. De illis vero tractatibus, quos notariis, ut eomperi, laten- 
ter adpositis, proculdubio interruptos et semiplenos otiosa 
quorundam studia eoUigere praesumpserunt, nihil ad me at- 
tinet. Mea jam non sunt, quae constat praecipiti excipien- 
tium festinatione esse conscripta. 

2'^ Chvys. Ep. 125. ad Cyriacum. 

2'< Horn. 46. in Luciau. Martyr, t. 1. p. 597. Horn. 48. 
In Inscript. Altaris, t. 5. p. 648. 

"" Hom. 4. de Incomprehensibili, t. 1. p. 374. 

2^" Hom. 2. a 1 Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 31. 

=" Horn. 18. de Inscript. Altaris, t. 5. p. G18. 

Chap. IV. 



ritual advantages to the soul ; and yet they neg- 
lected such opportunities, and chose any meetings 
rather than the church. St. Ambrose in like man- 
ner upbraids those, who spent their time in talking 
in the church, from the example of the heathen,"'' 
who reverenced their idols by their silence, whilst 
Christians even drowned the voice of the Divine 
oracles, and the declaration of them, by their con- 
fused noise and confabulations in the church. This, 
Ca?sarius tells them,""'' was in effect to offer men 
poison or a sword. For such a one neither heard 
the word of God himself, nor suffered others to hear 
it : and such must expect not only to give account 
of their own, but other men's destruction at the day 
of judgment. Origen,^" and some others, tell these 
men, their own practice, in another case, would rise 
up in judgment against them: for they themselves 
showed a great reverence to the body of Christ in 
the eucharist; and yet it was no less a piacular 
crime, to show contempt to the word of God, than 
to his body ; and they would be held guilty for a 
disrespect in the one case as well as the other. 
Thus they showed men, what reverence was due to 
the preaching of the word of God, by setting before 
them the sin and danger of those abuses some were 
apt to run into, by an error in defect and want of a 
just reverence to it. 

On the other hand, they were no 
And secondly, (he Icss carcful to guard mcu against 

intemperare 7ea!ots, . , . 

"im placed au reii- supcrstitiou lu tlic Other cxtrcme. 

gion in a sermon. ■'■ 

For there was an error in excess, as 
well as in defect, of reverence for preaching. Some 
were so over-run with an indiscreet bigotry and in- 
temperate zeal for preaching, as to reckon all other 
parts of Divine service useless and insignificant, if 
they were not accompanied with a sermon. These 
men had their arguments to plead in their own be- 
half, which are thus proposed and answered by St. 
Chrysostom:-'^' Why should I go to church, said 
they, if I cannot hear a preacher ? This one thing, 
says St. Chrysostom, has ruined and destroyed all 
religion. For what necessity is there of a preacher ? 
That necessity arises only from our sloth and neg- 
ligence. For why otherwise should there be any 
need of a homily ? All things are clear and open 
in the Holy Scriptures ; all things necessary are 
plainly revealed. But because ye are hearers that 
study only to delight your ears and fancy, therefore 
ye desire these things. Tell me, I pray, with what 
pomp of words did St. Paul preach ? And yet he 
converted the world. What pomp did the ilHterate 
Peter use ? But, say they, we cannot understand 
the things that are written in Scripture, Why so ? 

Are they spoken in Hebrew, or Latin, or any other 
strange tongue ? Are they not spoken in Greek, to 
you that understand the Greek tongue ? Yea, but 
they are spoken darkly. How darkly ? What diffi- 
culties do the histories contain ? You understand 
the plain places, that you may take pains and in- 
quire about the rest. There are a thousand histories 
in the Bible : tell me one of them. But you cannot 
tell one of these : therefore all this is mere pretence 
and words. O but, say they, we have the same 
tilings read to us every day out of Scripture. And 
do you not hear the same things every day in the 
theatre ? Have you not the same sight at the horse- 
race ? Are not all things the same ? Does not the 
same sun rise every morning? Do you not eat the 
same meat every day ? I would ask you, seeing you 
say you hear the same things every day, what por- 
tion of the prophets, what apostle, what epistle was 
read? But you cannot tell : they are perfectly new 
and strange to you. When, therefore, you are dis- 
posed to be idle, you pretend the same things are 
read ; but when you are asked concerning them, 
you are as men that never heard them. If they are 
the same, you should have known them : but you 
know nothing of them. This is a thing to be la- 
mented, that the workman labours in vain. For 
this reason you ought to attend, because they are 
the same, because we bring nothing strange or new 
to your ears. What then, because ye say the Scrip- 
tures are always the same, but what we preach are 
not so, but always contain something new, do ye at- 
tend to them ? In no wise. And if we ask you. 
Why do you not remember them ? ye answer. How 
should we, seeing we hear them but once? If we 
say. Why do you not remember the Scriptures ? ye 
answer. They are always the same. These are no- 
thing but pretences for idleness, and mere indica- 
tions of a sceptical temper. Thus that holy father 
rebukes that intemperate zeal, which set up preach- 
ing in opposition to reading of the Scriptures, under 
various pretences of their being obscure, or tedious 
repetitions of the same things, when in truth a fana- 
tical affectation of novelty, and a fantastical scep- 
ticism, and a vicious desire of being freed from all 
the burden of attending upon religious assemblies, 
was really at the bottom of all their objections. 

There is but one thing more to be 
observed upon this head ; which is, how men were 

, , , treated, who 

that as there were some who com- thought their ser- 

. mons too long. 

plamed, that their sermons were not 
frequent enough, or too short ; so there were others 
that complained, they were too long, and were dis- 
posed to leave the assembly before sermon was end- 

™ Ambros. de Virgin, lib. 3. An quicquam est indignius, 
quain oracula divina circumstrepi, ne audiantur, ne credan- 
tur, ne revelentur ? circumsonare sacramenta confusis vo- 
cibus, cum Gentiles idolis suis reverentiara tacendo de- 
ferant ? 

2™ Cajsar. Arelat. Horn. 34. 

^ Oiig. Horn. 13. in E.xod. t. I. p. 102. Quomcdo pu- 
tatis minorisesse piaculi, verbum Dei uegle.xisse, quaui cor- 
pus ejus? Vid. Aug. Horn. 26. ex 50. 

^' Chrys. Horn. 3. in 2 Thess. p. lc')02. 



Book XIV. 

ed. Some canons are pretty severe upon such au- 
ditors. The fourth council of Carthage orders 
them to be proceeded against^' with excommunica- 
tion. But others used a more gentle way, content- 
ing themselves to admonish their auditors of their 
duty, and sometimes using ingenious stratagems 
and feigned apologues to detain them ; and some- 
times ordering the doors of the church to be kept 
shut, till all was ended : which is particularly re- 
marked of Cffisarius Arclatensis, by the author of 
his Life.^' St. Chrysostom considers the matter 
with some distinction. He makes some allowance 
for the w^eakness of such as were unable to hold out 
the whole time at a long sermon : and forasmuch 
as many were more desirous of long sermons than 
short ones, he thinks the matter was so to be order- 
ed, as to accommodate both. Seeing there are some, 
says he, in so great a multitude, who cannot "*" bear 
a long discourse, my advice to such is, that when 
they have heard as much as they can contain, and 
as much as suffices them, they should depart, (for 
no one hinders them, or compels them to stay longer 
than their strength is able to bear,) that they may 
not impose a necessity on us of making an end be- 
fore the proper time. For thou art satisfied, but 
thy brother is yet hungry : thou hast drunk thy 
fill of what is spoken, but thy brother is yet athirst. 
Therefore neither let him burden thy weakness, by 
compeUing thee to receive more than thy strength 
will bear ; neither be thou injurious to his desire of 
hearing, by hindering him from taking as much as 
he is able to receive. For so it is at a common table, 
some are filled sooner, some later, and neither do 
these accuse those, nor they condemn the other. 
But there is a commendation to depart quickly; but 
here to depart quickly is not commendable, but only 
pardonable. To stay long at a carnal feast, is a 
matter worthy of reproof, because it proceeds from 
an intemperate appetite ; but to stay long at a 
spiritual feast, deserves the highest praise and com- 
mendation, because it proceeds from a spiritual de- 
sire and holy appetite, and argues patience and con- 
stancy in giving attention. Thus that holy father 
decides the controversy about long and short ser- 
mons, and prudently divides the matter between 
strong and weak hearers ; commending the one, 
w-ithout condemning the other ; and making some 
apology for the length of his sermons, without of- 
fence to either party. I shall make the same 
apology to my readers for the length of this chap- 

ter : if there be any whose curiosity leads them to 
know all that relates to the preaching of the an- 
cients, they may read the whole, and perhaps will 
not think it too long ; but they whose appetite is 
not so sharp, may shorten it as they please, and 
accommodate it to their own use, by selecting such 
parts as are most agreeable to their own taste, and 
proper for their own instruction. And so I end the 
discourse about preaching in the ancient church. 



As soon as the sermon was ended, 

Sect. 1. 

the public prayers of the church be- ^^That prayers in 

^ ^ -' the ancient church 

gan, and not before. For anciently X','^^^^,^J^^'„^"' 
the order of Divine service was a lit- 
tle different in its method from what it is usually 
now in the church; for anciently the greatest 
part of the public prayers came after sermon. This 
is expressly said by Justin Martyr in his Apology, 
where he is giving an account of the Christian wor- 
ship on the Lord's day. He says, They first read 
the Scriptures, then the president or bishop made a 
discourse or exhortation ; after which they rose up 
all together and made their common ' prayers : and 
then, when these were ended, the bishop prayed 
again, and gave thanks for the consecration of the . 
bread and wine in the eucharist, the people answer- 
ing. Amen. And so St. Chrysostom affirms also, 
saying in one place,^ The exhortation comes first, 
and then immediately prayer. And in another* 
place. You need both advice and prayer : therefore 
we advise you first, meaning in the sermon, and 
then we make prayers for you. They that are in- 
itiated know what I say. So that when Chrysos- 
tom or any others say, prayer went before sermon^ 
they are to be understood either of that short salut- 
ation, which the minister used at the entrance upon 
every office, " The Lord be with you," the people 
answering, " And with thy spirit ;" or of some short 
prayer of the preacher ; or of the private prayers 
of people intermingled with the psalmody ; and not 
of the common prayers of the church. For many 

2S2 Cone. Carth. 4. can. 24. Sacerdote verbura faciente in 
ecclesia, qui egressus dc auditorio fuerit, e.xcomraunicetur. 

2«3 Cyprian. Vit. C^sar. cap. 12. Saepissime ostia, lectis 
evangeliis, occludi jussit; donee propitio Deo ipsi gratu- 
larentur, ea coercitionc se profeeisse, qui solebant esse fu- 
gitivi. Vid. Cajsar. Horn. 12. 

28< Chrjs. GO. Daemones non gubernare Mundum, t. 5. 
p. 784. 

' Justin. Apol. 2. p. 98. 'O irpoecrTajs tiju vovdea-iau 
TTOiELTaL' tVtiTa uVLGTCifiida KOivrj -iravTEi, Kal iiix^^ 
TrifjLirofxtv, (c.t.X. 

^ Chrys. Horn. 2S. quoe est 3. de Incomprehensibili, t. 1. 
p. 3G5. MfTti Ti'jy TrapciLi/Eoriu (.udtws tux'l- 

^ Id. Horn. 11. in 1 Thess. p. 1480. TipoTfpov rrvfi^ov- 

\f.UOVTl^, TOT£ xas VTrip llfXloV EUX''^ TTOlOVIXiOu, Kal TOVTO 
i(Xa(TLV OL fxifivmxtvoi. 

Chap. V. 



orders of men might be present at the sermon, and 
to hear the Scriptures read, who might not join in 
prayers with the faithful ; and for that reason the 
sermon and reading of the Scriptures went before, 
that such persons might have the benefit of them, 
who were to be dismissed when the prayers begun, 
because they had as yet no title to communicate in 

These praj^ers were of two sorts: 
wi.o^'^mi|i,t, or prayers pecuHar to the faithful or 

nii^lit not, oe pre- ' , , . ^1*1 • ^^ 

sentatihfsenrayers. commuuicants Only, at wlncu ncitlier 

Infldfls and mere 

hearers obliged to catecliumens, nor penitents, nor ener- 
gumens, nor any persons yet unbap- 
lized might be present; and prayers made particu- 
larly for these several orders, at which therefore 
they were allowed to be present, and both hear the 
prayers, and pray for themselves. But even from 
these prayers some were obliged to withdraw, who 
were allowed to be present at sermons for their in- 
struction. Such were all Jews and infidels, and 
such of the catechumens and penitents as were 
known by the distinct name of aKpoui/iivoi among 
the Greeks, and audientes among the Latins, that is, 
hearers only. Therefore, as soon as sermon was 
ended, before any of these prayers began in the 
service of the catechumens, a deacon was used to 
make proclamation from some eminency in the 
church, Ke quis audientium, ne quis injklelium, Let 
none of the hearers, let none of the unbelievers be 
present, as it is worded in the Constitutions.* 

This said, and silence being made, 

Of tiieVrayers for tlie dcacou cried again, " Pray, ye cate- 

The lemiine'for^s chumcus :" and, " Let all the faithful 

of them out of St. • r ^ 

chrTso^tom and the \\\i\\ attention pray for them, saying. 

Constitutions. r J ' .' O' 

Lord have mercy upon them." Then 
the deacon began a prayer for them, which in the 
Constitutions is called npoaipwvrjmg vntp tu>v Kartjxov- 
^kvuiv, a bidding prayer for the catechumens, be- 
cause it was both an exhortation and direction how 
they were to pray for them. We have two ancient 
forms of this prayer still remaining, one in St. Chry- 
sostom, and another in the Constitutions. That in 
the Constitutions is in these words : ^ " Let us all 
beseech God for the catechumens ; that he, who is 

gracious, and a lover of mankind, would mcrci fully 
hearken to their supplications and prayers, and, ac- 
cepting their petitions, would help them, and grant 
them the requests of their souls according to what 
is expedient for them ; that he would reveal the gos- 
pel of Christ to them ; that he would enlighten and 
instruct them, and teach them the knowledge of God 
and Divine things ; that he would instruct them in 
his precepts and judgments ; that he would open 
the ears of their hearts to be occupied in his law 
day and night ; that he would confirm them in re- 
ligion ; that he would unite them to, and number 
them with his holy flock, vouchsafing them the 
laver of regeneration, with the garment of incor- 
ruption, and true life ; that he would deliver them 
from all impiety, and give no place to the adversary 
to get advantage against them ; but that he would 
cleanse them from all pollution of flesh and spirit, 
and dwell in them, and walk in them by his Christ; 
that he would bless their going out, and their coming 
in, and direct all their designs and purposes to their 
advantage. Further yet, let us earnestly pray for 
them, that they may have remission of sins by the 
initiation of baptism, and be thought worthy of the 
holy mysteries, and remain among his saints." 

Then the deacon, addressing himself to the cate- 
chumens themselves, said, " Catechumens, arise. 
Pray for the peace of God, that this day, and all the 
time of your life, may pass in quietness, and without 
sin ; that you may make a Christian end, and find 
God propitious and merciful, and obtain remission 
of your sins. Commend yourselves to the onlj' un- 
begotten God by his Christ." 

To every petition of this bidding prayer, the peo- 
ple, and especially children, are appointed to subjoin, 
Kvpie i\it]<Tov, " Lord have mercy upon them." 

After this the deacon bids them bow down, and 
receive the bishop's benediction ; which is in the 
following form of direct invocation. 

" Almighty God, who art without original and 
inaccessible, the only true God, thou God and Fa- 
ther of Christ thy only begotten Son, God of the 
Comforter,^ and Lord of all things ; who by Christ 
didst make learners become teachers for the propa- 

* Constit. Apost. lib. 8. c. 5. =• Ibid. c. 6. 

* This phrase, 6 ©£os tov JlapaK\7)Tov, and a like phrase, 
which occurs in the prayer of this author in the daily even- 
ing service, lib. 8. cap. 37, where the Father is styled, 6 tou 
Jlvsufiaros Kiioios, the Lord of the Spirit, are harsh ex- 
pressions, and not very usual in catholic writers ; which 
makes some suspect this author, as if he were tainted with 
the Macedonian heresy, which denies the Divinity of the 
Holy Ghost, and makes him a mere creature. But this seems 
not to have been the intent of our author, who no where de- 
nies the true Divinity of the S(in or Holy Ghost, but only 
gives such titles of pre-eminence to the Father, as Justin 
Martyr did before him, in regard to the Father's being the 
fountain of the Deity, and the origin of e.xistence in the 
Son and Holy Spirit, not as creatures, but as his eternal 
Son and eternal Holy Spirit, equal to him in all essential 

3 B 

perfections, but only deriving those Divine perfections from 
him, as the author and fountain of their being, as God of 
God, and Light of Litrht, by eternal generation and proces- 
sion. In this sense, Bull has observed, that Justin 
Martyr, in his Dialogue with Tryphon, p. 358, uses the very 
same expression, in speaking of the Son, as our author does 
of the Spirit: for he says, The Father is Kvniov Kufuo?, 
(OS Tla-r))p Kni 0£os, (Jtixios T£ uutm tou tivai, Kal Siivwrco^ 
Kai Kvpiut, Kal BfoT, the Lord of the Lord, as Father and 
God, and cause of his being, of and from whom he has even 
this, that he is omnipotent, and Lord and God. Where 
Bishop Bull rightly observes. That God the Father is said 
to be God and Lord of his Son, not as he is Lord of the 
creatures, but quatenus estfons Divinitatis et causa Filio, 
nt sit, as he is the fountain of the Deity, and cause of his 
Son's existence : which does not make the Son a creature, 



Book XIV. 

gation of Christian knowledge; look down now 
upon these thy servants, who are learning the in- 
structions of the gospel of thy Christ, and give them 
a new heart, and renew a right spirit within them, 
that they may know and do thy will with a perfect 
heart, and a willing mind. Vouchsafe them thy 
holy baptism, and unite them to thy holy church, 
and make them partakers of thy holy mysteries, 
through Christ our hope, who died for them, by 
whom be glory and worship unto thee, world with- 
out end. Amen." After this, let the deacon say, 
" Catechumens, depart in peace." 

St. Chrysostom, in one of his homilies, gives us 
a like form of the deacon's bidding prayer for the 
catechumens. The law' of the church, says he, 
moves the faithful to pray for those who are yet 
unbaptized. For when the deacon says, " Let us 
pray fervently for the catechumens," he does no- 
thing else but excite the whole multitude of the 
faithful to pray for them. For the catechumens 
are as yet aliens ; they are not yet ingrafted into 
the body of Christ, nor made partakers of the holy 
mysteries, but remain divided from the spiritual 
flock. And for that reason he says, " Let us pray 
fervently ;" that you may not reject them as aliens, 
that you may not disown them as strangers. For 
they are not yet allowed to use the prayer that was 
introduced and established by the law of Christ. 
He means the Lord's prayer. They have not yet 
liberty or confidence enough to pray for themselves, 
but need the help of those that are already initiated. 
For they stand without the royal gates, and at a 
distance from the holy rails. And for that reason 
are sent away when the tremendous prayers are 
offered at the altar. Upon this account the deacon 
exhorts you to pray for them, that they may be 
made members, and be no longer foreigners and 
aliens. For that word, " Let us pray," is not spoken 
to the priests only, but also to the people. For 
when he says, Srwjutv uaXug, derjOdiisv, " Let us stand 
decently, let us pray," he exhorts all to pray. And 
then he begins the prayer in these words : 

" That the merciful and gracious God would 
vouchsafe to hear their prayers ; that he would open 
the ears of their hearts ; that they may hear what 
* eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it 
entered into the heart of man ;' that he would instil 
into them the word of his truth ; that he would sow 
the word of his truth in their hearts, and confirm 
his faith in their minds ; that he would reveal unto 
them the gospel of righteousness ; that he would 
give them a divine and heavenly mind, pure and 
holy thoughts, and a virtuous conversation ; always 

but the true, consubstantial, and eternal Son of God ; or, as 
our author expresses himself accurately elsewhere, he is 
hereby Gsds fwvojfV))^, (Jod the only-begotten ; that is, the 
true Son of the Father, who is styled Lord of the Son, not 
as a Creator, but as a Father. 

to mind, always to regard, and meditate upon the 
things that belong to him, and to be occupied in 
his law day and night. Let us pray yet more 
ardently for them, that he would deliver them from 
all evil and absurd employments, from all diabolical 
sin, and all the circumventions of the adversary; 
that he would vouchsafe to bring them in due time 
to the laver of regeneration, and grant them remis- 
sion of sins, and the clothing of incorruption ; that 
he would, during their whole lives, bless their going 
out and their coming in, their houses and families ; 
that he would increase and bless their children, and 
bring them to the measure of perfect age with the 
instruction of wisdom; and that he would direct 
all their purposes to their advantage." 

After this, the deacon bids them rise up and pray 
for themselves, dictating what they were to pray 
for : " Pray, ye catechumens, for the angel of peace ; 
that all your purposes may be peaceably directed : 
pray, that this present day, and all the days of your 
lives, may be spent in peace, and that you may 
make a Christian end. Commend yourselves to 
the living God and to his Christ." 

This being done, says Chrysostom, we bid them 
bow their heads, and receive the benediction of God, 
as a sign that their prayers are heard. For it is 
not man that blesses them, but by his hands and 
tongue we present their heads, as they stand there, 
to the heavenly King ; and then all the congregation 
with a loud voice cry out, " Amen." 

Here is a plain account of the second prayer that 
was made for the catechumens by the bishop, which 
is styled here, as it is also in the Constitutions, the 
bishop's commendation or benediction. 

Learned men think this homily was preached by 
Chrysostom when he was bishop of Constantinople. 
And if so, we must conclude that these prayers 
were the forms that were used then in the liturgy 
of Constantinople. 

And I the rather incline to this 
opinion, because there is some little what meim by 

their praying for the 

difference between this form of Chry- angei of peace in 

'^ this form of prayer. 

sostom's and that in the Constitutions. 
For in this of Chrysostom's the catechumens are 
bid to pray for the angel of peace, which is not 
mentioned in the form of the Constitutions ; though 
it be in another place,' where directions are given 
for the ordinary morning and evening service. St. 
Chrysostom often mentions this same petition for 
the angel of peace in his other homilies. As in his 
third homily upon the Colossians, where he says, 
Every man has angels attending him, and also the 
devil very busy about him. Therefore we pray^ 

' Chrys. Horn. 2. in 2 Cor. p. 740. 
* Constit. lib. 8. cap. 36 et 37. 

" Chrys. Horn. .3. in Colos. p. 1338. Aia touto ivxo- 
fitdu, Kul Xf'yo^ti/ niToui/xES tov dyyt\ov Tf/s iipnin)i. 

Chap. V. 



and make our supplications for the angel of peace. 
And so in his sermon ''' upon the Ascension ; speak- 
ing of the air being filled with good and bad angels, 
the one always raising war and discord in the 
world, and the other inclining men to peace, he 
tells his auditory, they might know there were an- 
gels of peace, by hearing the deacons always in the 
prayers bidding men pray for the angel of peace. 
This undoubtedly refers to the forementioned form 
of prayer, wherein the catechumens are directed to 
ask of God the protection of the angel of peace. In 
like manner in another" place, when the deacon 
bids men pray with others, he enjoins them this 
among the rest of their petitions, to pray for the 
angel of peace, and that all their purposes may be 
peaceably directed. Which are the very words of 
the catechumens' prayer abovesaid. 

The design of all which was, not to teach their 
catechumens to pray to their guardian angels ; (ac- 
cording to the modern way of instructing in the 
Romish church ; " though this had been a very 
proper season to have admonished the catechumens 
of it, had there been any such practice in the an- 
cient church ;) but it was to teach them to pray to 
the God of angels : that he who makes his angels 
to encamp about his servants, would by their minis- 
try defend them from the incursions of wicked spi- 
rits, those fomenters of war and division and enmity 
among men, and so keep them and all their pur- 
poses in a course of perpetual and uninterrupted 
peace, that they might finally make a Christian and 
a peaceable end. 

Another thing, wherein the form in 
,-°"j the Constitutions differs from that in 
with Yhe'fest orth" St. Chrysostom, is, that it appoints 
the children of the church particu- 
larly and more especially to join in this common 
prayer for the catechumens ; whereas the form used 
in St. Chrysostom's chm'ch mentions no such thing: 
and Chrysostom himself in another place " says 
plainly. That children were not called upon to join 
in the prayers for the energumens and penitents, 
(which were of the same sort with these for the 
catechumens,) but only in the prayers for the com- 
municants at the altar. As these differences prove 
the two forms not to belong to the liturgy of one 
and the same church ; so they make it probable, 
that St. Chrysostom gives us the form used in the 
church of Constantinople, and the author of the 
Constitutions the form that was used at Antioch, or 
some other eminent church, whose rituals he tran- 
scribed and put together. 

churches appointed 
to say this pray 
with thf 

Now, by having fixed this prayer 
in its proper place, we mav interpret •what'^notice «e 

,, i . ,' . have or this prayer 

all ottier nassagos in the ancient ■". other ancient 

* ^ HTltmgS. 

writers, which speak of praying over 
the catechumens, or praying with them. As that 
of the council of Nice, which orders, that if any of 
those, who were catechumens properly so called, 
that is, of that rank who had these prayers said 
over them, became lapsors, then they should for 
three years be thrust down to the rank of hearers 
only, and after that be admitted" to pray with the 
catechumens again. And that canon of the council 
of Neocaesarea," which orders, that if any such 
catechumens, as were called yovw KXivovrec, that is, 
prostrators, or kneelers, who bowed down to have 
these prayers said over them, should fall into any 
scandalous sin, then they should be excluded from 
the prayers, and be ranked among the hearers only : 
and if they fell again when they were hearers, they 
should be excluded from the very entrance of the 

The next sort of persons for whom 
prayers were now made, were the or the prayers for 

.1 , . 1 the energumens, or 

energumens, triat is, such persons as persons possessed 

° . - ^ /^ „ by evil spirits. The 

were seized or possessed by an evil forms of these pray- 
spirit. For though these were under 
the peculiar care of the exorcists, an order set apart 
particularly to attend them, and pray over them in 
private, as has been showed more fully in a former '" 
Book ; yet their case being pitiable and deplorable, 
it was thought an act of becoming mercy and charity 
to let them have the public prayers of the church, 
and gi-ant them liberty to be present at such prayers 
as immediately respected their condition. There- 
fore, as soon as the deacon had dismissed the cate- 
chumens, with the usual form, " Catechumens, de- 
part in peace :" he said again, " Pray, ye energumens, 
who are vexed ^\^th unclean spirits." And exhort- 
ing the congregation also, he said, " Let us ardently 
pray for them," (as the form of this bidding prayer 
runs in the Constitutions,") " that the merciful 
God, through Christ, would rebuke the unclean and 
evil spirits, and deliver his supplicants from the op- 
pression and tyranny of the adversary ; that he 
who rebuked the legion of devils, and the prince of 
devils, the fountain of evil, would now rebuke these 
apostates from piety, and deliver the works of his 
own hands from the molestations and agitations of 
Satan, and cleanse them which he hath created in 
great wisdom. Let us, further, most ardently pray 
for them. Save them, and raise them up, O God, 
by thy power. 

'" Horn. 35. in Ascension. Domini, t. 5. p. 535. "Iva 
/ud6;;s otl dyyi^Xoi £ip»/i/»(s fiCTii/, a.KOV(Tov kv Tail -rrpoa-- 
£i')(als del XiyovTujv Tcoy olukovoiv, tov ayytKov xf/s 

" Horn. 52. in eos qui Pascha jejunant, t. 5. p. 71.3. 'O 
^ictKovoi ok KtXivuiv t'v^iadai /xtxa Ttov ciWwv, Koi touto 

3 B 2 

iTTLTCtTTei. KUTa TJ/i/ Ei'X'/i', aiTtlv TOV uyyiXou Tl)^ 
tipt'ji/ijs, Kai Ta TrpoKiifXiva iravTa iipijviKcc. 

'-' Vid. Drexel. de Cultu Coelitum, lib. 2. cap. 3. 

» Chrys. Horn. 71. in Mat. p. 624. 

" Uonc. Nicen. can. 14. '" Cone. Neocajsar. can. 6. 

'« Book III. chap. 4. sect. 6, 7. " Constit. lib. 8. cap. 6. 



Book XIV. 

Then he bids them bow down their heads, and 
receive the bishop's benediction, which is in the 
following form of words, immediately addressed to 

" thou only begotten God, the Son of the great 
Father ; thou that bindest the strong one, and spoil- 
cst his goods ; that givest power unto us to tread on 
serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the 
enemy ; that hast delivered up the murdering ser- 
pent unto us a prisoner, as a sparrow unto children ; 
thou, before whom all things shake and tremble at 
the presence of thy power ; that makest Satan to 
fall from heaven to the earth as lightning, not by a 
local fall, but by a fall from honour to disgrace, be- 
cause of his voluntary malice ; thou whose looks dry 
up the deep, and threatenings make the mountains 
melt, whose truth endures for ever; whom infants 
praise, and sucklings bless, and angels celebrate and 
adore ; that lookest upon the earth, and makest it 
tremble; that touchest the mountains, and they 
smoke ; that rebukest the sea, and driest it up, and 
turnest the rivers into a wilderness ; that makest the 
clouds to be the dust of thy feet, and walkest upon 
the sea as upon a pavement : rebuke the evil spirits, 
and deliver the works of thy hands from the vexa- 
tion of the adverse spirit : for to thee belongs glory, 
honour, and adoration, and by thee to thy Father 
in the Holy Spirit, world without end. Amen." 

St. Chrysostom has not this whole 
An account of fomi, but hc oftcn rcfcrs to it as one 

these prayers out of /"ill 

ht. Chrysostom and ot thc public praycrs ot the church. 
Common prayers, says he, are made 
by the priests '^ and people together for the energu- 
mens, and for the penitents ; we all say one and the 
same prayers, the prayer that is so full of mercy. 
And again. For this reason '" the deacon, at this time, 
brings those that are vexed with evil spirits, and 
commands them to bow down their heads only, and 
in that posture of body make their supplications. 
For they may not pray with the whole congrega- 
tion of the brethren. And for this reason he pre- 
sents them before you, that you, having mercy on 
them, both in regard of their vexation, and their 
disability to speak for themselves, may, by your free- 
dom of access, give them patronage and assistance. 
In another place"" he more fully explains the reason 
why this prayer for the demoniacs came before thc 
oblation of the eucharist, and why at that time the 
deacon commanded them to be brought forth and 
bow their heads. Their being possessed of the devil, 
says he, is a cruel and grievous chain, a chain harder 
than any iron. As, therefore, when a judge is about 
to come forth, and sit upon the judgment seat, the 

'' Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. Kal yap virip twv 
ivipyovixtvuiv, vTTtp Twv IV fjLtTavoia, Koivai Kal airo tov 
lipiwi Kal Trap' auTwv yivovTai i.u\ai, kui irdvTt^ XiyovaL 
jxiav iv\}]ii, fuX''" ''"''''' ^'^'''"' yinovcrav. 

'" Id. Horn. .3. de Incompreheiisibili, f. 1. p. 3G5. Aia 

keepers of the prison bring forth all the prisoners, 
and place them before the rails and curtains of the 
tribunal, in all their filth and nastiness, with their 
hair undressed, and clothed in rags; so our fore- 
fathers appointed, that when Christ was in a little 
time about to sit as it were upon his high throne, 
and shortly to appear in the holy mysteries, then 
the demoniacs should be brought forth, as so many 
prisoners in chains, not to be condemned or suffer 
punishment for their sins, as other prisoners, but 
that, when the peojile and whole city are present 
together in the church, common prayer might be 
made for them, whilst they all with one consent 
besought the common Lord for them, and with loud 
voices entreated him to show mercy on them. Here, . 
though he does not specify the whole form, yet he 
plainly intimates both the time and subject matter 
of the prayer, and also the manner of the address ; 
that it was a prayer sent up by the common voice of 
the people, some time befoi'e the appearance of Christ 
in the eucharist, and that as an address to God, to 
implore his mercy on those pitiable objects that lay 
in that forlorn condition before him. In which re- 
spect he elsewhere styles it the first prayer of mercy,'" 
saying. The first prayer is full of mercy, when we 
pray for the energumens. The second also, wherein 
we pray for the penitents, sues equally for mercy. 
And the third, when we pray for ourselves, presents 
the children of the people before God, crying out to 
him for mercy. Where, by the first prayer, he does 
not absolutely mean the first prayer that was made 
in this part of Divine service ; for it is plain, the 
prayer for the catechumens came before it : but be- 
cause the energumens were in a more miserable 
condition than the catechumens, and greater objects 
of pity than they were, he therefore styles the prayer 
for them, the first prayer for mercy; as he does the 
prayer for the penitents, the second prayer for 
mercy, though it was in order the fourth ; and the 
prayer for the faithful, the third prayer for mercy, 
though it belonged to another part of the service, of 
which we shall speak more particularly in the first 
chapter of the next Book. 

The third prayer that came in the 
ordinary course of this part of the of tiie third sort 

of prayers, for the 

service, was the prayer for the compe- cmnpeieHtcs. or c^n- 

' I '' -* uidates of baptism. 

tentes, or candidates of baptism, that 
is, such as had now given in their names, and ex- 
pressed their desire of receiving baptism at the next 
approaching festival. This, I conceive, was but an 
occasional prayer, appropriated to certain seasons, 
as the time between Mid-Lent and Easter day, or 
other solemn times of baptism, when men were 

pOV 6 StaKOVO^, K.T.X. 

-" Id. Horn. 4. de Inconipvchcns. t. 1. p. 374. 
■^' Id. Horn. 71. al. 72. in Matt. p. Wl. 

Chap. V. 



more than ordinarily intent in preparing themselves 
for the reception of that sacred mystery. The 
forms of these kind of prayers we have also in the 
Constitutions," where, as soon as the deacon has 
dismissed the energumens, he is api)ointed to cry 
out, E5|acr0e oc 0(«ri?o/t£voi, " Pray, ye candidates of 
baptism : and we that are already believers, let us 
ardently pray for them ; that the Lord would make 
them worthy to be baptized into the death of Christ, 
and to rise again with him, and to be made members 
of his kingdom, and partakers of his mysteries ; 
that he would unite them to his holy church, and 
number them with those that shall be saved therein. 
Save them, and raise them up by thy grace." 

Then they are ordered to bow down their heads, 
and receive the bishop's benediction, which is ex- 
pressed in the following words : 

" God, who didst, by the prediction of thy holy 
prophets, say to them that are to be initiated, Wash 
ye, make you clean ; and by Christ didst appoint a 
spiritual regeneration : look down now upon these 
persons, who are to be baptized ; bless and sanctify 
them ; fit and prepare them, that they may be 
worthy of thy spiritual gift, and the true adoption 
of sons, and thy spiritual mysteries, and be de- 
servedly numbered among those that are saved, by 
Christ our Saviour, through whom be all glory, 
honour, and adoration unto thee, and the Holy 
Ghost, world without end. Amen." 

I have nothing further to remark concerning 
these prayers, because neither Chrysostom nor any 
other ancient writer, as far as I know, have said 
any thing particularly about them. Only this au- 
thor in another place -' makes them part of the daily 
morning and evening service, as has been noted 
before in speaking of that, under a former head. It 
is probable in many churches they were included 
in the forms for the catechumens in general. For 
the council of Laodioea,-^ which settles the order 
of the Divine service in the church, and appoints 
in what method it should proceed, speaks of the 
prayers of the catechumens, as immediately follow- 
ing the sermon, and then the prayers for the peni- 
tents, and after those the prayers for the faithful, 
which began the communion service ; but makes no 
mention of any prayers for the candidates of baptism, 
as distinct from those of the catechumens. And 
this might be one reason why other writers make 
no mention of them. In other churches they were 
but occasional prayers, for the particular times of 
baptism, and therefore it is as little wonder that 
other authors pass them over without the least no- 
tice taken of them. However, that the author of 
the Constitutions found them distinct in the rituals 
of some churches, is not at all unlikely, because 

=2 Constit. lib. 8. cap. 7. 
-' Cone. Liiodic. can. 19. 

^ Ibid. cap. 21et 37. 
" Goar, Euchnlog. p. 3.TJ. 

such forms for the candidates of baptism are now 
in use in the Greek church, as may be seen in 
Goar;^ and Cardinal Bona'-'' has observed the like 
in a very ancient Ordo Sacramcntorum, lately in the 
possession of the queen of Sweden, where, in the 
office for the third Sunday in Lent, there is a spe- 
cial prayer inserted for those who were then ex- 
amined and elected to receive baptism at Ecaster. 
But I proceed wath the service of the ancient 

The last sort of prayers in this part ^^^^ ^^ 
of the service, were those which were pra4re''fifthrpJ.if 
made for the penitents, who were **"'"' 
under the discipline and censures of the church. 
Some of these, called hearers only, were sent away 
with that order of catechumens which were dis- 
tinguished by the same denomination of hearers ; 
but others of them, called kneelcrs or prostrators, 
were permitted to stay longer, to receive the prayers 
of the church, and the bishop's benediction. There- 
fore, as soon as the candidates of baptism were dis- 
missed, the deacon cried out, Orate pcenitentes, Ye 
that are under penance, make your praj'ers : and 
let us ardently pray for our brethren that are doing 
penance; "That the God of mercy"' would show 
them the way of repentance; that he would admit 
their recantation and confession; that he would 
shortly bruise Satan under their feet, and deliver 
them from the snare of the devil, and the incursion 
of evil spirits, and preserve them from all evil words, 
all absurd practices, and all impure thoughts ; that 
he would grant them pardon of all their sins, volun- 
tary and involuntary, and blot out the hand-writing 
that is against them, and write them in the book of 
life ; that he would cleanse them from all pollution 
of flesh and spirit, and unite and restore them to 
his holy flock : for he knows our frame : for who 
can glory that he has a clean heart ? or who can 
say, that he is pure from sin ? for we are all liable 
to punishment. Let us still pray more ardently 
for them, because there is joy in heaven over one 
sinner that repenteth; that they may turn from 
every evil work, and accustom themselves to all 
that is good ; that the merciful God, receiving them 
kindly, may restore to them the joy of his salvation, 
and confirm them with his principal Spirit, that 
they may never fall or be shaken again ; that they 
may communicate in his holy solemnities, and be 
partakers of his sacred mysteries ; that being made 
worthy of the adoption of sons, they may obtain 
eternal life. Let us all further say for them, Lord, 
have mercy upon them : save them, O God, and 
raise them up by thy mercy." 

This said, the deacon bids them rise up, and l)Ow 
their heads to receive the bisho[)'s benediction, which 

Bona, Rer. Litiirj;. lib. 2. cap. 12. n. 4. p. fvBO. 
Constit. Apost. lib. 8. cap. 8. 



Book XIV. 

IS styled also imposition of hands and prayer for 
the penitents, and is conceived in the following 
words : ^ 

" O almighty and eternal God, the Lord of the 
whole world, the Maker and Governor of all things, 
who hast made man to be an ornament of the world, 
through Christ, and hast given him both a natural 
and a written law, that he might live by the rules 
thereof, as a rational creature ; that hast also, when 
he hath sinned, given him a motive and encourage- 
ment to repent, even thy owTi goodness : look down 
now upon those men, who bow the necks of their 
souls and bodies unto thee ; for thou desirest not 
the death of a sinner, but his repentance, that he 
should turn from his evil way and live. Thou that 
acceptest the repentance of the Ninevites; that 
wouldst have all men to be saved, and come to the 
knowledge of the truth ; that receivedst again the 
prodigal son, who had spent his substance in riot- 
ous living, with the compassionate bowels of a father, 
because of his repentance : accept now the repent- 
ance of these thy supplicants ; for there is no man 
that sinneth not against thee : if thou, Lord, wilt 
mark what is done amiss, O Lord, who may abide 
it? For there is mercy and propitiation with 
thee. Restore them to thy holy church, in their 
former dignity and honour, through Christ our God 
and Saviour; by whom be glory and adoration 
unto thee, in the Holy Ghost, world without end. 

St. Chrysostom does no where give 
Sect. u. , •' . •, 1 ^ 

What notice we US these praycrs entn-e, but he fre- 

have of these pray- ^ "^ 

ers in Chrysostom Qvieutly rcfcrs to them as then used in 

and other writers. ^ J 

the church in this part of Divine ser- 
vice. We have heard him say before,^' that common 
prayers were made by the priest and the people 
jointly together, as well for the penitents as the 
energumens; and that they all said one and the 
same prayer, the prayer fall of mercy. In another 
place,^ The first prayer is full of mercy, when we 
pray for the energumens : the second prayer like- 
wise, wherein we pray for the penitents, makes in- 
tercession for mercy. I have given the reason al- 
ready why both these prayers were styled prayers 
for mercy by Chrysostom, and I need here only ob- 
serve, that they were used before the prayers for 
the faithful or communicants, as Chrj^sostom says 
expressly in the same place ; and that they were by 
a certain form, because they were offered by the 
common voice both of minister and people. The 
council of Laodicea^' also mentions this prayer for 

the penitents, as coming after the oermon, next to 
the prayers for the faithful. And in all ancient 
canons,'- wherever we meet with the names of yoj/u- 
kXIvovtiq, vnoTTi-KTovTii;, andjii'ostratt, kneelers or pros- 
trators, we are to understand this order of penitents, 
who in this part of the service bowed down to re- 
ceive the church's prayers and the bishop's bene- 

As to the Greek church, then, it is g^^j jj 
demonstrated beyond all contradic- ,i,e" Xrch'^^hesi 
tion, that there was a particular ser- ^''^^"^ '""'"' "'"^^• 
vice of prayers for the catechumens, energumens, 
and penitents, distinct from the communion ser- 
vice, in which they were again prayed for, though 
absent, among all other states and conditions of 
men. But there remain two questions, which 
have a little more difficulty in them. 1. In what 
part of the church these prayers were made ? 2. 
Whether there were any such prayers at all in use 
in the Latin church ? As to the first question, 
some learned persons'^ are of opinion, that not only 
the oblations were made at the altar, and the com- 
munion received there, but that all the prayers of 
the church were made at the altar likewise. Which 
is certainly true of all the prayers in the commu- 
nion service, but not so certain of these prayers in 
the service of the catechumens. For, 1. The se- 
veral orders for whom these prayers were made, 
and over whom they were made with imposition of 
hands also, had their station in a different part of 
the church ; and we do not read that they were 
ever called up to the altar to receive their benedic- 
tion ; but in some canons are expressly ordered'* to 
receive imposition of hands even in absolution be- 
fore the apsis, or reading-desk, in case of scandalous 
offences ; though absolution was usually given in 
ordinary cases at the altar. Now, if the prayer of 
absolution, which was their reconcilement to the 
altar, was sometimes made before the reading-desk, 
there is little question, but that the other prayers, 
which were but the introduction to their reconcile- 
ment, were made there also. 2. This service of the 
catechumens and penitents was altogether a dis- 
tinct service from that of the Jideles or communi- 
cants, and a final dismission of them was always 
made before the latter service began. 3. There is 
an express order in the third council of Carthage, 
that all prayers made at the altar should be direct- 
ed to the Father only, and not to the Son:'' and 
yet it is evident, that the prayer for the energumens 
was directed to the Son, as we have seen before in 

® Constit. Apost. lib. 8. cap. 9. 

2» Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. cited above, sect. 8. 

^ Ibid. Horn. 71. in Matt. p. 624. 

'' Cone. Laodic. can. 19. 

'- Vid. Cone. Nic. can. 11. Cone. Ancyran. can. 4, .j, G, 
7, 8,9, et 25. Cone. Neocaisar. can. 6. Basil. Epist. Canun. 
can. 75. 

^^ Stillingfl. Unreason, of Separat. part 3. sect. 9. p. 250. 

^' Cone. Carthag. 3. can. 32. Cujuscunque pa?nitentia pub- 
licum et vulgatissimum crimen est, quod universam eccle- 
siara commoverit, ante apsideni manus ei imponatur. 

'^ Ibid. can. 23. Ut nemo in precibus vel Patrem pro Filio, 
vcl Filium pro Patre nominet: et cum ad altare assistitur^ 
1 semper ad Patrem dirigatur oratio. 

Chap. V. 



the form cited" out of the Constitutions. So that 
either the discipline of the Eastern churches dif- 
fered very much from those of the West ; or else 
we must necessarily conclude, that these prayers, 
some of which are directed to the Son, were not 
made at the altar. 

But it may be said, the prayers in 

wheScr there tlic Latiu church wcrc never directed 

timtp"Iyeli\oT\ue to tlic Son : or pcrliaps they had no 

caterlR.mens and , , , 

penitents in the La- sucii praycrs lor the catechumens and 

tin church. -^ -^ 

penitents in particular, as they had in 
the Oriental liturgies, distinct from those which 
were made for all orders of men both before and 
after consecration in the communion service. The 
matter indeed is not so clear, I confess, in the La- 
tin church, as I have showed it to be in the East- 
ern : and that which increases the difficulty is, that 
some authors seem to intimate, that as soon as the 
sermon was ended, the catechumens were dismissed, 
and then the communicants betook themselves to 
prayers at the altar. Behold, says St. Austin, after 
the sermon the catechumens have their dismission ; 
but the faithful abide still, and come" to the place 
of prayer, meaning the altar, where the Lord's prayer 
was, according to custom, to be repeated by the 
communicants only. St. Ambrose,'* speaking of 
the same matter, says. When the sermon was done, 
he dismissed the catechumens, and rehearsed the 
creed to some candidates of baptism in the bap- 
tisteiy of the church. But these do not amount to 

a proof, that the comnmnion service succeeded im- 
mediately after the sermon, and that no other praycrs 
or business came between them. For this very 
place of St. Ambrose shows, that at least sometimes 
the repetition of the creed to the candidates of bap- 
tism was in the interval. And one of the forecited 
canons of the council of Carthage makes it evident, 
that at other times the prayer for the absolution 
and reconcilement of a scandalous offender was 
made in the apsis, or reading-desk, before the com- 
munion sei'vice likewise. And the other canon as 
plainly intimates, that some prayers were directed 
to the Son as well as the Father, by the prohibition 
that is made of not changing the name of the Son 
for the Father, or the Father for the Son ; which 
prohibition had been needless, had there been no 
prayers directed to the Son. Now, admitting there 
were some prayers directed to the Son, these must 
be made before the communion service, since at 
that time, by the same canon, all prayers are ordered 
to be directed to the Father only. For these reasons 
I conclude, that the practice of the Greek and Latin 
churches was the same, and that there were praycrs 
in both for the catechumens, energumens, and 
penitents, in their presence, distinct from those 
which were afterwards made for them in their ab- 
sence at the altar. And so I have done with the 
first part of Divine worship, which the ancient 
church called her Jtiissa catechumenorum, or ante- 
communion service. 

'" See before, sect. 7. 

" Aug. Horn. 237. de Tempore, t. 10. p. 385. Ecce post 
sevmonem sit missa catechumenis. Manebunt fideles, ve- 
nietur ad locum orationis. Scitis quo aceessuri snmus, quid 
prius Deo dicturi sumus ? Dimitte nobis debita nostra, 

sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. 

^' Ambros. Ep. 33. ad Mavcellinam Sororem. Post lec- 
tiones et tractatum, dimissis catechumenis, syrabolum ali- 
quibiis competentibus in baptisteriis tradebam ecdesiae. 





Sect 1 When the several orders of the cate- 

cd'^'^a'^^''™^"^?? chumens, penitents, and energumens 
orsiie'upva;"!'"- ^-erg disHiisscd, wWch was the com- 
pletion of the missa catechumemrum ; then imme- 
diately began that part of the service, which is pro- 
perly called missa Jidelium, or communion service, 
because none but communicants (or at least such of 
the penitents as had gone through all the stages of 
repentance, and were now waiting for absolution, 
called therefore awiara^ivoi, or co-standers) might 
be present at it. The entrance on this service was 
made by a mental or silent prayer, made by the 
people in private, and thence called fi^?) hia o-jwrijc, 
the silent prayer, and thxn kutci diavoiav, the mental 
prayer. This we learn from a canon of Laodicea, 
which gives a summary account of the whole order 
of the service of the chui'ch ; and therefore, for our 
clearer proceeding in this matter, I think it not im- 
proper to put it down entire in this place, as being 
one of the most remarkable canons in the whole 
Code, and that which will give great light to the 
subsequent discourse. The words of the canon are 
these: That after the homily of the bishop,' first 
the prayer of the catechumens is to be made ; and 
after the catechumens are gone forth, tlien the 
prayer for the penitents ; and when they have re- 
ceived their benediction by imposition of hands, and 
are withdrawn, then the three prayers of the faith- 
ful are to be made ; the first of which is to be per- 
fonned in silence, the second and third by the bid- 
ding and direction [of the deacon]. After these the 
kiss of peace is to be given ; presbyters saluting the 
bishop, and laymen one another : and then the holy 
oblation shall be celebrated ; those of the clergy only 
communicating in the chancel. 

Some learned persons take the prayer in silence 
here to mean no more than prayers made over the 
communicants by the minister alone, the people not 
making any responses ; and by the prayers called 
tvxai Sid Trpoa<p(i}vy]anog, they understand prayers 
made by way of responses, the minister and peo- 
ple mutually answering one another. But this ex- 
plication does not come up to the sense of this ca- 
non. For by the prayer in silence, we are here to 
understand such private prayers as each particular 
person made by himself; and by the prayers Sid 
Trpoa^wvnatwQ, such prayers as the whole church 
made in common by the call and admonition of the 
deacon, who repeated the several forms, directing 
them what things they were to pray for, to each of 
which petitions they subjoined their Kvpt£ thtriaov, 
" Lord have mercy, and grant the petitions we ask ;" 
and then the bishop added the iTriKXrimg, or invoca- 
tion, which was also called collceta, the collect, be- 
cause it was a collection or repetition of all the pray- 
ers of the people. That there were these three sorts 
of prayers in the ancient church, is evident from 
the accounts that are given of each of them. And 
first, that there were such private prayers of every par- 
ticular person by himself, appears not only from this 
canon, but from several ancient writers. St. Chrysos- 
tom- takes notice that some in these private prayers 
spent their time in nothing else but praying for re- 
venge upon their enemies. Many men, says he, 
fall prostrate upon the ground, and beat the earth 
with their foreheads, and shed abundance of tears, 
and groan bitterly within themselves, stretching 
forth their hands, and showing great zeal, and yet 
use all this fervour and earnestness only against their 
own salvation. For they pray to God, not for their 

' Cone. Laodic. can. 19. Tltpl tov di.ti/ iSia irpCoTou, fxiTo. 
Tas ofxiXia^ Twv kirirrKoirwv, Kai tuiv KaT^y^ovfxivtJOV iv')(i]v 

ETTlTlXilffdai' Kcd fXtTU TO k^tXdtHv TOUS KaTIJ^OV/lilJUU?. 

Twv kv fXiTavoia Tiiviv)(i,vyivi:adai, kui tovt lovrr poaiXd 6v- 
Tvov vird )(£T()a, Kal inro')(^uopii<TdvTwv, oi'Ttus twv itituiv ti(s 

EU^as yii/c(T0at X/OeTs, filav f).ivTi]V'TrpwTi]V 5ia cn(»'irr}<s, tiju 
ok SiVTtpav Kal TpiTi]V Sia 'rrpocrffiuivtiirsioi •7r\i]pou(ri)ai, eid' 
ouTfo? Tiiv ilpt'iv^v SioocTVai, k.t.X. 

- Chrysostom. 57. De non evulgandis Peccatis, t. &. 
p. 7G'2. 

!hap. I. 



5wn offences, they do not beseech him to pardon 
;heir own sins, but tliey spend all this labour against 
heir enemies. Which is the same thing, as if a 
nan should whet his sword, and then not use it 
igainst his adversaries, but thrust it into his own 
;hroat. For so these men use their prayers, not to 
abtain pardon of their own sins, but to accelerate 
:he punishment of their enemies ; which in effect is 
;o run the sword into their own bowels. A little 
ifter he tells us the very words of their prayers, 
ivhich were these : " Revenge me of my enemies, 
Lord, and show them that I have a God." By all 
ivhich it appears, that these were the private pray- 
ers of the people, which they might abuse, and not 
the public prayers of the church ; for the church 
tiever taught her children to curse their enemies, but 
;o bless and pray for them. But in these private 
prayers, which were designed for confession of sins 
ind deprecation of God's judgments, evil men took 
liberty to transgress all rules, and gratify their pas- 
sions by asking revenge upon their enemies. Now, 
though this was a grandabuse of these private pray- 
ers, yet it serves to show us both what the custom 
ivas in the church's allowance of such prayers, and 
what in her designation was the true use of them. 
St. Basil, speaking of their vigils or night assem- 
blies,' intimates as plainly, that they were spent in 
5uch private prayers intermingled with divers sorts 
of psalmody. And Cassian gives the same account 
of them both in the Eastern and Western chui'ches, 
as I have showed at large in speaking of the daily 
morning and evening service, which began with 
private confession in the Eastern churches, men- 
tioned by St. Basil, and ended with public confes- 
sion, made in the words of the 5 1st Psalm, which 
was thence called the psalm of confession, or the 
penitential psalm* for the morning service. But 
as to the private confessions we are now speaking 
of, with which the communion service here began, 
we are to note further, that they were not only made 
by the people in silence by themselves, but by the 
minister in private also. And the footsteps of this 
practice remain in some of the oldest liturgies of 
several churches, quite different from the present 
confessions in the Roman Missal : for whereas now 
in the Roman Missal the confession of sins is made 
to saints and angels, as well as God, all the offices, 
for at least a thousand years after Christ, had their 
confessions only to God. Thus it is in the forms 
of confession in Gregory's Sacramentarium, and 
others published by Menardus. And this is that 
manuscript, which Cardinal Bona so much magni- 
fies in the queen of Sweden's lil)rary, as containing 
the offices of the old Galilean liturgy. To show that 
these confessions were made only to God, and not 

to any saints or angels, and withal that they were 
particular confessions made by the priest only in 
private, Sm mwirfiQ, as the Laodicean canon words it, 
I will here transcribe that which Bona gives us out 
of that ancient MS. as the confession of the Galli- 
can office. It is there called Apologia Saccrdotis,* 
The Apology of the Priest, or the Confession of his l^ 
Sins, and it runs in these words : 

"O thou most admirable Majesty, and great God, 
Almighty Father, who art of infinite goodness and 
power, I, who am a most vile sinner, and condemned 
by the testimony of my own conscience, do ap- 
proach thee, and present myself in the sight of thy 
greatness, before the eyes of thine ineffable Majesty, 
before thy holy face, not without due reverence, yet 
with great un worthiness and neglect of duty. I do 
not excuse, but accuse myself unto thee. I confess, 
I say I confess the unrighteousness of my impiety, 
that thou mayest forgive the wickedness of my sin. 
I confess, that if thou dost not forgive, thou mayest 
punish me. I confess myself a criminal before thee, 
and yet I know my amendment is only in words. 
In words I endeavour to appease thee, but in works 
I offend thee. I am sensible of my faults, and yet 
I defer the amendment. Assist me therefore, assist 
me, O thou ineffable Goodness. Pardon me, pardon 
me, O most adoi'able Trinity. Spare me, spare me, 
spare me, I beseech thee, merciful God. Hear 
me, hear me, hear me, I beseech thee, when I cry 
in the words of that prodigal son, O Father, eternal 
God, I have sinned against heaven and before thee : 
I am no more worthy to be called thy son, make me 
as one of thy hired servants. And now, merciful 
Father, I fly to the only refuge and haven of thy 
mercy under the protection of Christ, that what is 
vile in me, thou mayest favourably vouchsafe to ac- 
cept in him, who livest and reignest for ever and 
ever. Amen." 

It is plain here, that as there is no address to 
either saint or angel in this prayer, so it is a private 
prayer of the priest alone for himself, whilst the 
people were likewise employed in making their pri- 
vate confessions to God: which shows us the mean- 
ing of that silent prayer spoken of in the council of 
Laodicea, which is called the first prayer in the en- 
trance of the communion service. 

All I shall add further here concerning these pri- 
vate prayers, is to make an observation upon two 
ancient forms of speech, which have some relation 
to this matter, and help to confirm it : that is, the 
forms, Silentnim indicere, and Orationem dure, both 
which are used to denote the custom of bidding the 
people fall to their private devotions. Sometimes 
the bishop was used to give the signal, by saying, 
Oreimis, Let us pray ; and then the people betook 

3 Basil. Ep. 63. ad Neocaesar. t. 3. p. %. 
* See Book XIII. diap. 10. sett. 13. 

Bnna, Rer. Litiirjr. lib. 2. cap. 1. ii. 1. 



Book XV 

themselves to their private devotions, after which 
the bishop summed up their prayers in a short 
collect by way of solemn invocation. Thus Ura- 
nms" describes the rite in the Life of Paulinus, 
bishop of Nola, when he tells us, how a certain 
bishop went into his throne, and there saluting the 
people, and being saluted by them again, he then, 
according to custom, gave the signal for prayer, and 
afterward summed up their prayers in a collect, and 
so breathed out his last. Sometimes the deacon 
gave the signal, and this was called Sihmtium indi- 
cere. Thus it was in the Galilean churches, as 
Bishop Stillingfleet has observed out of Gregory' of 
Tours ; and the priest did it by the Mozarabic 
liturgy. Where he rightly concludes, that this 
phrase, Silentium indicerc, does not barely signify 
making the people attentive, but there was a further 
meaning in it, that they were for a time there to 
attend to their own private prayers. Which he 
thinks not improbable on these considerations. " 1. 
Gregoiy Turonensis saith in the place before-men- 
tioned, That the king took that time to speak to the 
people, who immediately brake forth into a prayer 
for the king ; not that any collect was then read for 
him, for that was not the proper time for it ; but it 
being a time of secret prayers, they were so moved 
with what the king said, that they all prayed for 
him. 2. Among the heathens, when they were 
bidden /a rere lingms, yet then, Brissonius' saith. 
They made their private prayers ; and as the dea- 
con's commanding silence seems to be much of the 
same nature, it is not probable that the Christians 
should fall short of their devotions. 3. The great 
argument, says he, to me, is the small number of 
collects in the ancient churches ; for the Christians 
spent a great deal of time in the public service on 
the Lord's day, and the stationary days (I add also 
their vigils) ; but all other offices could not take up 
that time, there being no long extemporary prayers, 
nor such a multitude of tedious ceremonies in all 
parts, as the Roman Breviary and Missal intro- 
duced ; and the collects of greatest antiquity, being 
very few and short, it seems most probable, that a 
competent part of the time was spent in private de- 
votions. A remainder whereof is still preserved in 
the office of ordination of priests in our church, 
whereby silence is commanded to be kept for a 
time, for the people's secret prayers. And the same 
custom was observed at the bidding of prayers, 
which was a direction for the people what to pray 
for in their private devotions."" 

Sect 2 ^"^^ ^^^^ leads us in the next place 

caUed'^'L.rTo.T- ^o cousldcr the second sort of prayers 
^SgTra^ere" ^'^' mentioned in the Laodicean canon. 

" Uran. Vit. Paulini. Ad ecclesiam processit, et ascenso 
tribunali populum ex more salutavit, resalutatusque a pc- 
pulo orationem dedit, et collecta oratione spirituni exhalavit. 

' Stilliiigfl. Oi-ig. Britau. cap. 4. p. 223. ex Greg. Tiiron. 

which are there styled, thxal ha TrpoaipiDprfctug, 
which we may English, bidding prayers ; for 
they were not only a call to the people to pray, 
but a direction what particulars they were to pray 
for. We have a form of this sort of prayer in the 
Apostolical Constitutions, immediately after the dis- 
mission of catechumens and penitents, where it is 
called Trpo(T(pu)vt]cng virip tu>v mffruiv, a direction or 
bidding prayer for the commvmicants or believers. 
It is there ushered in with these words :'" Let no 
one of those that are not allowed, come near. As 
many as are believers, let us fall upon our knees. 
Let us pray to God through his Christ. Let us all 
intensely beseech God through his Christ. Then 
follow the several petitions in this order. 

" Let us pray for the peace and tranquillity of the 
world and the holy churches ; that the God of the 
whole world would grant us his perpetual and last- 
ing peace, and keep us persevering to the end in all 
the fulness of piety and virtue. 

" Let us pray for the holy catholic and apostolic 
church, from one end of the earth to the other ; that 
the Lord would keep it unshaken and undisturbed 
with storms and tempests, founded on a rock, to the 
end of the world. 

" Let us pray for the holy church (TrapoiKiae) in 
this place ; that the Lord of all would grant us 
grace to pursue his heavenly hope without ceasing; 
and that we may render him the continual debt and 
tribute of our prayers. 

" Let us pray for the whole episcopate or com- 
pany of bishops under heaven, that rightly divide 
the word of truth. And let us pray for James our 
bishop and his churches : 

" Let us pray for Clemens our bishop and his 
churches : 

" Let us pray for Euodius our bishop and his 
churches : that the merciful God would preserve 
them in safety, honour, and length of days, for the 
benefit of his holy churches ; and grant them a 
venerable old age in all piety and righteousness. 

" Let us likewise pray for our presbyters, that 
God would deliver them from every absurd and 
wicked thing, and preserve them safe and honour- 
able in their presbytery. 

" Let us pray for the whole order of deacons and 
subdeacons in Christ; that the Lord would keep 
them unblamable in their ministry. 

" Let us pray for the readers, singers, widows, and 

" Let us pray for those that live in matrimony, 
and procreation or education of children, that God 
would have mercy upon them all. 

" Let us pray for the eunuchs that walk in holiness. 

lib. 7. C.7. 

^ Brisson. de Formiilis, p. 9, 10. 

■' Vid. Mat. Parker, Concion. iu Obit. Buceri. 

'" Constit. Apost. lib. S. c. 9 et 10. Vid. lib. 2. cap. 57. 

Chap. I. 



" Let us pray for those that live in continency or 
virginity, and lead a pious life. 

" Let us pray for those that make oblations in 
the holy church, and give alms to the poor. 

" Let us pray for those that offer their sacrifices 
and firstfruits to the Lord our God, that the most 
gracious God would reward them with heavenly 
gifts, and restore them an hundred-fold in this 
world, and grant them everlasting life in the world 
to come; giN'ing them heavenly things for their 
earthly, and for their temporal things those that are 

"Let us pray for our brethren that are newly 
baptized, that the Lord would confirm and establish 

" Let us pray for our brethren that are afflicted 
with sickness, that the Lord would deliver them 
from all their distempers and infirmities, and restore 
them again in health to his holy church. 

" Let us pray for all those that travel by sea or 
by land. 

" Let us pray for those that are in the mines, and 
in banishment, and in prison, and in bonds, for the 
name of the Lord, 

" Let us pray for our enemies and those that 
hate us. 

" Let us pray for those that persecute us for the 
name of the Lord, that the Lord would mitigate their 
fury, and dissipate their anger conceived against us. 

" Let us pray for those that are without, and led 
away with error, that the Lord would convert them. 

" Let us remember the infants of the church, that 
the Lord wiould perfect them in his fear, and bring 
them to the measure of adult age. 

" Let us pray mutually for one another ; that the 
Lord would keep and preserve us by his grace unto 
the end, and deliver us from the evil one, and from 
all the scandals of those that work iniquity, and 
conduct us safe to his heavenly kingdom. 

" Let us pray for every Christian soul. 

" Save us, O God, and raise us up by thy mercy." 

It is here to be supposed, that as in the former 
prayers for the catechumens and penitents," so 
here at the end of every petition the people answered, 
Kiipit i\kt)aov, " Lord have mercy upon them." Or, 
as it is in the close of this prayer, " Save them, O 
God, and raise them up by thy mercy." 

Any one that will compare either our litany, or 
the prayer for the whole state of Christ's church in 
the beginning of our communion service, will readily 
perceive, that there is a near affinity between them 
and this general form of the ancient church. We 
have not so complete a form either in Chrysostom's 
genuine works, or any other ancient writer, to com- 
pare this with, as we did before in considering the 
form for the catechumens ; but there are two very 
ancient forms of such a prayer, without any addi- 
tion of invocation of saints, still preserved, one in 
the Ambrosian liturgy, and the other in an ancient 
office transcribed by Wicelius out of the library of 
Fulda, which, because they come near this ancient 
form in the Constitutions, I will here insert them '- 

" See Book XIV. chap. 5. 

'- In Codice Fuldensi Litania Missalis. 

Dicamus omnes ex toto corde totaque mente : Domme 

Qui respicis terrain, et facis earn tremere. Oramiis te, 
Domine, exaudi et miserere. 

Pro altissima pace et tranquillitate temporum nostrorum. 
Oramus te Domine, ^c. 

Pro sancta ecclesia catholica, quae est a finibus usque ad 
terminos orbis terrarum. Oramus te Domine, S^c. 

Pro patre nostro episcopo, pro omnibus episcopis ac 
presbyleris et diaconis, omniqueclero. Oramus te Domine. 

Pro hoc loco et habitantibus in eo. Oramus te Do- 
mi7ie, S^c. 

Pro piissimo imperatore et toto Romano exercitu. Ora- 
mus te Domine, SfC. 

Pro omnibus qui in sublimitate constituti sunt, pro vir- 
ginibus, viduis, et orphanis. Oramus te Domine. 

Pro poenitentibus et catechumenis. Oramus te Domine. 

Pro his qui in sancta ecclesia fructus misericordiae largi- 
untur. Domine Deus virtutum exaudi preces nostras. Ora- 
mus te Domine. 

Sanctorum apostolorum et martyrum memores sumus, ut 
orantibus eis pro nobis veniam mereamur. Oramus te 

Christianum ac pacificura nobis finem concedi a Domino 
comprecemur. Prcesta Domine, prasta. 

Et divinum in nobis pennanere vinculum charitatis, 
Dominum comprecemur. Prcesta Doniine, prcesta: 

Conservare sanctitatem ac puritatem catholicaj fidei, 
sanctum Deum comprecemur. Prcesta, Domine, prcesta. 

Dicamus omnes, Domine, exaudi et miserere. 

Altera formula ex vita Ambrosiana in Dominica pri- 
ma quadragesimae, incipiente diacouo, et choro re- 

Divinae pacis et indulgeutiae munere supplicantes ex toto 
corde et ex tota mente, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro ecclesia sancta catholica, quK hie et per universum 
orbem diffusa est, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro papa nostro N. et pontifice nostro N. et orani clero 
eorum, omnibusque sacerdotibus ac ministris, precamur te. 
Domine miserere. 

Pro famulis tuis N. imperatore et N. rege, duce nostro, 
et omni exercitu eorum, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro pace ecclesiarum, vocatione gentium, et quiete po- 
pulnrum, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro civitate hac et conservatione ejus, omnibusque habi- 
tantibus in ea, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro aeris temperie, ac fructu et fcecunditate terrarum, 
precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro virginibus, viduis, orphanis, captivis, ac poenitenti- 
bus, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Pro navigantibus, iter agentibus, in carceribus, in vin- 
culis, in metallis, in exiliis constitutis, precamur te. Do- 
mine miserere. 

Pro iis qui diversis infirmitatibus detinentur, quique 
spiritibus vexantur iramundis, precamur te. Domine mise- 

Pro iis qui in sancta ecclesia tua fructus misericordia) 
largiuntur, precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Exaudi nos in omni oratione atque deprecatione nostra, 
precamur te. Domine miserere. 

Dicamus omnes, Domine miserere. 



Book XV. 

in the margin for the use of the learned reader, out 
of Pamelius his Liturgies, t. 3. p. 307, Jind Cardinal 
Bona, Rerum Liturgicarum, lib. 2. cap. 4. n. 3, and 
then see what remains of this ancient prayer we 
meet with in the undoubted writings of the fathers. 
For though none of them gives us the same form 
entire, yet one may easily perceive, by the near al- 
liance of the fragments that remain, that they all 
refer to the same original. For there are, both in 
Chrysostom and other writers, several fragments of 
such a prayer, and plain intimations that either this 
or a like form was in use in many churches. And 
therefore it will not be amiss to collect these refer- 
ences and fragments before we proceed any further. 
g^^j g St. Chrysostom, in one of his ser- 

The form of this jjions, SDoken to the people of Antioch, 

sort of prayers in ' .r X r ' 

compaled'^'ith'Hie pl^lnly shows that they had such a 
[;fl"r"sl"rm°T^^^^^^ form of bidding prayer in use in that 

olher writers. , t r ^ t j /»ji 

church: for he relates some ot the 
petitions of it, which are so like the form in the 
Constitutions, that he will not judge amiss that 
thinks the author of the Constitutions had his form 
from the same original whence we are sure St. Chry- 
sostom had his, viz. the liturgy of the church of 
Antioch. For, says he, when you all " in common 
hear the deacon bidding this prayer, and saying, 
" Let us pray for the bishop, and for his old age, and 
for grace to assist him, that he may rightly divide 
the word of truth," and for those that are here, and 
those that are in all the world, you refuse not to do 
what is commanded you, but offer your prayers with 
all fervency, as knowing what power there is in 
common prayer. They that are initiated know what 
I say. For this is not yet allowed in the prayer of 
the catechumens. For they are not yet arrived to 
this boldness and liberty of speech. But the deacon, 
who ministers in this office, exhorts you to make 
prayers for the whole world, and for the church ex- 
tended from one end of the earth to the other, and 
for all the bishops that rule and govern it ; and ye 
obey with readiness, testifying by your actions, that 
great is the power of prayer, when it is offered up 
by the people with one voice in the church. Here 
we may observe, that this was the bidding prayer ; 
for it was done by the celeitsma, or call and admoni- 
tion of the deacon, telling them what they were to 
pray for. Then again, that it was a prayer peculiar 
to the communicants, and used only in the commu- 
nion service ; for the catechumens were not allowed 
to join in it. And further, that the petitions for the 

whole world, for the church over all the earth, for 
all bishops wheresoever governing the church, and 
particularly for the bishop of the place, that " he 
might live to a good old age, and have the help of 
God's grace to enable him rightly to divide the word 
of truth," are the same petitions that occur in the 
Constitutions : which makes it evident that these 
forms of bidding pi'ayer were then commonly used 
in the catholic church. Chrysostom, in another 
place, speaks of this same prayer as performed in 
common both by ministers and people ; and by both 
of them in the posture of kneeling or prostration. 
For giving an account of the several prayers of the 
church, in which the people bear a part with the 
minister, he says, They prayed in common for per- 
sons possessed with evil spirits, and for the penitents ; 
and then, after they were excluded who could not 
partake of the holy table, they made another prayer," 
in which they all fell prostrate upon the earth to- 
gether, and all in like manner rose up together. This 
is a plain reference to that bidding prayer, before 
which the deacon commanded all to fall down upon 
the ground, and make those several petitions in that 
posture, and then gave the signal to rise again, by 
saying, 'Ai/aarw/xtv, Let us rise, as it is worded in 
the Constitutions. Chrysostom has many other pas- 
sages, which speak of prayers for the whole state of 
the church, for bishops, for the universe, and the 
public peace; but because these refer more pecu- 
liarly to the prayer immediately following the con- 
secration and oblation, (where a more solemn com- 
memoration of all states was again made,) I will 
refer the notice of them to the discourse upon that 
prayer in its proper place. 

However, I cannot omit mentioning one remark- 
able thing more out of St. Chrysostom, relating to 
this prayer, which is. That this pi-ayer was esteemed 
so much the common prayer of the people, that the 
children of the church were particularly enjoined 
to bear a part in it. For in one of his homilies 
upon St. Matthew, speaking first of the prayer for 
the demoniacs, secondly, of the prayer for the peni- 
tents, thirdly, of this prayer for the communicants, 
he observes. That the two former were offered by the 
people alone, as intercessors for mercy for othex's ; | 
but this prayer, which was for themselves, was pre- i 
sented also by the innocent children of the people,"* 
crying to God for mercy : it being supposed, that 
their innocency and humility, the imitation of which 
qualifies men for the kingdom of heaven, were good 

" Chrys. Horn. 2. 'le Obscuiit. Prophetianim, t. 3. p. 916. 
Vioivi] iruvTi^ aKovov-rti tov SiaKovov, touto keXsi/outos 
Kill \iyouTO<;, Of )|(3tt)/jif ii virlp tou iiriaKoirov, Kal tou -yijoo)?, 
Kril Tfjs ai/TiX)i»//f ais, Kal 'ivn 6p6oTOfji.TJ toii \oyov t»';<; 
ttXijOfias, Kal viri(i -rw// Ivravda, kuI uirtp tu>v diravTa^ou, 
ot) irapaiTfla^dE troitlv to tiriTuypa, k.t.\. 

" Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. YlaXiv iTrnSuu 
t'i(i'^i>Hiii Twv 'itpmv TTtpipoXwv TOWS ov dwa/nivovi tj/s 

Itpai p.tTa<7X.f~iV TpaTTt'^ils. tTtpav OfT yfvtaOai tiix')^, '>^«' 
■TravTt^ o/xoiw-i Lit' iSa<f>ovs Kiiij.i6a, Kal ■navTi's Ofxoiwi 

"■ Chrys. Horn. 71. al. 72. in Matt. p. 624. 'H fit TpiV., 
TrdXiv ivX'l '^■''■'P v/iwi' ainiiiv, Kat auTij Ta iraioia Trt 
apwjxa TOV ori/iov TrpoftaWtTai, tov Qtov t-Ki 'iXiov Trapa- 

Chap. I. 



recommendations of their prayers, when they so- 
lemnly implored the Divine mercy. Which plainly 
shows, that this was a general prayer of all degrees 
of persons in the chmxh. We may note further 
out of St. Austin, that the universal church, or the 
greatest part of it, had such prayers preceding the 
consecration of the eucharist, which were properly 
called prccationes, or deprecationes, supplications for 
themselves and others, and communis oratio, common 
prayer, because they were performed by the com- 
mon voice of the deacon and the people. In one of 
his epistles '" he divides the whole service of the 
church into these five parts : I. Singing of psalms. 
2. Reading of the Scriptures. 3. Preaching. 4. 
The prayers of the bishops and presbyters. 5. The 
common prayers indited by the voice or direction 
of the deacons ; which were the bidding prayers we 
are now discoursing of. Whence we learn the 
meaning of the deacon's being said, Tnclicere com- 
mmiem oratlonem ; that it means not barely his 
commanding them to pray, but his going before 
them in a form of words, to which they might join 
their common responses. 

In another epistle," he divides the communion 
service into four parts, according to that division of 
St. Paul, I Tim. ii. I, " I exhort therefore, that first 
of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and 
giving of thanks, be made for all men;" taking 
supplications for these common prayers made for 
all men before the consecration of the elements ; 
and prayers, in the Greek called ihxal, for the pray- 
ers of consecration, of which the Lord's prayer was 
one, because the people did then solemnly dedicate 
themselves to Christ, which is the most common 
notation of the word thxfi, a vow. By intercessions, 
he understands the benedictions of the people by 
imposition of hands, used at that time by the bi- 
shops and other chief ministers, recommending 
them to the mercy of God ; and by thanksgiving, 
the doxologies and returns of praise after the par- 
ticipation was over. So that here we have a plain 
account of the church's service, and particularly 
that the prayers before the consecration were those 
solemn addresses, which were made chiefly by the 

deacon and people, and therefore were called, cuyn- 
iminis oratio voce diaconi indicia, the common prayers 
of the people, enjoined and ordered by the bidding 
of the deacon. In another place he mentions some 
of the particulars then prayed for. For writing to 
one Vitalis of Carthage, who maintained that infi- 
dels were not to be prayed for, he urges him with 
the known practice of the church. Dispute then, 
says he, against the prayers of the church, and 
when you hear the priest of God"* exhorting the 
people of God at the altar to pray for infidels, that 
God would convert them to the faith ; and for cate- 
chumens, that God would inspire them with a de- 
sire of regeneration ; and for the faithful, that they 
may persevere by his grace in that wherein they 
have begun ; mock at these pious words, and say 
you do not do what he exhorts you to do, that is, 
that you do not pray to God for infidels, that he 
would make them believers. Here we see the pray- 
ers for the conversion of infidels and the persever- 
ance of believers are the same with those that occur 
in the Constitutions, and in both places are said 
to be done at the bidding or exhortation of the 

St. Basil also speaks of these prayers, under the 
name oi Kripiynara £icicXjj(Tta<r«(ca, which is not to be 
understood of preaching in the church, but of these 
prayers, which the deacon, as the common KrjpvK, or 
proclaimer and director of the service, appointed 
the people to make for all orders of men in the 
church. And so St. Basil himself explains his own 
meaning. For writing to a friend in a foreign 
country, he tells him it was impossible he should 
forget him in his prayers, unless he should forget 
the work to which the Lord had appointed him. 
For you, says he, who are by the grace of God a 
believer, remember very well the bidding prayers of 
the church ; '" how we there pray for all our bre- 
thren that travel in foreign countries, and for all 
those that are mustered in the camp, and for those 
that undertake any brave and bold thing for the 
name of the Lord, and for all such as show forth 
any fruits of the Spirit; for all these we make 
prayers in the holy church. And he tells his friend, 

'" Aug. Ep. 119. ad Januar. cap. 18. Quando autem non 
est tempus (cum in ecclesia fratres congregantur) sancta 
cantandi, nisi cum legitur, aut disputatur, aut antistites 
clara voce deprecantur, aut communis oratio voce diaconi 
indicitur ? 

" Aug. Ep. 52. ad Paulin. Quaest. 5. Eligo in his verbis 
hoc intelligere, quod omnis vel pene omnis frequentat ec- 
clesia, ut prccationes accipiamus dictas, quas facimus in 
celebratione sacramentorum, antequam iUud quod est in 
Domini mensa, incipiat benedici : orationes, cum benedi- 
citur et sanctificatur, et ad distribuendum comminuitur 
quam totam petitionem fere omnis ecclesia Dominica ora- 
tione concludit. — Interpellationes autem, sive, ut vestri 
codices habent, postulationes, fiunt cum populiis benedici- 
tur. Tunc enim antistites, velut advocati, siisceptos suos 

per manus impositionem misericordissimae offerunt potcs- 
tati. Quibus peractis, et participatu tanto sacramento, gra- 
tiarum actio cuucta concludit, quam in his etiam verbis ul- 
timam commendavit apostolus. 

"* Aug. Ep. 107. ad Vital, p. 187. Exercere contra ora- 
tiones ecclesiae disputationes tuas, et quando audis sacerdo- 
tem Dei ad altare exhortantem populum Dei, orare pro 
incredulis, ut eos Deus convertat ad fidem; et pro catechu- 
menis, ut eis desiderium regenerationis inspire! ; et pro 
iidclibus, ut in eo quod esse coepenmt, ejusmuncre perscvc- 
reiit; subsanna pias voces, et die te nou facere quod horta- 
tur, Hcc. 

" Basil. Ep. 241. Mtfimirrai.-yap ttuvtui'S Ttov Krtpvyixr't- 

TlOV TVDV SKK\l}<TLaTlKWD, TTITOS doV TIJ t5 Gfa J^apiTt, OTl 

Kcd virtp Tihv iv dTro8i]fiiai.<i ade\<f>wv SiOfitOa, k.t.\. 



Book XV. 

that he being a person singularly eminent, and in 
all those capacities, as a traveller, as a warrior, as a 
confessor, as a virtuous man, was alwaj's remem- 
bered in the public prayers of the church. He 
mentions no other particulars, because he had no 
occasion to specify any more but what related to 
this particular man's case ; but we need not doubt 
but that there were many other such petitions in 
the liturgy of the church of Casarea, as there were 
in those of Antioch, and the African churches. 
Ca!sarius Arelatensis also speaks of these bidding 
prayers as used in the Galilean churches. For in 
one of his homilies to the people™ he exhorts them, 
that as often as the clergy prayed at the altar, or 
prayer was enjoined by the bidding of the deacon, 
they should bow not only their hearts, but their 
bodies also. For it was a very irregular thing, and 
unbecoming Christians, that when the deacon cried 
out, " Let us bend the knee," the greatest part of the 
people should stand erect like pillars, as he had ob- 
served them to do in their devotions. Here, though 
we have none of the particular petitions, yet there 
is a plain reference to them, and two of the circum- 
stances mentioned, that is, that they were to be 
made kneeling, and by the indiction or direction of 
the deacon. 

And in these circumstances they 

Sect. 4. . 

Of the invocation, differed from the following prayer, 

or coUect, Iblloiving O ST J ' 

tiie prayers of tiie made by tlic blshoD or chief minister, 

people. *' ^ ' 

which the Greeks called iiriKXrjmg, the 
invocation, and the Latins, collecta, the collect, be- 
cause it was the recollection or recapitulation of the 
preceding prayers of the people. As the former 
prayer was said by the deacon and people kneeling, 
so this was presented by the bishop standing. And 
therefore the deacon was used to say immediately 
after the former prayer, eyfipw/xaSa, " Let us rise up, 
and praying earnestly, let us recommend ourselves 
and one another to the living God by his Christ." 
After which, the bishop makes this prayer, as the 
form runs in the Constitutions.-' 

" Lord Almighty and most High, thou that 
dwellest in the highest, thou Holy One that restest 
in thy saints, (or holy places,) that art without 
original, the great Monarch of the world ; who by 
thy Christ hast caused thy knowledge to be preach- 
ed unto us, to the acknowledgment of thy glory and 
name, which he hath manifested to our understand- 
ings : look down now by him upon this thy flock, 
and deliver it from all ignorance and wicked works. 
Grant that it may fear thee, and love thee, and 
tremble before the face of thy glory. Be merciful 
and propitious unto them, and hearken to their 

prayers ; and keep them unchangeable, unblamable, 
and without rebuke : that they may be holy both in 
body and soul, not having spot or wrinkle or any 
such thing ; but that they may be perfect, and none 
among them deficient or wanting in any respect. O 
thou their Defender, thou Almighty, that regardest 
not persons, be thou the help of this thy people, 
whom thou hast redeemed with the precious blood 
of thy Christ. Be thou their defence and succour, 
their refuge and keeper, their impregnable wall, 
their bulwark and safety. For no one can pluck 
them out of thy hand. There is no other God like 
thee : in thee is our hope and strong consolation. 
Sanctify them by thy truth ; for thy word is truth. 
Thou that dost nothing out of partiality and fa- 
vour, thou that canst not be deceived, deliver them 
from sickness and infirmity, from sin, from all in- 
jury and fi-aud, and from the fear of the enemy, from 
the arrow that flieth by day, and the danger that 
walketh in darkness ; and vouchsafe to bring them 
to eternal life, which is in Christ thy only begotten 
Son, our God and Saviour; by whom be glory and 
worship unto thee in the Holy Ghost, now and for 
ever, world without end. Amen." 

This, I conceive, is of the same nature with that 
prayer mentioned by the council of Laodicea,"- as 
the second of those that are said to be made ha 
Trpo(T(pojvrj(rsw£ : for though the author of the Con- 
stitutions distinguishes between the deacon's bid- 
ding prayer and the bishop's invocation, calling the 
former ■n-po(T<pwv7i(7ig, and the latter sTr'iKXtjmg ; j'et 
they both agreed in several things to distinguish 
them from the silent prayer that went before. For, 
I. They were both pronounced audibly by the 
minister, so as the whole congregation might join 
with them, either by making responses to every 
particular petition of the deacon's prayer, or by say- 
ing Amen at the conclusion of the bishop's prayer ; 
whereas the silent prayers of the people were such 
as every man said privately by himself, and might 
be very different from one another, and sometimes 
were such as were not fit to be heard, because some 
men abused this opportunity to pray to God for re- 
venge upon their enemies. 2. Both these prayers 
were made at the call or admonition of the deacon, 
and so might have the name of Trpoo-^wvj/ffic. For 
he said before the one, " Let us fall down upon our 
knees and pray to God : " and before the other, 
" Let us rise and commend ourselves to God," 
napaQwuESa eavTovq r^ Ga-J. Whence also this, and 
all such prayers of the bishop, had the name of 
■jTopaOiaiiQ, commendations, because they recom- 
mended the people to the mercy and protection of 

^ Caesar. Arelat. Horn. 34. Rogo vos et admoneo, fratres 
charissimi, ut quotiesctinque juxta altare a clericis oratur, 
aut oratio diacono clamante indicitur, non solum covda, 
sed etiatn corpora inclinetis. Nam diim frequenter, sicut 
oportet, et diligenter attendo, diacono clamante, Flectamus 

genua, maximam partem populi velut columnas erectas 
stare conspicio, quod Christianis omnino nee licet nee ex- 

-' Constit. Apost. lib. 8. cap. 11. 

" Cone. Laod. can. 19. 

Chap. I. 



God. As we find in one of the canons of the Afri- 
can Code,^ which made an injunction that no pray- 
ers should be used in the church but such as were 
authorized by a synod, whether they were prefaces, 
or commendations, or impositions of hands, lest any 
prayers contrary to the faith should surreptitiously 
creep into the church. Where, as by prefaces are 
meant certain proper prayers used at the eucharist ; 
and by impositions of hands, prayers made over the 
penitents or people by way of benediction ; so by 
commendations are to be understood partly prayers 
for the catechumens, and partly these prayers of 
the bishop for the people, recommending their per- 
sons, and prayers, and concerns to the favour of 
God. This canon was first made in the council of 
Mile^•is, where what the Greeks call Trapa&ictic, is 
by the Latins"' called commendationes. But the 
more usual name in the Latin church was collecf^p, 
collects, because these prayers of the bishop, which 
in any part of the service followed the joint prayers 
of the deacon and congregation, were both a recol- 
lection and recommendation of the prayers of the 
people. In this sense Cassian takes the phrase, 
colUgere orationem, when, speaking of the service in 
the Egyptian monasteries and Eastern churches, he 
says. After the psalms they had private prayers, 
which they said partly standing and partly kneel- 
ing ; which being ended, he that collected the 
prayer" rose up, and then they all rose up together 
with him ; none presuming to continue longer upon 
the ground, lest he should seem rather to pui'sue his 
own prayers, than go along with him who collected 
the prayers, or closed up all with his concluding 
collect. Where we may observe, that a collect is 
taken for the chief minister's prayer at the close of 
some part of Di\ane service, collecting and con- 
cluding the people's preceding devotions. As here 
in Cassian, it is the close of the ordinary or daily 
morning service, which was the same as the close 
of that part of the communion service, which imme- 
diately comes before the consecration, as has been 
showed before, in speaking of the daily morning 
service, more fully in another place. Book XIII. 
chap. 10. 

Parallel to this passage in Cassian, is that of 
Uranius,'-" where, speaking of one John, bishop of 
Naples, who died in the celebration of Divine ser- 
vice, he says. He gave the signal to the people to 

pray, and then, having summed up their prayers in 
a collect, he yielded up the ghost. The council of 
Agde," in France, made it a standing rule for the 
Galilean churches, that, after all other things were 
performed in the daily course of morning and even- 
ing service, the bishop should conclude the whole 
office, collecta oratione, with his collect, and dismiss 
the people with his benediction. From which it 
appears, that these collects among the Latins were 
the same sort of prayers which the Greeks called 
iiriK\i]aiiQ and TrapaQkatiQ, invocations and commend- 
ations, with which the bishop concluded the prayers 
of the deacon and people in each distinct part of 
Divine service. As we have seen it in the service 
of the catechumens and penitents, and in the offices 
for the daily morning and evening prayer, and here 
now in this part of the communion service which 
goes before the consecration. Of which I have 
nothing more to add, but only a short passage'* of 
St. Austin, who, in his book of the Gift of Per- 
severance, seems plainly to intimate, that it was 
one petition in this prayer, of common use in the 
African churches, to pray for God's gi-ace to enable 
believers to persevere to the end of their lives. For, 
writing of the necessity of grace to guard men 
against the error of the Pelagians, he puts them in 
mind of the common prayer of the church, wherein 
the priest makes invocation for the faithful or com- 
municants, in these words, " Grant them grace, O 
Lord, to persevere in thee unto the end." And who 
is there, says he, that, hearing the priest thus pray- 
ing, dares either in word or thought reprehend 
him, and is not rather ready, both with a believing 
heart and a confessing mouth, to answer Amen to 
such a benediction ? It is observable here, 1. That 
this prayer has the same name which the Greeks 
gave it in the Eastern church. The invocation of the 
bishop or priest over the faithful. And therefore, 
2. That it was a part of the communion service, 
where such prayers were only made. 3. That it 
was not the deacon's bidding prayer, wliich had the 
people's responses to every particular petition, but 
a prayer to which, in the end, they only answered, 
Amen. 4. That it was a direct invocation of God, 
by way of benediction, such as the bishop used to 
make, and not an exhortation to pray, which was 
the office of the deacon. 5. That the petition in 
substance is the same with that of the bishop's 

^ Cod. Afric. can. 103. "H/jto-f kol tovto, uxttb Tai 
KiKvpiDfiiva^ tv T?; avvoSto iKiuia^, tl-rs irpooifxia, e'lTE 
"Trapa&ityiL^, £ix£ tijs ^i.Lpoi tTrt6io-£ts, airo iravTwu Ittite- 
Xiladai, K.T.X. Vid. Cone. Toletan. 4. can. 12. 

-* Cone. Milevitan. can. 12. 

^ Cassian. Institul. lib. 2. cap. 7. Cum autem is qui ora- 
tionem collecturus est, e terra surrexerit, omnes pariter 
surgunt, ita ut nuUus remorari praesumat, ne non tam secu- 
tus fuisse illius conelusionem, qui precem colligit, quaui 
suam celebrasse credatur. 

^ Uran. Vit. Paulin. Populo orationem dedit, et col- 

lecta oratione spiritum eshalavit. 

-' Cone. Agathen. can. 30. In conclusione raatutinanim 
vol vespertinarum missarum, post hymnos capitella de 
psalinis dici, et plebem, collecta oratione ad vesperam ab 
episcopo cum benedictione dimitti. 

•^ Aug. de Dono Perseverantiae, cap. 23. t. 6. An quis 
sacerdotem super fideles Dominum invocantem, si quando 
dixit, Da illis, Domine, in te perseverare usque in fiuem, 
non solum voce ausus est, sed saltern cogitatione reprcheu- 
dere, ac non potius super ejus talem benedictionem et 
coide credente et ore confitente respoudil, Amen. 



Book XV. 

})rayer in the Constitutions, " Keep them unchange- 
ahle, unblamahle, and without rebuke; that they 
may be perfect, both in body and soul, not having 
spot or WTinkle, or any such thing, but that they 
may be perfect, and none among them be found 
wanting in any respect." All which circumstances 
make it highly probable, that this prayer referred 
to by St. Austin, was the very prayer we are speak- 
ing of, as used in the close of the first part of the 
communion service, in the African churches. These 
are the footsteps, by which we are to trace the 
practice of the ancient chui'ch in that part of her 
devotions, which was appropriated to the communi- 
cants or believers only, in the entrance of the com- 
munion service, and which answers to the prayer 
for the whole state of Christ's church militant here 
upon earth, in the beginning of our communion 



Sect. 1. 

The next part of this service, was 
Of the customary the great thanksffivingr and the con- 

-ibhitions wliich the ° . OS 

peorie made at the sccratioii of tlic elements of bread 


and wine for the eucharist ; which be- 
cause they were generally taken out of the obla- 
tions which the people made at the altar, it will be 
necessary to give some account of these oblations, 
and of the elements of bread and wine taken out of 
them. It was an ancient custom, derived from 
apostolical practice, for all communicants, that 
were of ability, to make their oblations of bread 
and wine, and sometimes other things, at the altar ; 
out of which both the elements were taken, and a 
common feast was made for the poor. This the 
apostle plainly refers to in that reproof which he 
gives the Corinthians for their excess : 1 Cor. xi. 
21, " In eating every one taketh before others his 
own supper, and one is hungry, and another is 
drunken." Justin Martyr ' takes notice of these 
oblations, saying. They that are wealthy, and 
they that are willing, give according as they are 
disposed ; and what is collected, is deposited with 

the bishop, who out of it relieves the orphans 
and widows, and those that are in sickness, or 
in want, or in bonds, and strangers and travel- 
lers : in a word, he is the curator of all that are in 
need. Tertulhan gives the like account of this 
practice^ in his time, only he distinguishes between 
the weekly and the monthly collection. Every one, 
says he, offers a small alms monthly, or when he 
will, and as he will, and as he can ; for no one is 
compelled, but makes a voluntfiry collation. This 
is our bank for piety. For it is not expended in 
feasting and drinking, and abusive excesses, but in 
feeding and buiying the poor, in providing for 
orphans that are bereft of their parents, and aged 
people, and such as suffer shipwreck, or languish 
in the mines, or in banishment, or in prison. Only 
one part of it, he adds, was spent upon a sober 
feast of charity, where the poor had a right to feed 
as well as the rich. St. Cyprian' also speaks of 
this, when he asks a rich woman, How she could 
think she celebrated the Lord's supper, who had no 
respect to the corban ; or how she could come into 
the Lord's house without a sacrifice, and eat part 
of the sacrifice which the poor had offered ? Parallel 
to which is that of St. Austin,^ that a man of 
ability ought to be ashamed to communicate of an- 
other man's oblation ; and therefore he exhorts 
every one to bring their own oblations to be con- 
secrated at the altar. 

There was a very near alliance and g^^^_ , 
great affinity between these oblations auJwedto'make'"^ 
and that of the eucharist ; and there- ™'''" 
fore, as they had the same common name of ob- 
lation and sacrifice, so in many respects the same 
rules were observed about them. As, first, that 
none but actual communicants should have the 
privilege to offer them. For in those days it was a 
privilege to be allowed to make their oblations, and 
a sort of lesser excommunication to be debarred 
from it. They would not receive the oblations of 
persons that were at enmity or variance with their 
brethren,* neither at the altar nor into the treasury. 
And this, as Optatus tells us,® was grounded upon 
that rule of our Saviour, that no men's gifts should 
be offered at the altar, but those which were sea- 
soned with peace and reconciliation with their bre- 
thren. " If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and 
there rememberest that thy brother hath ought 
against thee ; leave there thy gift before the altar, 
and go, first be reconciled to thy brother, and then 

' Justin. Apol. 2. p. 98 et 99. 

2 Tertul. Apol. cap. 39. Modicam imusquisque stipcm 
menstnia die, vel quum velit, et si modo velit, et si modo pos- 
sit, apponit : nam nemo compellitur, sed sponte confert, &c. 

5 Cypr. de Opere et Eleemos. p. 203. Locviples et dives 
es, et Dominicum celebrare te crcdi.s, quae corbonam om- 
iiino non respicis ; quaj in Dominicum sine sacrificio venis ; 
quae partem dc sacrificio, quod pauper obtulit, sumis ? 

* Aug. Ser. 215. de Tempore. Oblationes, qua; in altario 
consecrentur, offerte : erubescere debet homo idoneus, si de 
aliena oblatione communicaverit. 

* Cone. Carthag. 4. can. 93. Oblationes dissidentium fra- 
trnm, neque in sacrario, neque in gazophylacio recipiantur 

' Optat. lib. 6. p. 93. Altaria, in quibus fraternitatis mu- 
nera non jussit Salvator poni, nisi quae essent de pace 


Chap. 1 1. 



come and offer thy gift," Matt. v. 23. For the same 
reason they refused tlie obhitions of noted and 
known oppressors of the poor, as appears from an- 
other canon'' of the council of Carthage. With 
•which agrees the rule in the Constitutions, that* 
they should not receive the gifts of a thief or a 
harlot. Which is repeated again with an addition 
of many other such Hke criminals." A bishop must 
know, whose gifts he ought to receive, and whose 
not. He shall not receive the gifts of fraudulent 
hucksters, Kon-riXoi : " For an huckster shall not be 
free from sin," Ecclus. xx\i. 29. And Esaias speaks 
of these, when he upbraids Israel, sapng, " Thy 
hucksters mix wine with water," (so the Septuagint 
reads it,) Isa. i. 22. Neither shall he receive the 
oblations of whoremongers : " For thou shalt not 
ofTer to the Lord the hire of a whore," Deut xxiii. 
18. Nor the oblations of covetous and adulterers ; 
for the sacrifices of such are abomination to the 
Lord. Nor the oblations of such as afflict the 
widow and oppress the fatherless by their power, 
and fill the prisons with innocent persons, and evil 
intreat their servants ^\^th stripes, famine, and hard 
bondage ; and lay waste whole cities : all such are 
to be rejected, and their otferings are abominable. 
He shall also refuse all corrupters, and lawyers that 
plead for injustice, and makers of idols, and thieves, 
and unrighteous publicans, and those that use frauds 
in weight or measure ; all soldiers that are false ac- 
cusers, and not content with their wages, but op- 
press the poor ; all murderers and hangmen, and 
unrighteous judges, drunkards, blasphemers, and 
abusers of themselves with mankind ; all usurers ; 
and, in a word, every wicked man, that lives in re- 
bellion against the will of God. St. Chrysostom, 
particularly, inveighing against oppressors, who of- 
fered alms out of what they had violently taken 
from others, says elegantly,'" That God will not have 
his altar covered with tears : Christ will not be fed 
with robbery ; such sort of sustenance is most un- 
grateful to him : it is an aflft'ont to the Lord, to offer 
unclean things to him : he had rather be neglected 
and perish by famine (in his poor members) than 
live by such oblations. The one indeed is cruelty, 
but the other is both cruelty and an affront. It is 
better to give nothing, than to give that which is 
the property of others. What the author of the 
Constitutions observes of idol-makers, is confirmed 
by Tertullian," who wrote his whole book of Idol- 

atry in a manner against them, where, among many 
other things, he says, they that followed that trade, 
were not to be admitted into the house of God. And 
it is very remarkable what St. Ambrose told Valen- 
tinian, when he was about to restore the heathen 
altars at the intercession of Symmachus, that if he 
so far contributed toward the re-settlement of idol- 
atry, the church would no longer receive his obla- 
tions : What will you answer, says he, to the priest, '- 
when he sliall say unto you. The church requires 
not your gifts, because you have adorned the temples 
of the heathen with your gifts. The altar of Christ 
refuses your oblations, because you have erected an 
altar to the idol-gods. By which it is plain, they 
rejected the oblations not only of professed idolaters, 
but all such as were abettors of them, or any ways 
instrumental in giving aid or encouragement to 
idolatrous practices. Again, it was a standing rule 
among them, not to admit the oblations of those, 
who, having a right to communicate, would not stay 
to participate of the communion. This is expressly 
ordered by the coimcil of Elibcris -.'^ and the rule 
extended further to all those that for any crime or 
heresy were excluded from communion by the dis- 
cipline of the church, or were not in full commu- 
nion with her. Such as all excommunicate persons, 
all catechumens, penitents, energumens, and stran- 
gers that travelled without commendatory letters, 
and such of the clergy as for some lesser ofTenccs 
were reduced to the communion of strangers. For, 
as Albaspina?us notes rightly upon that canon, all 
these were in some measure non-communicants, as 
not being in the perfect and full communion of the 
church. The energumens are particularly specified " 
in the next canon of that council, as persons whose 
oblations should not be received, nor their names 
mentioned at the altar, whilst they were actually 
under the agitation of an evil spirit. And all peni- 
tents, whilst they were under discipline, were in the 
same class ; only they had this privilege, that if they 
chanced to die suddenly whilst they were doing pe- 
nance, and were desirous to be reconciled, by some 
canons'^ their oblations were allowed to be received 
after death, as a testimony of their reconciliation 
and admission into the communion of the church 
again : except they were of that sort of penitents, 
to whom the church thought fit in the severity of 
her discipline to deny all external communion at 
the hour of death; of which there are many instances 

' Cone. Carth. 4. can. 94. Eonun qui pauperes oppri- 
munt, (Jona a sacerdotibus refutanda. 

^ Constit. lib. 3. cap. 8. ^ Id. lib. 4. cap. 6. 

'» Chrys. Horn. 86. al. 87. in Mat. p. 722. Vid. Horn. 72. 
in Joan. p. 466. Et Epiphan. Exposit. Fidei, n. 23. 

" Tertul. de Idololat. cap. 5. Respondebimus ad e.xcusa- 
tiones hujusmodi aitificum, quos nunquam in domum Dei 
admitti opnrtot, si quis earn disciplinam norit. 

'- Ambros. Ep. 3U. ad Valenf. Quid respondebis sacer- 
doti dicenti tibi: Munera tua non qua^rit ecclesia, quia 
3 c 

templa gentilium muneribus ornasti. Ara Christi dona 
tua respuit, quia aram siraulacris fecisti. 

'^ Cone. Eliber. can. 28. Episeopos, plaeuit, ab eo qui 
non communicat, munera accipere non debere. 

" Ibid. can. 29. Energumenus, qui erratico spiritu e.xa- 
gitatur, bujus nomen neque ad altare cum oblatione reci- 
tandum, neque permittendum ut sua manu in ecclesia uii- 

'^ Cone. Arelatense 2. can. 12. Vasense 1. can. 2. Tolet. 
11. can. 12. 



Book XV. 

in the councils of Saixlicta, Elibeiis, and others ; 
for then their oblations were not received either 
living or drying : or else when they had been so 
careless as not to desire reconciliation at the hour 
of death ; in which case, as Pope Leo says,"^ their 
cause was reserved to the judgment of God, in whose 
hand it was that their life was not prolonged till 
they could have the remedy of communion. As to 
the church, she did not communicate with those 
after death, with whom she did not communicate 
when they were alive. Nay, sometimes they would 
not receive the oblations of those that died in theii 
communion, if their last act happened to have any 
thing irregular in it. As appears from a case in 
Cyprian,'" who tells us. That it had been determined 
by an African synod, that no one should appoint 
any of God's ministers a curator or guardian by his 
will, because they were to give themselves to sup- 
plications and prayer, and to attend only upon the 
sacrifice and service of the altar: and therefore 
when one Geminius Victor had made Geminius 
Faustinus, a presbyter of the church of Furni, 
guardian or trustee by his last will and testament, 
Cyprian wrote to the church of Furni, That they 
should make no oblation for him, or name him in 
the sacrifice of the altar. But in after ages this 
piece of discipline was a little moderated in France : 
for by a canon of the second council of Orleans it 
was ordered,'^ That if any one died in the commu- 
nion of the church, his oblation should be received, 
though he happened to be slain in some fault, pro- 
\dded he had not laid violent hands upon himself. 
But this privilege was not allowed the catechumens 
that died without baptism, because they never were 
perfectly in the communion of the church. There- 
fore Chrysostom'^ says, no mention was ever made 
of them after death in the prayers of the church, as 
was usual for believers, in the oblation or sacrifice 
of the altar. The only thing that could be done for 
such, was to give private alms to the poor. If they 
had not the benefit of baptism, they were to be 
buried as persons who laid violent hands upon them- 
selves, or fell by the arm of justice, without any 
solemnity-" of burial, or commemoration at the altar. 
In short, the oblations of all persons who were not 

in actual or full communion with the church, were 
absolutely rejected : and therefore those penitents 
who had gone through all the stages of discipline, 
and were now allowed to stay, and hear the prayers 
with the rest of the faithful, were not yet allowed 
to make any oblations, as being not yet fully recon- 
ciled to the communion of the altar. Upon this 
account the ancient canons-' style them koiviovovv- 
Tag x'f'P'C vpocTcpopag, such as communicated in pray- 
ers only, without any oblation. But this was more 
precisely observed in the beginning of their censures. 
For if a great delinquent, a heretic or other excom- 
municate person, would have given his whole estate 
to the church, in such a case they would not accept 
his oblation. There goes an epistle under the 
name of St. Austin to Count Boniface,-^ wherein 
he tells him, he had forbidden all his clergy to ac- 
cept the oblation of his house, and interdicted him 
all communion, till he had done penance for a cer- 
tain bold attempt, and offered to God first the sacri- 
fice of a humble and contrite heart for his error. 
The epistle probably is not St. Austin's, but it con- 
tains nothing disagreeable to the discipline of those 
times, when the greatest gift would not be accepted 
from an emperor, if he were a heretic, or under the 
censure of excommunication. As it is clear, not 
only from what has been observed before out of St. 
Ambrose's epistle to Valentinian, but from what 
Gregory Nazianzen ^ says of St. Basil, that he re- 
fused the oblations of the emperor Valens, because 
he was a professed enemy of the Divinity of Christ, 
and a furious defender of the Arian heresy. So 
Liberius refused the offering of Eusebius, the Arian 
statesman under Constantius, as we are told by 
Athanasius "' and Theodoret,-* who reports the story 
with all its circumstances in this manner : When 
Constantius drove Liberius into banishment, be- 
cause he would not subscribe the condemnation of 
Athanasius with the Nicene faith, he sent him five 
hundred shillings {oXoKorlvovg) to bear his charges. 
But Liberius bid the messenger, that brought them, 
return them to the emperor, for his soldiers had more 
need of them. The empress also sent him the same 
sum, which he returned to the emperor with a like 
answer, that he might keep them for bis own ex- 

'" Leo, Ep. 92. ad Rusticum, cap. 6. Horum causa Dei 
judicio reservanda est, in cujus manu fuit, ut talium obitus 
non usque ad comraunionis remediuin diffcrretur. Nos au- 
tem, quibiis viventibus non commuuicavimus, mortuis com- 
municare non possumus. 

" Cypr. Ep. 6G. al. 1. ad Cler. Furnitan. p. .3. Ideo 
Victor cum contra formam nuper in concilio a sacerdotibus 
datam, Geminium Faustinum presbyterum ausus sit tutoreni 
constituere, non est quod pro dormitione ejusapud vos fiat 
oblatio, aut dcprecatio aliqua nomine ejus in ccclesia fre- 

'"Cone. Aurelian. 2. can. 14. Oblationem defunctorum, 
qui in aliquo crimino fnerint intercnipti, recipi deberc cen- 
senius, si tauien non ipsi sibi mortem probentur propriis 

manibus intulisse. 

'^Chrys. Horn. 3. in Philip, p. 1225. Vid. Horn. 1. in 
Act. et Horn. 24. in Joan. 

^ Cone. Bracar. 1. can. 35. Catechumenis sine redemp- 
tione baptisnii defunctis, simili modo, non oblationissanctae 
commemoratio, ncque psallendi impendatur officium. 

"' Cone. Nicen. cau. 11. Cone. Ancyr. can. 4, 5, 8, &c. 

-'- Aug. Ep. 6. ad Bonifae. in Appendico, t. 2. Oblatio 
domijs tuna a clericis ne suscipiatur, indixi, communionem 
que tibi interdico, donee — pro hoc facto corde contrito et 
huniiliato dignuni offeras sacriliciiim Deo. 

-3 Naz. Oral. 20. de Laud. Basil, p. 351. 

-' Athan. Ep. ad Solitaries, p. 834. 

-■'' Thcod. lib. 2. cap. IG, 

Chap. II. 



peditions. Last of all, when he had refused both 
the former, Eusebius the eunuch was sent to make 
him another offer. To whom Liberius replied. Thou 
hast harassed and laid waste the churches over all 
the world, and dost thou now offer me an alms as a 
condemned criminal ? But go thou first, and learn 
to become a Christian. It is no less remarkable 
what TertuUian tells us of the church's treatment 
of INIarcion the heretic, when he was excommuni- 
cated with Valentinus for his heresy : They cast him 
out, with his two hundred'-* scstcrtia, which he had 
brought into the church. They were so far from 
receiving the gifts of such men, that they rejected 
them with scorn, as St. Peter did Simon Magus, 
" Thy money perish with thee :" or as Abraham re- 
jected the gifts of the king of Sodom, saying, " I 
will not take from a thread even to a shoe-latchet, 
I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou 
shouldest say, I have made Abraham rich." 

And as they thus made a distinc- 

what oblations tlon in the persons, of whom they re- 
might be received . '■ t, , 

at ttie altar, and ccivcd, SO, secoudiy, thcy made a dis- 

what not. *^ _ •^ 

tinction in the oblations themselves, 
which were to be received. For the most ancient 
custom was, only to offer such things at the altar 
as were proper for the service of the altar. To this 
purpose there are several canons among those called 
the Apostolical Canons. One says," No bishop or 
presbyter, under pain of deposition, shall offer any 
thing in the sacrifice on the altar contrary to the 
Lord's command, as honey, milk, or strong beer, in- 
stead of wine, or birds, or living creatures, excepting 
only the first-fruits of corn and grapes in their proper 
season. Another forbids any thing to be brought 
to the altar* besides oil to the lamps, and incense in 
the time of the oblation. And a third ^ orders all 
other first-fruits to be carried home to the bishop 
and presbyters, to be divided between them, and the 
deacons, and the rest of the clergy. Some of the 
African canons are to the same purpose. The third 
council of Carthage orders,^ That in the sacra- 
ments of the body and blood of the Lord no- 
thing else be offered but what the Lord commanded, 
that is, bread and wine mingled with water. Nor 
in the oblation of first-fruits any thing more be 
offered but only grapes and corn. The collections 

of African canons," both Greek and Latin, give us 
this canon a little more at large in these words: 
Nothing shall be offered in the sacraments of the 
body and blood of the Lord, but what the Lord 
himself commanded, that is, bread and wine mingled 
with water. But the first-fruits, and honey and 
milk, which is offered on one most solemn day for 
the mystery of infants, though they be offered at the 
altar, shall have their own peculiar benediction, 
that they may be distinguished from the sacrament 
of the body and blood of the Lord. Neither shall 
any first-fruits be offered, but only of grapes and 
corn. Here we see, milk and honey was only to be 
offered on one solemn day, that is, on the great 
sabbath, or Saturday before Easter, which was the 
most solemn time of baptism; and that for the 
mystery of infants, that is, persons newly baptized, 
who were commonly called infants, in a mystical 
sense, from their new birth, in the African church ; 
for it was usual to give them a taste of honey and 
milk immediately after baptism, as has been showed 
in a former Book,*- and upon that account an obla- 
tion of honey and milk is here allowed to be made 
for this mystery of infants, which was to be offered 
and consecrated with a peculiar benediction, that it 
might not be thought to come in the room of the 
eucharist. And no other first-fruits are allowed to 
be offered at the altar but only grapes and corn, as 
being the materials of bread and wine, out of which 
the eucharist was taken. In the time of the coun- 
cil of TruUo, the offering of milk and honey at the 
altar was universally ^' forbidden. But the oblation 
of the first-fruits of grapes was still allowed ; only, 
whereas a corrupt custom prevailed in some places, 
to join them in the same sacrifice with the eucha- 
rist, and distribute them together with it to the peo- 
ple, the rule of the African Code is revived, and 
orders given," That they shall have a distinct con- 
secration, and a distinct distribution, if the people 
were desirous to eat their first-fruits in the church. 
In the meam time we may observe, that in other 
churches not only the first-fruits of grapes arid corn, 
but all other things which the people were volun- 
tarily disposed to offer, whether money or the Uke 
gifts, were received at the altar. For in France, 
the first council of Orleans made it a rule,*^ that of 

*^ Tertul. de Praescript. cap. 30. Marcion et Valentinus 
semel et iterum ejecti: Marcion quidem cum duceutis 
sestertiis, quae ecclesioe intulerat. 

"' Canon. Apost. can. 3. ^ Can. 4. 

-9 Can. 5. Vid. Cone. Eliber. in can. 49. 

^^ Cone. Carth. 3. can. 24. Ut in sacramentis corporis et 
sanguinis Domini nihil amplius offeratur, quam ipse Domi- 
nus tradidit, hoc est, panis et viuum aqua mixtum. Nee 
amplius in sacrificiis (al. in primitiis) offeratur, quam de 
uvis et frumentis. 

" Cone. African, can. 4. ap. Crab. t. ]. p. 503. Ut in 
sacramentis corporis et sanguinis Domini nihil amplius 
offeratur, quam quod ipse Dominus tradidit, hoc est, panis 
3 c 2 

et vinum aqua mixtum. Primitioe vero, sen mel et lac, 
quod uno die solennissimo in infantum mysterio solet offerri, 
quamvis in altari offerantur, suam tamen propriam habeant 
benedictionera, ut a sacramento Dominici corporis et san- 
guinis distinguantur. Nee amplius in primitiis offeratur, 
quam de uvis et frumentis. Vid. Cod. Eccles. Afric. can 
37. ap. Justellum. 

3- Book XII. chap. 4. sect. 6. 

33 Cone. Trull, can. 57. 'i ibid. can. 28. 

*^ Cone. Aurelian. 1. can. 16. Antiquos canones rele- 
gentes, priora statuta credimus renovauda, ut de his quae in 
altario oblatione iidelnim conferuntur, medietatem sibi epis- 
copus vLudicet, Si:c. Vid. ibid. can. 17. 


Book XV. 

such oblations one moiety slionld fall to the bishop, 
and the other be divided among the rest of the 
clerg)\ But it is severely censured by Strabo,"" as 
a gross piece of superstition in the Roman church, 
that they were used to offer and consecrate a lamb, 
and eat the consecrated flesh of it, out of a pre- 
tended reverence to the immaculate Lamb of God, 
which was slain for the sins of the world. Photius 
carries the charge a little higher, and objects to 
them, that they offered it together vdth the body of 
Christ upon tlie altar. But this is commonly^' 
said to be an aggravation of the thing, and there- 
fore is rejected by Carchnal Bona as a slander. Bui 
he owns the fact so far as it is related by Strabo, 
because the old Ordo Romanus has such a form for 
the consecration of a lamb on Easter day, and it is 
agreeable to their present practice. Only he blames 
Strabo for being too zealous in his censure of this 
rite, and inveighing against it as a superstitious and 
erroneous practice. Which only shows, how much 
Bona was inclined to defend the superstitions that 
Avere crept into his church, without any foundation 
in ancient practice. 

But I proceed with the practice of 

Tiie names of jj^g aucicnt churcli, and observe, third- 
such as made obla- *" ^ "■ J ? 

siderabie vXe're-" ^^ that when their oblations were re- 

liearsed at the altar. g^J^g^^ j|. ^.jjg ^gyj^^ j^ ^^^ny plaCCS tO 

rehearse the names of such as offered, that a com- 
memoration of them might be made, and prayers 
and praises be offered to God for them at the altar. 
I have already had occasion to say something of 
this custom^ out of St. Cyprian ^^ and St. Jerom,'"' 
in speaking of deacons, whose office it was to recite 
the names. To these I shall now add some further 
evidences, both out of these and other writers. Cy- 
prian, in one of his epistles to the churches of Nu- 
midia, speaking of a collection that had been made 
at Carthage for them,"" says, he had sent them the 
names of every brother and sister, that had con- 
tributed willingly to so necessary a work, (it was to 
redeem captives,) that they might remember them 
in their prayers, and requite their good work in 
their sacrifices and solemn supplications; he had 
also added the names of such of his fellow bishops 

^^ Strabo de Rebus Eccles. cap. 18. Dupin says also, 
that there is an example of this usage in the Life of St. 
Uklarick, and that both Ratramnus and yEneas Parisiensis 
wrote in defence of it against Photius, but he says, it was 
not authorized in all the Latin churches. Du Pin, Cent. 
9. p. 113. 

^' Nicolai Pap;c Epist. ap. Baron, t. 10. an. 807. Bona, 
Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 8. u. 5. Hoc putiilura niendaciuui 
est, izc. 

^ Book II. chap. 20. sect. 5. 

39Cypr. Ep. 10. al. 16. p.37. 

" Hieron. Com. in Ezek. .xviii. p. 537. 

^' Cyprian. Ep. GO. al. G2. ad Episcopos Numidas, p. 117. 
Ut autem fratres nostros ac sorores, qui ad hoc opus tarn 
necessarium prompte ac libenter opcrali sunt, ut semper 

as were then present, and had contributed both in 
their own names, and the names of their respective 
churches ; and he had signified the sums that every 
one gave, that, as the common faith and charity re- 
quired, mention might be made of them in their 
supplications and prayers. St. Jerom says" the 
same in another place, That now the names of such 
as offered were publicly rehearsed, and that which 
was the redemption of sins, was made matter of 
praise and glory : and men did not remember the 
widow in the Gospel, whose two mites cast into the 
treasury, exceeded all the gifts of the rich, who cast 
in of their abundance. Some think" St. Jerom 
here reflects upon the practice of the church, as if 
he disliked the mentioning of the sums offered, 
which they say, without doubt, was a conniption. 
But they mistake St. Jerom's meaning : for he is 
not blaming the practice of the church, but the 
practice of those who gave out of ostentation and 
vain-glory ; and when they were privately guilty of 
theft or oppression, thought to get esteem and re- 
putation, by giving a little of their ill-gotten goods 
to the poor ; pleasing themselves with the applause 
of the people, whilst their own consciences must 
needs lash and torment them, as he expresses it in 
another^' place. It was fit for them to remember 
the widow's mites, which were a moi'e acceptable 
sacrifice to God than the greatest gifts of injustice 
that they could offer him. So he does not condemn 
the custom of rehearsing the names of the donors 
as a corruption, but only the private abuses that by 
the viciousness of men did sometimes accompany it. 
St. Chrysostom,'^ and the author of the Constitu- 
tions,""* have some reference to the same custom : the 
latter orders the bishop to acquaint the poor who 
were their benefactors, that they might pray for 
them by name. And Cotclerius observes " a like 
passage in the acts of Cecilian and Felix, where the 
form runs thus : Such a one gives so much of his 
substance to the poor ; for which those acts appeal 
to the people's own eyes and ears. When the obla- 
tions were thus presented, and the names of the 
donors rehearsed, then it was usual in some places 
to make a commendatory prayer, by way of oblation 

operentur, in mentem habeatis in orationibus vestris, et eis 
vicem boni operis in sacrificiis et precibus reprcesentetis, 
subdidi uomina singulorum, &c. 

^-' Hieron. in Jerem. xi. lib. 2. p. 354. Nunc publice re- 
citantur ofl'erentium nomina, et redemptio peccatorum mu- 
tatur in laudem : nee meminerunt vidua; illius in Evangelio, 
quae in gazophylacium duo ajra mittendo, omnium divitum 
vicit donaria. 

" Comber of Liturgies, p. 196. 

■" Hieron. in Ezek. xviii. 

"■' Chrys. Hom. 18. in Act. p. 175. 

^« Constit. lib. 3. cap. 4. 

*' Gesta Purgationis Caaciliani et Felic. Vel audisti, vel 
vidisti, si dictum est paiiperibus, Dat et vobis de re sua 

Chap. II. 



to God, antecedent to those eucharistical prayers 
which were appropriated to the consecration of the 
eucharist. This may be collected from the epistle 
of Pope Innocent to Decentius,"* a neighbouring 
bishop of Eugubium, where he speaks of such an 
oblation by a commendatory prayer going before 
the consecration : which, he says also, in the Roman 
church was used to be made before the recital of 
the names of the offerers, which were not rehearsed 
till they came to the consecration. But whether 
such a distinct oblation of the creatures was made 
in all churches, seems not so very clear, because 
other writers, Justin Martyr, Ireneeus, and the Con- 
stitutions, say nothing of it. 

„ , Fourthly, we are to observe upon 

Sect 0. ' ^ 

The eucharistical ^his head, That so long as the people 

elements usimlly ' o x i 

pk's"ob'ia.ions!an'd contlnucd to make oblations of bread 
of"va'}"i^"OT uuiea! and wlue, the elements for the use of 
the eucharist were usually taken out 
of them ; and by consequence, so long the bread 
was that common leavened bread, which they used 
upon other occasions ; and the use of wafers and 
luileavened bread was not known in the church till 
the eleventh or twelfth centuries, when the oblations 
of common bread began to be left off by the people. 
This will seem a great paradox to all who look no 
further than the schoolmen, and only read their dis- 
putes with the Greeks about leavened and unleavened 
bread, which are fierce enough on both sides, and 
have little of truth on either : as commonly such 
disputes evaporate into smoke, and end in bitter 
and false reproaches ; the Greeks terming the La- 
tins Azymites, for consecrating in azi/mis, that is, 
unleavened bread ; and the Latins, on the other 
hand, charging the Greeks with deviating from the 
example of Christ, and the practice of the ancient 
church. I will not enter into the detail of the ar- 
guments on both sides, which belongs not to this 
place ; but only acquaint the reader, that now the 
most wise and learned men in the Roman church, 
who have more exactly scanned and examined this 
matter, think fit to desert the schoolmen, and 
maintain, that the whole primitive church, and the 
Roman church herself for many ages, never con- 
secrated the eucharist in any other but common 
and leavened bread. The first that ventured to 
break the ice, and confront the schoolmen, was 

Latinus Latinius, in an epistle to Antonius Augus- 
tinus. After him Sirmondus wrote a particular 
disquisition upon it, which was followed and com- 
mended by Cardinal Bona," who has a long dis- 
sertation to establish the opinion, wherein he 
exposes the prejudices and false argumentations of 
Thomas Aquinas and the rest of the schoolmen. 
And though Christianus Lupus'" set himself again 
with all his might to defend the common opinion 
of the schoolmen against Sirmondus; yet his ar- 
guments are of no weight with Schelstrate^' and 
Pagi, who readily give in to the position of Bona 
and Sirmondus, as founded upon the justest reasons. 
The chief argument of the schoolmen is no ways 
conclusive, that the primitive church followed the 
example of Christ, who celebrated his last supper 
with unleavened bread. For that was only upon 
the account of the passover, when no other but un- 
leavened bread could be used among them. After 
his resurrection he probably celebrated in leavened 
bread, and such as was in common use at all other 
times, except the time of the passover. And that 
the church always used common bread, appears 
from the following arguments : I. That the ele- 
ments were usually taken out of the oblations of 
the peo[)le, where, doubtless, common bread and 
wine were offered. 2. It is noted by Epiphanius,'^ 
as a peculiar rite of the Ebionite heretics, that 
they celebrated in unleavened bread and water 
only ; which plainly argues, that the church did 
otherwise. 3. The ancients say expressly their 
bread was common bread, such as they made for 
their own use'' upon other occasions. To which 
purpose there is a remarkable story in the Life of 
Gregory the Great,'* of a woman, who, when he 
gave her the eucharist in the usual form of words 
" The body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve thy 
soul," laughed at the form ; and being asked the 
reason of her so doing, said it was because he 
called that the body of Christ, which she knew to 
be bread that she had made with her own hands. 
4. The ancients are wholly silent as to the use 
of unleavened bread in the church. But they many 
times speak of leavened bread, and sometimes the 
eucharist is called fennentum, leaven, upon that 
account. As a])pears from the Pontifical in the 
Lives" of Melchiades and Siricius, and a letter of 

^^ Innoc. Ep. 1. ad Decentium, cap. 2. Do uominibus 
vero recitandis, antequam preces sacerclos facial, atqiio 
eoriim oblationes, quorum nomiua recitanda sunt, sua ora- 
tions commendet, quam superlluum sit, et ipse per tuam 
prudentiam recognoscis, ut cujus hostiam nocduni Deo 
offeras, ejus ante nomen insinues, quamvis illi incognituni 
sit nihil. Prius ergo oblationes sunt coinmendaudae, ac 
tunc eoruni nouiina, quorum sunt oblationes, edicenda, ut 
inter sacra mysteria nominentur, non inter alia, quK ante 
proeinittiiuus, ut ipsis mysteriis viam futuris piecibus aperi- 

^' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 1. cap. 23. 

•'" Lupus, Not. in Concil. t. 3. p. GSG, &c. 

^' I'agi, Critic, in Baron, an. 313. n. 15. ct Schelstrate, 
Uisciplina Arcaui, cap. 7. par. 5. ap. Pagi, ibidem. 

" Epiphan. 30. Ebionit. n. 16. 

*^ Ambros. de Sacram. lib. 4. cap. 4. Tu forte dicis, Meus 
panis est usitatus, &c. 

'*' Greg. Vita, lib. 2. cap. 41. 

°^ Pontifical. Vit. Melchiadis. Hie fecit ut oblationes 
consecratae per ecclesias e.\ consccratu episcopi dirigeutur, 
quod declaratur fernientum. Id. Vit. Siricii. Hie con- 
stituit, ut nuUus presbyter missas cclebraret per omneiu 
hebdomadam, nisi conseciatiim episcopi loci designati sus- 



Book XV. 

Pope Innocent, where he says, it was the custom 
at Rome to consecrate the fcrmcntum, that is, the 
eucharist, in the mother-church, and send it thence 
on the Lord's day to the presbyters in the tltuli, 
or lesser churches, that they might not think 
themselves separated from the bishop's communion. 
But they did not send it to any country parishes, 
because the sacraments were not to be carried to 
places at any great distance. What is here called the 
consecrated fermentum, is, by Baronius and others, 
who tread in the track of the schoolmen, interpret- 
ed of the eulogia, or j)0'nis benedictus, the bread that 
was blessed for such as did not communicate. But 
Innocent plainly says, he meant it of the sacrament, 
which was consecrated by the bishop, and sent to 
the presbyters for the use of lesser churches. Which 
shows, that at that time, even in Rome itself, the 
eucharist was consecrated in common or leavened 
bread. 5. It is observable, that neither Photius, nor 
any other Greek writer, before Michael Cerularius, 
anno 1051, ever objected the use of unleavened bread 
to the Roman church : which argues, that the use 
of it did not prevail till about that time ; else there 
is no doubt but Photius would, among other things, 
have objected this to them. These arguments put 
the matter beyond all dispute, that the church for a 
thousand years used no other but common or lea- 
vened bread in the eucharist ; and how the change 
was made, or the time exactly when, is not easy to 
determine. But Bona's conjecture is very probable. 
That it crept in upon the people's leaving off to make 
their oblations in common bread, which occasioned 
the clergy to provide it themselves, and they, under 
pretence of decency and respect, brought it from 
leaven to unleaven, and from a loaf of common 
bread, that might be broken, to a nice and delicate 
wafer, formed in the figure of a denarius, or penny, 
to represent the pence (as some authors^'' about that 
time will have it) for which our Saviour was be- 
trayed ; and then also the people, instead of offering 
a loaf of bread, as formerly, were ordered to offer a 
penny, which was either to be given to the poor, or 
to be expended upon something appertaining to the 
sacrifice of the altar. Tliis is the short history of 
a great change made insensibly in a matter of small 
moment, if we consider barely the question about 
the use of leavened and unleavened bread ; for it is 

very indifferent in itself, whether is used, so long as 
peace is preserved in the church : but in the conse- 
quences and progress of the dispute it was no small 
matter ; for the East and West divided about it., and 
the Western church ran so far into an extreme, as 
almost to lose the nature of the sacramental ele- 
ment, by introducing a thing that could hardly be 
called bread, instead of that common staff of life 
which the Lord had appointed to be the representa- 
tion of his body in the eucharist. 

There wanted not some discerning 
and judicious men in a dark age, who . The use of 'wafers 

, . ^ p , instead of bread, con- 

complamed of the abuse as soon as it demnedinthekfirst 

^ _ originaL 

began to be introduced. For Bernol- 
dus, a learned presbyter of Constance, about the 
year 1089, wrote a book De Ordine Romano, wherein 
he thus reflects upon these wafer-hosts or oblations : 
If no less measure than a handful be found men- 
tioned in all the Old and New Testament ; and no- 
thing ought to be done in the temple of the Lord 
without measure and reason ; these minute oblations 
seem not to appertain to Christ or his church,*' be- 
cause they are without measure and reason. This 
author was a little too bold and free with the cor- 
ruptions and abuses of the Roman church, ever to 
see the light. But Trithemius mentions the book,^ 
and gives an honourable character of the author. 
And Cassander saw it in manuscript, and published 
this fragment of it in his Liturgies f^ where he also 
makes a severe reflection upon the corruption and 
vanity of that age, for departing from the ancient 
practice, and introducing an imaginaiy sort of bread, 
which deserved more the name of the shadow than 
the substance. Which just reflection is repeated 
from Cassander, not only by Vossius,*" but ingenu- 
ously also by Cardinal Bona,*^' in his animadversions 
upon this unwarrantable alteration. Yet some there 
are who pretend antiquity for this also. Durantus*' 
thought he had found this wafer-bread in Epipha- 
nius, because he says, the bread was dproQ (rrpoyyv- 
XoiiStjs Kat ava'wQtjTOQ,^ which they render, bread of 
a circular figure, and so minute that it could hardly 
be perceived by the senses. Whereas it should be 
rendered, bread of a solid, round, globular figure, 
without life or sense, which yet might represent 
Him, who is all life, and infinite, and incomprehen- 
sible. Which agrees well to the character of the 

fiperet dcclaratum, quoil iiominatur fermentum. Innoc. 
Ep. ad Decentium, cap. 5. Presbyteri fermentum a nobis 
confectum per acolythos accipiunt, ut se a nostra com- 
mnnione inaxime ilia die non judiceut separatos. Quod 
per parochias fieri debcre non puto, quia non longe por- 
tanda sunt sacraiuenta, &c. 

^^ Honorius, Gemma Animoo, lib. 1. cap. 66. ap. Bonam. 
Quia populo non communicante non erat necesse panem tam 
magnum fieri, statutum est eum in modum denarii formari 
vel fieri ; et ut populus pro oblatione fariusB denarios offer- 
ret, pro quibus traditum Domintim recognoscerent, &c. 

" Beruoldus de Ordine Romano, ap. Cassandrum in Li- 

turgicis, cap. 27. Si minor mensura quam pugillus non in- 
vcnitur in toto serie Veteris et Novi Testamenti ; et si nihil 
oumino debet fieri intra vel e.xtra templum Domini absque 
monsura et ratione; videntur oblatarum minutiae ad Chris- 
tum et ad ecclesiam nihil pertinere, quia sunt absque men- 
sura et ratione. 

■'* Trithem. de Scriptor. Eccles. fol. 66. 

'••^ Cassander. Liturgic. x. cap. 27. 

"" Voss. Thes. Theol. de Symbolis Cccna3 Domin. p. 441. 

«' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 1. cap. 23. n. II. 

"■-' Durant. de Ritibus, lib. 2. cap. 38. n. 6. 

''■* Epiphan. Anchorat. n. 57. 

Chap. II. 



eiicharistical bread used in Epiphanius's time, when 
it was the custom to ofter round and whole sohd 
loaves of bread, but has no rehvtion to the wafei;- 
bread of later ages. Durantus urges further the 
testimony of Gregory the Great," who calls the ob- 
lations, ohlationum coronas, crowns of bread ; which 
may imply, that they were round loaves of bread ; 
but not therefore wafers, unless every thing that is 
round be a wafer. He adds St. Chrysostom also, 
but he misquotes him; for the Greek" has nothing 
of what is cited. But he might have added truly 
Ca?sarius, Gregory Nazianzen's brother,*^ who, com- 
paring the natural and the sacramental body of 
Christ together, says, the one was distinguished 
into several members, but the other was roimd. 
And Iso the monk," who calls the oblations, rotulas 
panis, rolls of bread, no doubt from the roundness 
of their figure : and the sixteenth council of Tole- 
do,*^ which speaks of their rotundity also. But, as 
Cardinal Bona rightly observes, this rotundity im- 
plies round loaves of bread, and not round wafers ; 
of which there was no use or knowledge in former 
ages, when they used such loaves of common bread 
as the people offered, or else such as were prepared 
particularly for the purpose ; yet still loaves of 
bread, not wafers ; and common or leavened bread, 
not unleavened, of which there is not the least in- 
timation given in any part of the church for above 
a thousand years, as that learned cardinal has 
proved beyond all exception, to whose diligence we 
chiefly owe the illustration of this matter in that 
curious dissertation of his upon the subject. 

The other part of the sacrament 
Wine nii.\'e'd with was always wine, and that taken also 

water commonly /. i i . 

used in the ancient QUt of the oblatlOHS of the pCOple. 

Some of the ancient heretics, under 
pretence of abstinence and temperance, changed this 
element into water, and consecrated in water only. 
These were some of them disciples of Ebion, and 
some the followers of Tatian, commonly called Hij- 
droparastat^ and Aqiiarii, from the use of water ; and 
sometimes Encratitce, from their abstaining wholly 
from flesh and wine. And this seems to have been 
the ground of their errors, that they thought it 
universally unlawful to eat flesh or drink wine. 
Under this character they are frequently condemn- 
ed, by Epiphanius,'*'' who terms them Encratites, 

®' Greg. Dialog, lib. 4. cap. 55. 
" Chrys. Horn. ^3. in ]\Iatt. 
«« Coesar. Dialoj,'. 3. Quffist. 169. 
^' Iso de Miraculis S. Othomavi, cap. 3. 
•» Cone. Tolet. 16. can. 6. 

^ Epiph. Hot. 4G. Encratit. Hoer. 30. Ebionit. n. 10. 
'" Aug. de HLPres. cap. 64. 
" Theod. de Fabulis Iherot. lib. 1. cap. 20. 
'■- Chrys. Horn. 83. in Mat. p. 700. 

" Ha^res. cap. 77. Iren. lib. 5. cap. I. Clem. 
Strom. 1. p. .375. Pocdag. lib. 2. c. 2. 
" Cone. Trull, can. .32. Vid. Cod. Theodosian. lib. 16. 

and by St. Austin,"" under the name of Aquarians, 
and by Theodoret," who says they sprung from 
Tatian, and were called Ili/droparastatce, because 
they oflered water instead of wine ; and Encratita;, 
because they wholly abstained from wine and living 
creatures. St. Chrysostom" calls it the pernicious 
heresy of those that used only water in their mys- 
teries, whereas our Lord instituted them in wine, 
and drunk wine at his common table after his re- 
surrection, to prevent the budding of this wicked 
heresy. The like may be read in Philastrius,'' 
and long before in Irenajus and Clemens Alexan- 
drinus, not to mention the council of Trullo'* or 
any later writers. But it is to be observed, that 
beside these there were another sort of Aquarians, 
who did not reject the use of wine as simply un- 
lawful, either in itself, or in the eucharist ; for in 
their evening service they consecrated the eucharist 
in wine, but not in their morning assemblies, for 
fear the smell of the wine should discover them to 
the heathen. St. Cyprian gives a long account of 
these in one of his epistles,'* which is particularly 
designed against them. From which it also ap- 
pears, that the custom of the church then was to 
use wine mixed with water, and he pleads for both 
as necessary from the command and example of 
Christ; adding some other reasons why it should 
be so, as that the water represents the people, as 
the wine'^ does the blood of Christ; and when in 
the cup the water is mingled with the wine, Christ 
and his people are united together. And so, he says, 
in sanctifying the cup of the Lord, water cannot be 
offered alone; as neither can the wine be offered 
alone : for if the wine be offered by itself, the blood 
of Christ begins to be without us ; and if the water 
be alone, the people begin to be without Christ. 
The third council of Carthage seem to have had the 
same opinion of the necessity of v\ater, when they 
determined, as we have heard before, that nothing 
should be offered at the altar" but what the Lord 
himself commanded, that is, bread, and wine min- 
gled with water. And St. Austin was a member of 
that council, and therefore may be supposed to have 
been of the same judgment. He also quotes the 
foresaid epistle of Cyprian with approbation.™ 
Gennadius" assigns two reasons for the use of 
mixing water with wine ; first, because it is accord- 

Tit. 5. de Haereticis, Leg. 7. It. Theodosii Novel. 3. ad 
calcem, t. 6. 

" Cypr. Ep. 63. ad Ca;cilitira. 

'* Ibid. p. 15-3. Videmus in aqua populum intelligi, in 

vino vero osteudi sanguincm Christi Sic autem in sane- 

tilicando calice Doiuiui, ofl'erri aqua sola non putest, quo- 
laodo nee vinuui solum potest : nam si vinum tantum quis 
otferat, sanguis Christi incipit esse sine nobis : si vero aqua 
sit sola, plebs incipit esse sine Christo. 

•■ Cone. Carth. 3. can. 24. 

" Aug. de Doetrina Christ, lib. 4. cap. 21. 

" Gennad. de Eccles. Dogm. c. 75. In eucharistia non 



Book XV 

ing to the example of Christ ; and secondly, because 
when our Saviour's side was pierced with the spear, 
there came forth water and blood. This latter reason 
is also assigned by St. Ambrose, or whoever wrote 
the book De Sacramentis under his name f" and by 
Martin Bracarensis,"' in his collection of Greek ca- 
nons. The author of the epistle to the Egyptians 
under the name of Pope Julius,'- insists upon Cy- 
prian's reason, that it is to show the union of Christ 
with his people. And the third council of Braga 
relates Cyprian's words, coiTecting several other 
abuses that were crept into the administration of 
this sacrament ;"* as of some who offered milk in- 
stead of wine ; and others who only dipped the 
bread into the wine, and so denied the people their 
complement of the sacrament ; and others who used 
no other wine but what they pressed out of the 
clusters of grapes that were then presented at the 
Lord's table. All which they condemn, and order 
that nothing but bread and wine mingled with water 
should be offered, according to the determination of 
the ancient councils. The council of Auxerre notes 
some others who offer mead, or honey and water 
mixed together," who are also condemned, as going 
against the common rule of offering nothing but 
wine and water in the sacrifice of the altar. The 
author of the Commentaries upon St. Mark under 
the name of St. Jerom,** gives another reason for 
mixing water with wine, that by the one we might 
be purged from sin, and by the other redeemed from 
punishment. These reasons indeed are no ways 
demonstrative ; however, that the practice was both 
ancient and general, is evident from Justin Mar- 
tyr,** and Ireneeus," who mention it as the custom 
of the church, without assigning any further reason 
for it. And so likewise Gregory Nyssen'" and Theo- 
doret,'® with some others produced by Vossius in his 
dissertation*" upon this subject. The Armenians 
are said to have consecrated only in wine, but that 
is reckoned an error in them by Theophylact," and 
they are equally condemned with the Hijdroparas- 
tatce or Aquarians by the council of Trullo,'- which 
produces the authority of St. James and St. Basil's 

liturgy against them. To which may be added the 
hturgies under the name of St. Mark and St, Chry- 
sostom, and the Constitutions.** Yet, after all, as 
there is no express command for this in the institu- 
tion, notwithstanding this general consent of the 
ancient church, it is commonly determined by mo- 
dern divines, as well of the Roman as protestant 
communion, that it is not essential to the sacrament 
itself, as the reader that is curious may find demon- 
strated in Vossius,** in his dissertation upon this 

As to the ancients, they are not to ^^^^ ^ 
be blamed in keeping strictly to this ^l;l '^^^ *'2'era! 
custom, because they thought it a Ihe"eiemenu"hi"the 
part of the institution. Upon which 
account they censured all that made any alteration 
in the elements, either by addition, or subtraction, 
or changing one element for another. The Aqua- 
rians, as we have heard, were condemned for tak- 
ing away the wine ; the Armenians and others, for 
not using water also; others were condemned for 
changing the wine into milk or honey mixed with 
water; others substituted grapes instead of wine; 
others, pulse instead of bread. Of all which, because 
we have spoken before in the two foregoing sec- 
tions, I need say no more in this place. But beside 
these there was once a senseless sect, which thought 
they did not celebrate the eucharist in perfection, 
unless they offered cheese together with the bread. 
Whence they had the name of Artotyrita, from dprog, 
which in Greek signifies bread, and rvpbc, cheese. 
This is the account which Epiphanius*^ gives of 
them, and after him St. Austin** saying. The Arto- 
tyrites are so called from their oblation: for they 
offer bread and cheese, saying, that the first obla- 
tions that were offered by men in the infancy of 
the world, were of the fruits of the earth and of 

There were others who wholly re- 
jected the use of all external symbols 
or sacraments in general, and conse- 
quently both baptism and the euchar- 
ist, upon a pretence that faith and knoM'ledge and 

Sect. 9. 
And of others who 
rejected t\ie use of 
the sacrament alto- 

debet pura aqua offerri, ut quitlam sobrietatis falluntur 
imagine, sed vinum aqua mi.xtum: quia et vinutn fuit in re- 
demptionis nostra; mysterio, cum dixit, Non bibam a modo 
de hoc genimine vitis, et aqua mixtum, quod post coenam 
(labatur, sed et de latere ejus lancea pcrl'osso aqua cum 
sanguine egrcssa, &c. 

"" Ambros. de Sacram. lib. 5. cap. 1. 

*' Martin. Bracar. Collect. Canonum, cap. 55. 

"- Julii Epist. ap. Gratian. de Consecrat. Dist. 2. cap. 7. 

w Cone. Bracar. 3. can. 1. Audivimus quosdam schis- 
matica ambitionc detenlos, lac pro vino in divinis sacrificiis 
dedicate; alios quoque intinctam eucharistiam populis pro 
coniplemento coinmunionis porrigcre; quosdam etiam ex- 
pressum vinum in sacramento Dominici calicis offerre, &c. 
Ideo nuUi deinccps licitura sit, aliud in sacrificiis divinis 
offerre, nisi juxtaantiquorum sententiam conciliorum pauem 
tautum, et calicem vino et aqua permixtum. 

^ Cone. Antissiodor. can. 8. Non licet in altario in sa- i 
crificio divino mellitum, quod mulsum appellatur, nee ullum 
aliud poculum, extra vinum cuui aqua mixtum, offerre. • 

*^ Hieron. in Marc. xiv. Accepit Jesus panem, &c. for- , 
mans sanguiueni suum in calicem vino et aqua mixtum, ut 
alio purgemur a culpis, alio redimamur a pcenis. 

"'■ Justin. Apol. '2. p. 97. 

"" Iren. lib. 4. cap. 57. et lib. 5. cap. 2. 

*''' Njssen. Orat. Catechet. c. 37. ' 

•<» Thood. Dialog. 1. 90 Voss. Thes. Theol. p. 494. j 

'" Theophyl. Com. in Joan. xix. "- Cone. Trull, can. 32. . 

"3 Const it. lib. 8. cap. 12. ^^ Voss. Thes. Theol. ibid. ' 

»^ Epiphan. Ha>r. 49. 

°" Aug. de Hajres. cap. 48. Artotyritae sunt, quibus obla- 
tioeorum hoc nomen dedit : offoruntenira panem etcaseum, 
dicentes, a primis hominibus oblationes de fructibus terra; et 
ovium fuisse cclebratas. 

CllAP. III. 



spiritual worship were the only things that were 
required of Christians. Upon this pretence the 
ylscodrut(P, who were a sort of Gnostics, neither ad- 
ministered baptism nor the eucharist in their so- 
ciety : they said the Divine mysteries were incor- 
poreal and in^^sible things, and therefore not to be 
represented by such corporeal and visible things as 
water or bread and wine ; but perfect knowledge was 
their redemption. So Theodoret"' describes them. 
And so both he and Epiphanius"' describe another 
abominable sect, who, from one of their principal 
tenets, were called Archontics. They taught, that 
the world was not made by the supreme God, but 
by certain inferior powers, seven or eight in number, 
whom they called arclwntes, rulers of the several 
orbs of the heavens one above another, to the chief 
of which they gave the name of Sabaoth : and they 
pretended, that baptism and the eucharist were only 
institutions of this Sabaoth, the God of the Jews 
and giver of the law, and not the ordinances of the 
supreme God ; for which reason they wholly re- 
jected the use of them. Some other such sects there 
were among the ancient heresies, who despised the 
eucharist™ upon the like pretences : but these are 
sufficient to show us w'hat sort of men they were, 
that anciently contemned this holy ordinance ; and 
therefore, without further digressing to make any 
nicer inquiry after them, I now return to the busi- 
ness and service of the church. 



^^^j ^ As soon as the people's offerings were 

s?wnff"Imico'!l;Tna- "^'"^cl*?) ^1"^ bread and wine were set 
S'"onrthrcon; apart for the eucharist, they proceed- 
ed to the solemn consecration of them. 
The manner of which is described at large in the 
Constitutions ; which I will first set down here, and 
then compare the several parts of it with the au- 
thentic accounts we have in other ancient writers. 
Immediately, then, after the first prayers for the 
faithful are ended, the deacon is ordered' to give a 
solemn admonition, saying, npoaxwjufv. Let us give 
attention. Then the bishop or priest salutes the 
church, saying, " The peace of God be with you 
all : " and the people answer, " And with thy spirit." 
After this, the deacon says to them all. Salute ye 
one another with a holy kiss. Tlien the clergy 
salute the bishop, and laymen their fellow laymen. 

" Theod. de Fabulis Haerct. lib. 1. cap. 10. 
"*Theod. ibid. cap. 11. Epiphan. Ha;r. 40. de Aichon- 
ticis, n. 2. 
"' Vi'^- Orig. TTipl firx'";?. u. 13. Ea pcnitus aiifeicntes 

and the women the women ; the children standing 
before the hema, that is, either the reading-desk or 
the altar, with a deacon attending them, to see that 
they keep good order ; others of the deacons walk- 
ing about the church, and inspecting the men and 
women, that there be no tumult, nor making of 
signs to one another, nor whispering, nor sleeping; 
and others standing at the men's gate, and the sub- 
deacons at the women's gate, that the doors be not 
opened for any to go in or out in the time of obla- 
tion. After this, the subdeacon brings water to the 
priests to wash their hands, as a sign of the purity 
of those souls that are consecrated unto God. Im- 
mediately after this ^ a deacon cries out, Let none of 
the catechumens be present, none of the hearers, 
none of the unbelievers, none of the heterodox 
party. Ye that have made the first prayer, go forth, 
irpokXQiTi (or rather, as Cotelerius thinks it ought to 
be read, ir^oa'iKBtTi, Ye that have made the first 
prayers, draw near : for this seems to be spoken to 
the communicants, as an invitation). Ye mothers, 
take your children, and bring them with you. Let 
no one come with enmity against another ; no one 
in hypocrisy. Let us stand upright before the Lord, 
with fear and trembling, to offer our sacrifice. This 
said, the deacons bring the rd. Swpa, the elements, to 
the bishop at the altar; the presbyters standing on 
each hand of him, and two deacons with their fans 
to drive away the little insects, that none of them 
fall into the cup. Then the bishop, standing at the 
altar with the presbyters, makes a private praver 
by himself, having on his white or bright vestment, 
and signing himself with the sign of the cross in 
his forehead. Which done, he says, " The grace of 
Almighty God, and the love of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with you 
all." And the people answer with one voice, " And 
with thy spirit." Then the bishop says, " Lift up 
your hearts :" and they all answer, " We lift them 
up unto the Lord." The bishop says again, " Let 
us give thanks to the Lord :" and the people answer, 
" It is meet and right so to do." Then the bishop 
says, " It is very meet and right, above all things, 
to praise thee the true God, who art before all crea- 
tures, of whom the whole family in heaven and 
earth is named, who art the only Unbegotten, with- 
out original, without king, without lord, who hast 
need of nothing, who art the Author of all good, 
who art above all cause and generation, and always 
the same, of whom all things have their original 
and existence. For thou art original knowledge, eter- 
nal sight, hearing without beginning, and wisdom 
without teaching; the first in nature, and the law 
of existing, exceeding all number. Who madest 

quw sensibus percipiiiut\ir, nee baptisraimi iiec ciichaiistiam 
usurpantes, &c. 

' Constit. lib. S. cap. 11. 

- Ibid. cap. 12. 



Book XV. 

all things to exist out of nothing by thy only begot- 
ten Son, whom thou didst beget before all ages by 
thy will, and power, and goodness, without the inter- 
vention of any, who is thy only begotten Son, the 
Word that is God, the living Wisdom, the First-born 
of every creature, the Angel of thy great counsel, thy 
High Priest, but the King and Lord of all the creatures 
both visible and invisible, who is before all things, 
and by whom all things consist. For thou, O eternal 
God, didst create all things by him, and by him thou 
dost vouchsafe to rule and govern them in the or- 
derly ways of thy providence. By whom thou didst 
give them being; by him also thou didst give them 
a well-being. O God and Father of thy only be- 
gotten Son, who by him didst create the cherubims 
and seraphims, the ages and hosts, the dominions 
and powers, the principalities and thrones, the arch- 
angels and angels, and after them didst by him 
create this visible world, and all things that are 
therein. For thou art he that hast established the 
heavens as an arch, and extended them like a cur- 
tain ; that hast founded the earth upon nothing by 
thy sole will ; that hast fixed the firmament, and 
formed night and day ; that hast brought the light 
out of thy treasures, and superadded darkness for a 
covering, to give rest to the creatures that move in 
the world ; that hast set the sun in the heaven to 
govern the day, and the moon to govern the night ; 
and ordered the course of the stars, to the praise of 
thy magnificent power ; that hast made the water 
for drink and purgation, and the vital air both for 
breathing and speaking ; that hast made the fire to 
be a comfort in darkness, to supply our wants, and 
that we should be both warmed and enlightened 
thereby ; that hast divided the great sea from the 
earth, and made the one navigable, and the other 
passable on foot ; that hast filled the one with small 
and great animals, and the other with tame and wild 
beasts; that hast crowned the earth with plants 
and herbs of all sorts, and adorned it with flowers, 
and enriched it with seeds ; that hast established the 
deep, and set a great barrier about it, walling the 
great heaps of salt water, and bounding them with 
gates of the smallest sand ; that sometimes raisest 
the same deep to the magnitude of mountains by thy 
winds, and sometimes layest it plain like a field ; 
now making it rage with a storm, and then again 
quieting it with a calm, that they which sail therein 
may find a safe and gentle passage : that hast begirt 
the world, which thou createdst by Christ, with 
rivers, and watered it with brooks, and filled it with 
springs of living water always flowing, and bound 
up the earth with mountains, to give it a firm and 
unmovable situation. Thou hast filled thy world, 
and adorned it with odoriferous and medicinal herbs, 
with a multitude and variety of animals, weaker and 
stronger, some for meat and some for labour, some 
of a mild and some of a fiercer nature; with the 

hissing of serpents, and sweeter notes of birds of 
divers kinds ; with the revolutions of years, and 
numbers of months and days, and orders of stated 
seasons ; with flying clouds producing rain, for the 
procreation of fruits, and preservation of animals ; 
with winds to blow in order at thy command, and a 
multitude of plants and herbs. Neither hast thou 
only made the world, but created man in it to be 
citizen of the world, and made him the ornament of 
thy beautiful structure. For thou saidst to thy own 
Wisdom, ' Let us make man in our own image and 
likeness, and let them have dominion over the fish 
of the sea, and over the fowl of the air.' And 
therefore thou madest him of an immortal soul, and 
a dissolvable body ; creating the one out of nothing, 
and the other out of the four elements : and gavest 
him in his soul a rational knowledge, a power to 
discern between piety and impiety, and a judgment 
to distinguish between good and evil ; and in his 
body the privilege and faculty of five several senses, 
with the power of local motion. For thou, O God 
Almighty, didst by Christ plant paradise in Eden 
towards the east, adorning it with all kinds of plants 
meet for food, and placing man therein as in a well- 
furnished house : and in his creation thou gavest a 
natural law implanted in his mind, that thereby he 
might have within himself the seeds of Divine 
knowledge. And when thou hadst placed him in 
the paradise of delights and pleasure, thou gavest 
him power to eat of all things, only forbidding him 
to taste of one kind, in expectation of something 
better : that if he observed that command, he might 
attain to immortality, as the reward of his obedience. 
But he, neglecting this command, and by the fraud 
of the serpent, and the counsel of the woman, 
tasting the forbidden fruit, thou didst justly drive 
him out of paradise ; and yet in goodness didst not 
despise him, when he had destroyed himself; for he 
was thy workmanship ; but thou, who didst put the 
creatures in subjection under him, didst appoint 
him to get his food by labour and sweat, thy provi- 
dence concurring to produce, augment, and bring 
all things to maturity and perfection. Thou didst 
sulTer him for a while to sleep the sleep of death, 
and then, with an oath, calledst him again to a re- 
generation ; dissolving the bands of death, and pro- 
mising him life by a resurrection. And not only 
so ; but giving him an innumerable posterity, thou 
didst glorify such of them as adhered to thee, and 
punishedst those that apostatized from thee; re- 
ceiving the sacrifice of Abel as a holy man, and 
rejecting the offering of Cain as abominable for 
murdering his brother. Thou didst also receive 
Seth and Enos, and translate Enoch. For thou art 
the Creator of men, and the Author of life, and the 
SuppHer of all their wants, their Lawgiver, that 
rewardest those that keep thy laws, and punishest 
those that transgress them. Thou didst bring a 

Chap. III. 



universal deluge upon the world because of the 
multitude of the ungodly, but delivcredst righteous 
Noah out of the flood with eight souls in thy ark, 
making him the end of the preceding generation, 
and the father of those that were to come. Thou 
didst kindle a dreadful fire against the five cities 
of the Sodomites, and turn a fruitful land into a 
vale of salt, for the ^dckcdness of them that dwelt 
therein, but didst deliver righteous Lot from the 
burning. Thou art he that didst deliver Abraham 
from the impiety of his ancestors, and madest him 
to become heir of the world, and didst manifest 
thy Christ unto him. Thou didst appoint Melchi- 
sedec to be the high priest of thy service. Thou 
didst declare thy servant Job, after many sufferings, 
to be conqueror of the serpent, that first author of 
evil. Thou madest Isaac to be the son of promise. 
Thou madest Jacob to be the father of twelve chil- 
dren, and his offspring to be innumerable, and 
broughtest threescore and fifteen souls into Egypt. 
Thou, Lord, didst not despise Joseph, but for his 
chastity madest him to rule over the Egyptians. 
Thou, Lord, didst not forget the Hebrews, when the 
Egyptians oppressed them, because of the promise 
made to their fiithers ; but didst punish the Egyp- 
tians, and deliver thy people. And when men had 
corrupted the law of nature written in their minds, 
and some began to think the creatures had their ex- 
istence of themselves, and honoured them above 
what was meet, placing them in the same rank with 
thee the God of all ; thou didst not suffer them to 
wander in error, but raising up thy holy servant 
Moses, thou didst by him promulge a written law 
to revive and support the law of nature ; showing 
the creatures to be the work of thy hands, and 
thereby expelling the error of polytheism out of re- 
ligion. Thou didst honour Aaron and his posterity 
with the dignity of the priesthood. Thou didst 
chastise the Hebrews, when they sinned ; and re- 
ceive them into favour, when they turned unto thee. 
Thou didst punish the Egyptians with ten plagues ; 
and dividing the sea, madest the Israelites to pass 
through it ; drowning the Egyptians that pursued 
them. Thou madest the bitter water sweet with 
wood ; thou broughtest streams out of the rock, 
when thou hadst divided the top of it ; thou didst 
rain down manna out of heaven, and give them food 
out of the air, a measure of quails for every day ; 
setting up a pillar of fire to give them light by 
night, and the pillar of the cloud to shadow them 
from heat by day. Thou didst constitute Joshua 
the captain of thy armieg, and by him destroy the 
seven nations of the Canaanites, dividing Jordan, 
and drying up the rivers of Ethan, and laying flat 
the walls (of Jericho) without any engines of war 
or conciu-rence of human power. For all these 
things we glorify thee, O Lord Almighty. The in- 
numerable armies of angels adore thee : the arch- 

angels, thrones, dominions, principalities, dignities, 
powers, hosts, and ages ; the chcrubims, and sera- 
phims also with six wings, with two of which they 
cover their feet, and with two their faces, and two 
fly, saying, with thousand thousands of archangels, 
and ten thousand times ten thousand angels, all 
crying out without rest and intermission :" and let 
all the people say together with them, " Holy, holy, 
holy. Lord of hosts : heaven and earth are full of 
thy glory : blessed art thou for ever. Amen." And 
after this let the bishop say : " For thou truly art 
holy, the most Holy, the most High, far exalted 
above all things for evermore. Holy also is thy 
only begotten Son, our Lord and God, Jesus Christ; 
who, ministering to thee his God and Father in all 
things, both in various works of creation and pro- 
vidence, did not despise lost mankind ; but after the 
law of nature, after the admonitions of the written 
law, after the reprehensions of the prophets, after 
the administrations and presidency of angels ; when 
men had corrupted both the natural and written 
law, and erased the memory of the flood, and the 
burning of Sodom, and the plagues of Egypt, and 
devastations and slaughters of Palestine, and were 
now all ready to perish ; he, who was the Creator 
of man, chose by thy will to become man ; the Law- 
giver, to be under the law ; the High Priest, to be 
the sacrifice; the Shepherd, to be made a sheep: 
whereby he appeased thee his God and Father, and 
reconciled the world, and delivered all men from the 
wrath that hanged over their heads, being born of 
a virgin, and made flesh, God the Word, the beloved 
Son, the First-born of every creature ; according to 
the prophecies which he himself predicted of him- 
self, made of the seed of David and Abraham, and 
of the tribe of Judah : he who was the Former of all 
things that are made, was formed himself in the 
virgin's womb ; he who is without flesh, was made 
flesh ; and he who was begotten, axporojg, before all 
time, was born in time : he lived a holy life, and 
taught a holy doctrine ; expelling all manner of 
sicknesses and infirmities from the bodies of men, 
and working signs and miracles among the people ; 
he who feeds all that have need of food, and fills 
every living creature of his own good pleasure and 
bounty, did himself partake of meat, and drink, and 
sleep ; he manifested thy name to them that knew 
it not ; he put ignorance to flight, and revived true 
piety and godliness, fillfilled thy will, and finished 
the work which thou gavest him to do : and when 
all things were thus set in order and rectified by 
him, he was betrayed by the incural)Ie maiice of 
one of his own disciples, and apprehended by the 
hands of the wicked, priests and high priests falsely 
so called, together with a sinfnl people ; of whom 
he sulTered many things, and underwent all manner 
of indignities, by thy permission ; he was delivered 
to Pilate, the governor; the Judge himself was 



Book XV. 

judged; the Saviour of the world condemned; he 
who is impassible, was nailed to the cross ; he who 
is immortal by nature, was made subject to death ; 
and the Author of life, who quickens all things, was 
laid in the grave, that he might deliver those from 
suffering, for whose sake he came, and set them free 
from death, and break the bonds of the devil, and 
deliver men from his frauds and impostures : he 
rose again the third day from the dead, and con- 
versed forty days with his disciples, and was taken 
up into heaven, and set at thy right hand, his God 
and Father. 

"We therefore, in commemoration of these things, 
W'hich he suffered for us, give thanks to thee, Al- 
mighty God, not as thou deservest and as is our 
duty, but oaov SwaneBa, as far as we are able, so 
fulfilling his command. For in the same night 
that he was betrayed, he took bread in his holy and 
immaculate hands, and looking up to thee his God 
and Father, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, 
saying, ' This is the mystery of the new testament, 
take of it and eat it ; this is my body, which is broken 
for many for the remission of sins.' Likewise he 
mixed a cup of wine and water, and sanctifying it, he 
gave it unto them, saying, ' Drink ye all of this ; for 
this is my blood, which is shed for many for the re- 
mission of sins. This do in remembrance of me. For 
as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye 
do show forth my death till I come.' We therefore, 
being mindful of his passion, and death, and resur- 
rection from the dead, and his return into heaven ; 
and also of his second coming, when he shall return 
with glory and power to judge the quick and dead, 
and to render to every man according to his w^orks, 
do offer unto thee, our King and God, this bread 
and this cup, according to his appointment, giving 
thanks to thee by him, for that thou dost vouch- 
safe to let us stand before thee, and minister unto 
thee; and we beseech thee to look propitiously 
upon these gifts here set before thee, our God, who 
hast need of nothing, and to accept them favourably 
to the honour of thy Christ, and to send thy Holy 
Spirit upon this sacrifice, who is the witness of the 
suffering of our Lord Jesus, that it may make this 
bread the body of thy Christ, and this cup the blood 
of thy Christ ; that they who partake of it may be 
confirmed in godliness, and obtain remission of 
sins, may be delivered from the devil and his impos- 
tures, may be filled with the Holy Ghost, and be 
made worthy of Christ, and obtain eternal life, thou 
being reconciled to them, O Lord Almighty. 

" We beseech thee further, O Lord, for thy holy 
church from one end of the earth to the other, which 
thou hast purchased with the precious blood of thy 
Christ, that thou wouldst be pleased to keep it un- 
shaken and immovable, by any storms or tempests, 
to the end of the world. We pray also for the 
whole episcopacy (or universal college of bishops) 

rightly dividing the word of truth. We pray for 
me thy unworthy servant, who am now offering 
unto thee, and for the whole presbytery, and dea- 
cons, and all the clergy, that thou wouldst give them 
all wisdom, and fill them with thy Holy Spirit. 
We pray thee, O Lord, for the king and all that 
are in authority, and for the whole army, that our 
affairs may be transacted in peace : that, passing 
our time in quietness and concord, M'e may glorify 
thee through Jesus Christ, our hope, all the days of 
our life. We offer unto thee for all thy saints, that 
have lived well-pleasing in thy sight from the found- 
ation of the world, for patriarchs, prophets, holy 
men, apostles, martyrs, bishops, confessors, presby- 
ters, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, virgins, 
widows, laymen, and all whose names thou knowest. 
We offer unto thee for this people, that thou wouldst 
make them, to the glory of thy Christ, a royal 
priesthood, and a holy nation ; for all that live in 
virginity and chastity ; for the widows of the church ; 
for all that live in honest marriage and procreation 
of children ; for the infants of thy people, that none 
of us be a cast-away. We praj^ thee for this city, 
and all that dwell therein ; for those that are in 
sickness, in cruel bondage and slavery, in banish- 
ment, or under confiscation and proscription, for all 
that travel by sea or by land, that thou wouldst be 
their succour, and a universal helper and defender 
to them all. W^e pray thee for those that hate us 
and persecute us for thy name, for them that are 
yet without, and wandering in error, that thou 
wouldst convert them to good, and mitigate their 
fury. We pray thee for the catechumens of the 
church ; for the energumens, that are tossed and 
tormented by the adversary the devil ; for all our 
brethren that are doing penance, that thou wouldst 
perfect the former in faith, and cleanse and deliver 
the second from the power and agitation of the 
wicked one ; and receive the repentance of the last, 
and pardon both them and us whatever offences we 
have committed against thee. We offer unto thee 
likewise for the temperature of the air, and the in- 
crease of the fruits of the earth, that we, continually 
partaking of those good things which thou bestow- 
est on us, may without ceasing praise thee, who 
givest food unto all flesh. We also pray for those, 
who upon any just and reasonable cause are now 
absent, that thou v/ouldst vouchsafe to preserve us 
all in godliness, and keeping us without change, 
blame, or rebuke, to gather us into the kingdom of 
thy Christ, the God of all things in nature, visible 
and invisible, and our King. For to thee, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, is due all glory, and worship, 
and thanksgiving, and honour, and adoration, now 
and for ever, throughout all ages, world without 
end." And let all the people answer, " Amen." 

After this the bishop is appointed to say again, 
" The peace of God be with you all;" to which the 




people answer, " And wilh tliy spirit." And then 
the deacon calls upon the people to join with him 
in another prayer, which is termed Trpoafuivrjatg, 
&c., a bidding prayer for the faithful after the 
Divine oblation, in these words : " Let us pray^ yet 
again and again to God by his Christ, for this gift 
•which is offered to the Lord God ; that the good 
God would receive it to his altar in heaven for a 
sweet-smelling savour, by the mediation of his 
Christ. Let us pray for this church and people ; 
for the whole society of bishops, and presbyters, 
and deacons, and ministers, and the whole catholic 
church, that the Lord would keep and preserve 
them all. Let us pray for kings and all that are in 
authority, that our aflairs may go on with tranquil- 
lity, and that we may lead a quiet and peaceable 
life in all godliness and honesty. Let us commemo- 
rate the holy martyrs, that we may be thought 
worthy to have fellowship in their conflicts and 
engagements. Let us pray for those that rest in 
faith ; let us pray for the temperature of the air, 
and increase of the fruits of the earth, that they 
may grow to perfection. Let us pray for those that 
are newly baptized, that they may be confirmed in 
faith. Let us all exhort and excite one another. 
Let us rise and commend ourselves to God by his 
grace." Then let the bishop say, " O God, that art 
great, great in name, great in counsel, and mighty in 
works ; the God and Father of thy holy Son Jesus 
our Saviour ; look favourably upon us and this thy 
flock, which thou hast chosen in him to the glory of 
thy name. Sanctify our bodies and souls ; and 
grant, that we being pure from all filthiness of flesh 
and spirit, may obtain the good things that are set 
before us ; and that thou mayest judge none of us 
unworthy,but be our helper, defender, and protector, 
through thy Christ; to whom, with thee and the 
Holy Spirit, be glory, honour, and praise, doxology 
and thanksgiving, for ever. Amen." 

And when all the people have said " Amen," 
let the deacon cry again, ripoo-xwjuev, Let us give 
attention. Then the bishop shall speak to the peo- 
ple, saying, T« liyia toIq ayioic, " Holy things for 
those that are holy." And the people shall answer; 
" There is one holy, one Lord, one Jesus Christ, to 
the glory of God the Father, blessed for ever. 
Amen. Glory be to God on high, and in earth 
peace, good will towards men. Hosanna to the 
Son of David : blessed be the Lord God, that came 
in the name of the Lord, and manifested himself 
unto us : hosanna in the highest." 

This is the whole service preceding the act of 
communicating, as it is delivered in the Constitu- 

tions ; which I have here represented all together 
as it lies there, that the reader may see it in one 
view. I shall now compare the several parts and 
branches of it with the certain accounts we have of 
them in other authentic writers ; beginning with 
that which was the first in order, the minister's sa- 
lutation of the people. 

It has been observed before,'' that ^ . „ 

Sect. 2. 

this form of saluting the people, by pj^j'^^f^rwh"™' 
saying, « Peace be with you," or, " The t"i;ot."Vi°rl!'"As"to 
Lord be with you," or, « The grace of tt'n.^^a^e'b'^lrh 
our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. be with *°"' *"' 
yon," was the usual preface and introduction to all 
holy oflices, and therefore always used before pray- 
ers, especially those that were offered up at the 
altar. Theodoret says, it was used both at the en- 
trance of their sermons and the mystical service,* 
by which he means this part of the communion 
ofl[ice. Cyril of Alexandria says the same, that they 
used it in the beginning "^ of their mysteries ; and 
that Christ made it a law, as it were, unto the church, 
by saying so often to his disciples, " Peace be unto 
you." But no one speaks more fully of it than St. 
Chrysostom. He says, they used it in all their of- 
fices ; when they first came into the church ; when 
they preached ; when they gave the benediction ; 
when they commanded the people to salute one an- 
other with the kiss of peace ; when the sacrifice' 
was offered ; and at other times in the communion 
service. "Where it is observable, that he speaks of 
this salutation as used four times at least in this 
part of the communion office, besides other occa- 
sions. In another place, exhorting Christians not 
to follow the customs of the Jews, but to be at 
unity and peace among themselves, he uses this ar- 
gimient: There is nothing comparable to peace 
and concord. Therefore when the bishop first en- 
ters the church, before ever he goes up to his 
throne, he says, "Peace be unto you all:" when 
he rises up to preach, he does not begin befoi'e he 
has given the " Peace to all : " when the priests are 
about to make the benediction prayers, they first* 
use this salutation, and then begin their benedic- 
tions. So also the deacon, when he bids you pray 
in common, among other things he reminds you to 
pray for the angel of peace ; and when he dis- 
misses you from this assembly, he praj's for you 
in the same manner, saying, " Go in peace." And 
there is nothing at all said or done without this. 
In another homily, upon the descent of the Holy 
Ghost,'' he gives the reason, why it was more par- 
ticularly used at the Lord's table. The bishop, 
says he, not only when he goes into his throne, and 

^Constit. lib. 8. cap. 13. 

* Book XIV. chap. 4. sect. 14. 

^ Theod. Ep. 146. p. 1032. Touto lu irurraii xaTs IkkXi}- 
aiat^ Till /iUCTTthf;? £=rt XsiTOvpytai irpooifiiov. 

* Cyril, lib. 12. iu Joan. .\.\. p. 1093, llap' avra^ tou 

/xv^iiniov Tczs dpXfis touto koI aX\j;\ois v/xtli (pa/xti/. 
Vid. 'isidor. Pelus. lib. I. Ep. 112. 

' Chrys. Horn. 3. in Colos. p. 1338. 

•* Ibid. Horn. 52. in eos qui Pascha jejunanl, f. 5. p. 713. 

" Ibid. Horn. 36. de Pentecost, t. 5. p. 503. 



Book XV. 

when he preaches, and when he prays, uses this 
form, but when he stands at this holy table, when 
he is about to offer the tremendous sacrifice, he 
does not touch the oblation, before he has prayed 
that the " grace of the Lord may be with you," and 
ye have answered, "And with thy spirit:" by 
which answer ye remind yourselves, that it is not 
the minister who effects any thing in this matter, 
neither is the consecration of the gifts there lying 
the work of human nature, but that it is the grace 
of the Spirit then present, and descending upon the 
elements, that makes this mystical sacrifice. There 
are several other passages to the same purpose in 
his other homilies'" upon the Gospels and St. Paul's 
Epistles, Avhich because the reader may find them 
at large in the extract of the liturgy above" out 
of St. Chrysostom's works, I will not here repeat 
them. The same custom was always observed in 
the Latin church. For TertuUian '^ plainly refers to 
it, when he objects it to the heretics, that they gave 
the peace to all without exception ; implying, that 
the church used it, but with some distinction. Op- 
tatus says," The Donatists retained the form, but 
grossly abused it in their practice. They could not 
omit the solemn words ; they said, Peace be unto 
you. But why, says he, dost thou salute men with 
that which thou hast not ? Why dost thou name 
peace that hast destroyed it ? Thou salutest men 
with the words of love and peace, who hast nothing 
of the reality and substance of it. In the Spanish 
church they used a like form, though not altoge- 
ther the same. For by an order of the first council 
of Braga," it was appointed that both bishops and 
presbyters should use one and the same form of sa- 
lutation, that is, " The Lord be with you," as it is in 
the Book of Ruth; and that the people should an- 
swer, " And with thy spirit :" as all the East receive 
it by tradition from the apostles, and not as the 
Priscilhan heresy hath changed it. What change 
the Priscillianists had made in this matter, is not 
very clear : some learned men are of opinion '^ that 
they would allow the bishops to use no other form 
but Pax vobis, and the presbyters only to say, Do- 
minus vohiscum: whence they conclude that the word 
Oriens, the East, must have crept into the canon 
instead of the West, because it is so evident, that 
all the Eastern church used the form. Pax vobis, 
both in the salutation of bishops and presbyters. 
But I should rather think the Priscillian pravity 

'" Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. Horn. 3G. in 1 Cor. 
p. 652. Horn. .33. in Matt. p. 318. 

" Book XIII. chap. G. 

'- Tert. (le Procscr. cap. 41. Pacein cum omnibus miscent. 

" Optat. lib. 3. p. 73. Non potuistis praetermittere quod 

legitimum est. Utique dixistis, Pax vobiscum. Quid sa- 

lutas, de quo non babes ? Quid nominas, quod exterminasti? 
Salutas de pace, qui non amas. 

'^ Cone. Bracar. 1. can. 21. Placuitut non aliter episcopi, 
et aliter presbyteri populum, sed uao modo salutent, di- 

here complained of, was their denying the people 
the liberty of making their proper response, and 
bearing their part in the service, by saying, " And 
with thy spirit," as had been the custom of all the 
East from the time of the apostles. However this 
be, I cannot forbear to say, it is the very error and 
pravity which the church of Rome has since run 
into. For Bona owns himself,'" that though it was 
customary in the ancient church for all the congre- 
gation, and not only the clerks, to answer the priest, 
by saying, " And with thy spirit ;" yet now it is 
otherwise in the church of Rome, where the clerks 
only make this response, and the people are wholly 
excluded from it. For which no other reason can 
be assigned, but the magisterial authority of that 
chui'ch, pretending to prescribe what she pleases to 
the people, with a tio}i obstante to any rule or tradi- 
tion of the ancient church. St. Chrysostom's rea- 
soning in behalf of the people's bearing a part in 
prayer with the priest, is of much more weight, and 
with it I will conclude this paragraph. 

Great is the power of the congregation, that is, 
of the whole church, says he." It was their prayer 
that delivered Peter from his bonds, and opened the 
mouth of Paul. Their suffrage is a peculiar orna- 
ment to those who are called to the spiritual offices 
of government. And, therefore, he who is about to 
perform the office of ordination, at that time requires 
their prayers, and they join their suffrage, crying 
out in those words, which they that are initiated in 
the holy mysteries know : for we may not speak all 
things openly before the unbaptized. There are 
some things wherein there is no difference between 
priest and people, as when they are to partake of 
the tremendous mysteries. For we are all alike ad- 
mitted to them : not as under the Old Testament, 
when the priest eat one thing, and the people an- 
other ; and it was not lawful for the people to par- 
take of those things which the priest alone might 
partake of. It is not so now, but there is one body, 
and one cup proposed in common to all. So also in 
the prayers one may now observe the people to con- 
tribute a great deal. For common prayers are made 
for the energumens, and for the penitents, both by 
the priests and people. For they all say that one 
and the same prayer, the prayer so full of mercy. 
Again, when we exclude those from the sanctuary, 
who cannot partake of the holy table, we are all 
obhged to make another prayer, in which we all fall 

centes, Dominus sit vobiscum : sicut in Libro Ruth legitur, 
et ut respondeatur a populo, Et cum spiritu tuo: sicut et ab 
ipsis apostolis traditum omnis retinet Oriens, et non sicut 
Priscilliana pravitas imnuitavit. 

'^ Garsias Loaisa in loc. Bona, de Reb. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 
5. n. 1. Habertus, Archieratic. p.330. Hamon L'Estrange, 
Alliance of Div. Oific. chap. 3. p. 82. 

'" Bona, ibid. p. 501. Nunc soli clcrici vel ministri re- 

" Chiys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 872. 

Chap. III. 



down alike on the earth, and all rise up together. 
Again, when we are to give and receive the peace, 
or kiss of peace, we all in like manner salute each 
other. And again, in celebrating the holy myste- 
ries, the priest prays for the people, and the people 
for the priest; for these words, " And with thy spirit," 
are nothing else but the people's prayer. In like 
manner, the prayer of thanksgiving is a common 
prayer. For not only the priest gives thanks, but 
all the people also. For when he has first received 
their answer, declaring their consent, that "it is meet 
and right so to do," then he begins the thanksgiving. 
And why should you wonder, that the people some- 
times speak with the priest, when they are allowed 
to send up those holy hymns in common with the 
very cherubims and celestial powers above? I have 
spoken all this, adds he, to make every member of 
the church, though he be an inferior, to become 
watchful and vigilant ; and to teach us, that we are 
all one body, and only differ from each other as 
members do from the members of the same body ; 
and that we should not cast all upon the priests, 
but every one bear his share in his concern for the 
whole church, as one common body. I will now 
leave any ingenuous reader to judge, whose reasons 
are strongest and most rational ; those of Chrysos- 
tom, who thus pleads the people's right in bearing 
a part in the public service of God ; or theirs who, 
by an overbearing authority, deny them their just 
right ; and as they have taken away the cup, and 
the Bible, and the key of knowledge from them, so 
have also denied them the liberty of joining in com- 
mon prayer with the priest, which was their uncon- 
tested privilege in the ancient church. 

But I proceed with the Constitu- 
tions. As there, immediately after the 
priest has given the salutation of 
peace, and the people have returned their answer, a 
deacon goes on to proclaim solemnly, that they 
should salute one another with a holy kiss ; and 
so the clergy salute the bishop, and laymen their 
fellow laymen, and women one another ; it is in the 
very same manner represented in other writers. 
The council of Laodicea, describing the order of the 
ancient service, says. After the prayers '^ of the faith- 
ful, the peace should be given : and after the pres- 
byters have given the peace to the bishop, and lay- 

Sect. 3. 

Secondly, Tlie k 

of peace. 

'* Cone. Laodic. 19. EI0' ovtw^ ti)u Elpi'iviiu oLSnrrdai. 
Kttt fitTu Tous TrpiafiuTipovi oovvai tm i-rrLO-KOTrw T?/y 
iLp-i}ut]v, TOTS. Tot/s Xa'ucoOs Ttjii Eipi'ii/rju Sioovai. Kal o'vTM 
Tt]v ayiav -irpocrcpopav tTrixf XfTa-6ai. 

'" Cyvil. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 2. 

=» Chrys. Horn. 20. in Mat. p. 205. Horn. 22. in Rom. p. 
251. Horn. 30. in 2 Cor. p. 995. Horn. 14. in Ephes. p. 
1128. Horn. 77, in Joan. p. 500. Horn. 30. de Proditore, 
t. 5. p. 565. Horn. 50. ibid. p. C86. 

^' Chrys. de Compunct. Cordis, lib. 1. cap. 3. t. 4. p. 118. 
Ao-Tra^o'/ifyot aWiJXoi/? ixi\\ovTo<i tov Owpov Trpoacpi- 
ptadat, ^■,T.X. 

men the peace to one another, the holy oblation 
should be oiTered. After the same manner, Cyril 
of Jerusalem "' speaks of it as coming before the 
Sursiim corda, " Lift up your hearts to the Lord." 
A deacon cries, " Receive one another, salute one 
another with a holy kiss." Which, he says, was 
a symbol of reconciliation, and forgiving all injuries 
whatsoever. St. Chrysostom"" often mentions it 
among other arguments to excite men to unity and 
charity; reminding them of this symbol of peace 
and reconciliation, and how great a piece of page- 
antry and mere hypocrisy it was to give this kiss, 
as Judas did, without cordial love and sincere afFec- 
tion. Particularly in one place'^^'hc notes the cir- 
cumstance of time when this ceremony was used, 
that is, before the oblation, when the sacrifice was 
about to be ofTered : which agrees exactly with the 
time specified in the Constitutions. The same is 
noted long before by Justin Martyr," that it was 
between the common prayers for the whole state of 
Christ's church, and the prayers of consecration. 
For, says he, when prayers are ended, we salute one 
another with a kiss : and after that, bread and wine 
and water is brought to the president of the bre- 
thren, who, receiving them, gives praise and glory to 
the God of all things, in the name of the Son and 
the Holy Spirit. In the Latin church the same 
custom was observed, only with this difference, that 
it came not before, but after the consecration jiray- 
ers and the Lord's prayer, immediately before the 
distribution. For so St. Austin or Ca-sarius Arela- 
tensis represents it, in describing the order of the 
service : When the consecration "' is ended, we say 
the Lord's prayer ; and after that, " Peace be with 
you:" and then Christians salute one another with 
a holy kiss, which is a sign of peace, if that be 
really in their hearts, which they pretend with their 
lips. He mentions the thing in other places, and 
seems to intimate, that the Donatists observed the 
same ceremony, though they had nothing of the 
peace that was intended by it. In his books against 
Petilian,-'' speaking of one Optatus Gildonianus, a 
Donatist bishop, who had been a great oppressor 
of widows and orphans, and infamous for many 
other barbarous cruelties, he says, notwithstandino- 
all this, they gave him the kiss of peace, when they 
received the sacrament at his hands. In another 

" Justin. Apol. 2. p. 97. 'A\X.i\ous (^iXvfiaTi a(r-TraX,6- 
fxtda ■n-avcrdp.iLVOL Tutv tbxuiV 'iirtiTa TrpoarrjitpeTaL tiu irpo- 
ta-TooTi Twii aOcXrpwu lipTo^ Kal TroTi'ipiov iioaxos Kal Kpa- 
liaT09. Vid. Clem. Alex. Paedagog. lib. 3. cap. 11. Athenag. 
Legat. p. 36. Dionys. Eccl. Hierarch. cap. 3. sect. 8. 

"'* Aug. Ilom. 83. de Diversis, 1. 10. p. 556. Ubi poracta 
est sauetificatio, dicimus oiatiouem Dominicam. Post ipsam 
dicitur, Pa.x vobiscum, ct osculautur se Christiani in osculo 
sancto, quod est signum pacis, si quod ostendunt labia, fiat 
in couscientia. 

-' Aug. coni Literas Petilian. lib. 2. cap. 2-3. Cui pacis 
osculum inter sacramenta copulabatis, &c. 



Book XV. 

place" he compares the Donatists to crows, and the 
cathoUcs to doves ; because, though they both gave 
the kiss of peace, j^et the one tare the church in 
pieces, and fed upon its rains, but the other were 
innocent and harmless as doves ; and by those cha- 
racters they might be distinguished from each other. 
It appears also from Pope Innocent's letter^" to 
Deccntius, bishop of Eugubium, that it was the ge- 
neral custom of the ItaUc churches to give the kiss 
of peace, not before the consecration, but after: for 
it blames those that gave it before, and says, it 
ought to come after, as a testimony of their consent 
to all that was done, and as a seal of the consecra- 
tion prayer, to signify that all was ended. Tertul- 
lian^' probably upon this account gave it the name 
of sif/nacidiiin orationis, the seal of their prayers ; 
as being in his time used when all the prayers of 
consecration were ended. He seems to intimate 
also that it was given promiscuously, and without 
distinction between men and women.^ For among 
other arguments, which he uses why a Christian 
woman should not marry a heathen, this is one, 
that he would be unwilling to suffer her to go into 
the prisons to kiss the martyrs' chains, or at any 
other times to give the kiss of peace to a brother. 
And this is as plainly intimated by the ancient 
writer of the Passion of Felicitas and Perpetua, about 
Tertullian's time, when he says^^ that Felicitas, Per- 
petua, and Saturus did mutually kiss each other be- 
fore they suffered, that they might consummate their 
martyrdom by the solemn rite of peace : alluding to 
the usual custom of giving the kiss of peace without 
distinction, though it was otherwise observed in the 
Greek church. There is one thing more proper to be 
observed out of TertuUian,^" that some made a scruple 
of giving the kiss of peace upon a fast day, though it 
were but a private fast of their own ; whom he re- 
proves, telling them, that the kiss of peace was the 
seal of prayer ; that it was never more proper than 
when joined with prayer; that there was no prayer 
perfect without peace ; that peace was no impediment 
to a man in doing his duty to the Lord ; that what- 
ever reason they had for it, their reason was not 
stronger than the observation of the precept which 

obliges us to conceal our fasts. Whereas when we 
refrain from the kiss of peace, that discovers us to 
be fasting. We may at home omit this ceremony 
of giving the peace, because there our fasts cannot 
be wholly concealed from the family : but in other 
places, where you may conceal your action, you 
ought to remember the precept of the Lord ; and 
so you may observe the discipline of the church 
abroad, and your own custom at home. TertuUian, 
we see, speaks this of private fasts, which he thinks 
no reason for men's refusing the kiss of peace in 
public. As to public fasts, the case was otherwise. 
For, by the laws of the church, this ceremony was 
omitted on some more solemn days of fasting ; as 
upon the day of our Saviour's passion. For Ter- 
tuUian adds immediately in the next words,^' that 
on that day, because it was a public and common 
fast, ordained by the laws of the church, they omit- 
ted the kiss of peace, and no one then regarded 
the omission, because it was done by general con- 
sent and agreement. And this seems to have been 
an exception of universal extent in the church : for 
Procopius notes it in the Life of Justinian and Theo- 
dora, who began their reign on this day, anno 527, 
that they began it with an ill omen, on a day^'^ that 
no one used the kiss of peace in the church. And 
thus much of this ancient ceremony, so often en- 
joined by the apostle, Rom. xvi. 16 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 20 ; 
2 Cor. xiii. 12; 1 Thess. v. 26; 1 Pet. v. 14. Of 
which some have wi'itten^ whole volumes: but I 
content myself to have said so much, as may serve 
to confirm the observation made upon the author of 
the Constitutions, that this was an ancient rite uni- 
versally observed in the church in one part or other 
of the communion service. 

The next thing mentioned in the g^^.^ ^ 
Constitutions, is the ceremony of the of'h^nditefore'Jon? 
priest's washing his hands before con- ^"^"^ '°"' 
secration. This is also noted by Cyril of Jerusalem 
in his Mystagogical Explication of the Communion 
Service, where, speaking to the newly baptized, he 
says. Ye have seen the deacon bring water to the 
bishop and presbyters'* standing about the altar, 
to wash their hands. Did he give it to wash the 

23 Aug. Tract. 6. in Joan. p. 21. Osculantur corvi, seel la- 
niant : a laniatu innocens est natura columbarum. Ubi 
ergo laniatus, iion est vera in osculis pax, &c. 

'-"° Innoc. Ep. 1. ad Decent, cap. 1. Paceui ergo asseris 
ante confecta mysteria quosdam populis imperare, vel sibi 
inter sacerdotes tradere : cum post omnia, quae aperire non 
debeo, pax sit neccssario indicenda, per quam constet popu- 
lum, ad omnia quae in mysteriis aguntur, atque in ecclesia 
celebrantur, praebuisse couseusum, ac fiuita esse pacis con- 
cludentis signaculo demonstrentur. 

-' Tertul. de Orat. cap. 11. 

^ Ad Uxor. lib. 2. cap. 4. Quis patietur alicui fratrum 
ad osculum convenire ? 

^ Passio Perpetu:p, ad calcem Lactaut. de Mort. Persec. 
p. 35. Ante jam osculati invicem, ut martyrium per solonnia 
pacis consimimarent. 

^ Tertul. de Orat. cap. 14. Aliajam consuetudo invaluit, 
jejuuantes habita oratione cum fratribus s\ibtrahunt oscu- 
\\\m pacis, quod est signaculum orationis. Quando autem 
magisconferenda cum fratribus pax est, nisi cum oratione 

commendabilior ascendit ? Quae oratio cum divortio 

sancti osculi Integra ? Qiiem Domino offieium facientem 
impedit pax ? Quale sacrificium est, a quo sine pace rece- 
ditur? &c. 

'• Ibid. Die Paschac, quo communis et quasi publica 
jejunii relieio, deponimus osculum ; nihil curantes de oscu- 
lando, quod cum omnibus faciamus. 

^- Procop. Hist. Arcana, cap. 9. 

^ MuUerus de Osculo Sancto. Jena;, 1675. 4to. Martin 
Kempius de Osculo, &c. Lipsise, 1665. 

=*< Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 1. 

Chap. III. 



filth of their bodies ? By no means. For we do 
not use to go into the church with bodies defiled : 
but that washing of hands is a symbol, that you 
ought to be pure from sin and transgressions of the 
law. For the hands are the symbol of action, and 
washing them denotes the purity and cleanness of 
our actions. Have you not lieard holy David ex- 
plaining this mystery, and saying, " I will wash my 
hands among the innocent, and so will I compass 
thine altar, O Lord." Therefore washing the hands 
is a symbol or indication that we are not obnoxious 
or liable unto sin. The author of the Questions 
upon the Old and New Testament under the name 
of St. Austin,** takes notice of the same custom as 
used in all churches, only with this difference, that 
whereas in other churches it was commonly the 
office of the deacons to bring water to priests, in the 
Roman church it was devolved upon the subdea- 
cons, because there was a multitude of inferior cler- 
gy in that church above many others. And in the 
author under the name of Dionysius the Areopa- 
gite, a great deal more may be read to the same 

In the next place, whereas in the 
FourtMy^Thedea- Coustitutions the dcacou is appointed 

con's admonition to , _ , , . 

all non communi- asTaiu to maKC a solcmn proclamation, 

cants to withdraw ; ^ 

and to all commu- ordering: all non-communicants, cate- 

nicants to come in ^ 

ceritj''' '"^'^ ^'"' chumens, penitents, and unbelievers, 
to be excluded ; and admonishing all 
communicants to approach in charity and sincerity, 
not in enmity with their bretlii'en, or in hypocrisy 
towards God, but in reverence and fear ; the very 
same is suggested by Chrysostom : Dost thou not 
hear the deacon, the herald of the church, standing 
and crying. All ye that are under penance,'" be 
gone. All they that do not partake of the commu- 
nion, are in penance. If thou art in penance, thou 
mayest not partake. And Severianus, bishop of 
Gabala, in one of his homilies among St. Chrysos- 
tom's works,'' speaks of the same : Ye have seen the 
deacons traversing the church, and crying, Let no 
catechumen be present, none of those that may not 
see the heavenly blood shed for the remission of 
sins, &c. Ye remember after this how the angels 
from heaven sing the hymns and praises, saying, 
" Holy is the Father, holy is the Son, holy is the 

Holy Ghost." By which it is plain, these admoni- 
tions of the deacon were here repeated as prepara- 
tory to the oblation. 

The circumstance of the piiriSia, or j. 

fans to drive away the insects, is so 

lie P(7 

to ifriv 


minute, that it is no great wonder it """^ msicts. 
should be omitted in most other writers beside the 
Constitutions. Bona says,** they are mentioned 
in Jobius'" and Germanus Theoria, and the litur- 
gies that go under the name of St. Chrysostom and 
St. Basil. Suicerus thinks," that in most of those 
writings the word pnrlSta signifies one of their holy 
vessels, a basket or the like, in which they were 
used to carry the sacred elements to and from the 
altar ; such as that spoken of by St. Jerom, when 
describing the glorious poverty of Exuperius, bishop 
of Tholouse, he says," he was used to carry the 
Lord's body in a basket of osiers, and the blood in 
a glass cup. And indeed in Herodotus the word 
pnriowv is by some lexicographers said to signify a 
basket ; but in the liturgies of St. Chrysostom and 
Basil, it is taken in the common sense of Greek 
authors, and as it is used in the Constitutions, for a 
fan to blow with. For in Chrysostom's liturgy the 
deacon is to ventilate ^^ or blow over the elementrs 
with a fan ; or if there be no fan, then to do it Avith 
the covering of the cup. And in St. Basil's liturgy 
there is mention" made of the same utensils, pnri- 
Stov 77 KaXvfina, either the fan, or the covering of the 
cup, to be used for the same purpose. And so the 
word piTTiSiov ■''' is taken both hy Germanus, and Jo- 
bius, and Suidas. So that there was no reason for 
Suicerus to reckon the author of the Constitutions 
so singular in this opinion. But as these authors 
are not very ancient, I have mentioned them rather 
to explain a hard word, than establish an ecclesias- 
tical custom. St. Jerom's authority is produced by 
Durantus," but it is nothing to the purpose : for 
though he mentions the use of mnscaria,^^ that is, 
fans ; yet it is plain he speaks of them not as any 
ecclesiastical utensil, but as a civil present made by 
Marcella to the matrons, though he gives a tropo- 
logical turn of wit, to draw something of a mystical 
meaning out of them. So I let this matter pass as 
a minute circumstance in the Constitutions, about 
which it is not worth our while to be further soli- 

^»"Aug. Qusest. Vet. et Novi Testamenti, qu. 101. Ut 
aulem non omnia ministeria obsequiorum per ortlinem agant, 
inultitudo facit clericorum. Nam utique et altare portarent 
et vasaejus, et aquam in manus funderent saceiiloti, sicut 
viileraus per omnes ecclesias, &c. 

3" Chrys. Horn. 3. in Ephes. p. 1051. 

" Ap. Chi-ys. t. 6. Horn. 37. do Filio Prodigo, p. 375. 
See before, Book XIII. chap. 6. sect. 6. Vide Chrvs. Horn. 
I. cont. Judaeos, 1. 1. p. 400. 'TLiriyLvwaKni aWnXn's, k.t.X. 

^^ Bona, Rer. Litm-g. lib. I. cap. 25. n. 6. 

39 Jobius ap. Photium, Cod. 222. 

'"' Suicer. Thesaur. Eccles. voce 'PtTrtotoi', t. 2. 

^' Ilieron. Ep. 5. ad Uiisticuni. Nihil illo ditius, qui 

3 u 

corpus Domini canistro vimineo, sanguinem portat in 

"■= Chrys. Liturg. Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 2. p. 78. 'Pt-Tn'^fi 
iirdvu) Tthv dyiwv /UETci piiriSiu EtiXaStos. EI Sk hk in 
pnriSov, TTOifX t5to jXiTct KuXu/ifxaTO^. 

■" Basil. Liturg. ibid. p. 51. 

** German. Contemplatio Her. Eccles. ibid. p. 157. Jo- 
bius ubi supra. Suidaa Le.xicon, t. 2. p. 686. 

■■^ Darant. de Ritib. lib. 1. cap. 10. n. 2. 

*'^ Hieron. Ep. 20. ad Mareellam. Quod autem et ina- 
tronis offertis muscaria parva, parvis aniraalibus eventilan- 
<lis, elegans significatio est, debere luxuriam cito restia- 
guere, quia muscx moriturae oleum suavitatis exterminant. 



Book XV. 

citous in our inquiries, to give collateral evidence 
out of the ancient writei's. 

g^^, , The next thing mentioned in the 

.ig^onhhrossal Constitutions is, the use of the sign 
th'e Lord's table. ^f ^^le cross, beforc the minister pro- 
ceeds to the consecration. And of this there is 
more certain evidence in the ancient writers. For 
Chrysostom says expressly," that it was not only 
used by Christians every day, but particularly at the 
holy table, and in the ordinations of priests, and 
that its glory shined with the body of Christ in the 
mystical supper : which implies, that it was used 
more than once in the time of celebration. St. 
Austin says likewise, that it was used in all their 
offices,"' in consecrating the waters of baptism, in 
the unction of confirmation, and in the sacrifice of 
the eucharist ; without which none of them were 
solemnly performed. 

Next after this, immediately before 
Of the usual pre- ^|^g great tlianksgiving in the Consti- 

face, called Sursum t3 O o 

^".^Sonfolheg^eat tutious, the prlcst haviug given the 
thanksgiving. people auother salutation in the words 
of St. Paul, " The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
&c. be with you ;" and they answering again, " And 
with thy spirit :" the priest goes on and says, " Lift 
up your hearts :" to which the people answer, " We 
lift them up unto the Lord." The priest says again, 
" Let us give thanks to the Lord ;" and the people 
answer, " It is meet and right so to do." Now, this 
is mentioned almost by all ecclesiastical writers, 
that have said any thing of the eucharist or prayer. 
St. Cyprian'"' calls it the preface that was premised 
by the priest, to prepare the brethren's minds to 
pray with a heavenly temper. St. Austin men- 
tions it above ten times in his writings : the places 
have been noted above,'*" in the general discourse of 
liturgies, and therefore I need not here repeat them. 
I will only remark, that he says. It was the custom 
of the whole church throughout the world ^' to say 
daily almost with one voice, " We lift up our hearts 
unto the Lord." And that therefore the hearts" of 
Christian people were a sort of heaven, because they 
are daily lift up to heaven, whilst the priest says, 
" Lift up your hearts ;" and they answer, " We lift 

them up unto the Lord." St. Chrysostom also*" 
frequently mentions the use of this preface in his 
homilies, which because I have related at length 
in a former Book, I forbear to repeat them again .in 
this place.** The reader that is curious, may find 
the same forms related in Cyril's Mystical Cate- 
chisms,** and Anastasius Sinaita,*'^ and Ceesarius 
Arelatensis,*' and Eligius Noviomensis,** not to 
mention the Greek liturgies, or any later writers. I 
only observe further out of the council of Milevis,*' 
where there is mention made of prefaces among 
other prayers, it is commonly supposed by learner 
men, that these forms are meant, " Lift up your 
hearts: We lift them up unto the Lord. Let us 
give thanks unto the Lord: It is meet and right so 
to do." Which, as Mabillon'* observes, in the old 
Galilean liturgy, is called contestatio, because, by 
these answers, the people gave in their attestation 
or testimony of their comphance with the priest's 
exhortation ; declaring that their hearts were now 
in heaven, and that it was meet and right to praise 
the Lord. 

After this, the priest went on with 

Sect. 9. 

the tiixapiaria, properly so called, that or the evx'^pia- 
is, the great thanksariving to God for thanksgiving, pro- 

' ° a O purly so called. 

all his mercies, both of creation, pro- 
vidence, and redemption ; where a commemoration 
was made of all that God had done for man from 
the foundation of the world, and more particularly 
in the gi'eat mystery of redemption : upon which a 
solemn and magnificent glorification of God was 
framed, always including the Trisagion, or seraph- 
ical hymn, " Holy, holy, holy. Lord of hosts," &c,, 
which was sung by the minister and people jointly; 
and then the minister went on alone to finish the 
solemn thanksgiving. We have no where else in- 
deed so long a thanksgiving as is that in the Con- 
stitutions : but the substance of it is not only in the 
liturgies that go under the names of St. James, 
Chrysostom, and Basil, but may be discovered in 
more authentic writings. For Justin Martyr, de- 
scribing the Christian rites and mysteries,"' says. As 
soon as the common prayers were ended, and they 
had saluted one another with a kiss, bread and wine 

^' Chrys. Demonstrat. Quod Christus sit Deus, cap. 9. t. 
5. p. 840. OStos Iv xj; LEpa TpairiX^ri, axos Iv this tcoi' 
'ifpitov ')(iipOToviai'i, arcs iraXiv fitTo. tu aoi^aros x£ 
'S.pi':^ ETTL TO ixv^iKov otiirvov Sia\a/xTrii. 

■■8 Aug. Horn. 118. in Joan. p. 2'25. Quid est signum 
Cliristi nisi crux Christi? Quod signum nisi adhibeatur 
sive fvontibus credentiura, sive ipsi aquae ex. qua regeneran- 
tur, sive oleo quo 'chrismute unguntur, sive saciificio quo 
aluntur; niliil horuin rite perficitur. 

« Cypr. de Oral. p. 152. 

5» See Book XIII. chap. 5. sect. 7. 

*' Aug. de Vera Itelig. cap. 3. t. 1. p. 302. Quotidie per 
miiversum orbem iiumanum genus una pone voce respondet, 
Sursum corda se habere ad Dominum. 

'^ Serm. 44. de Tempore. Corda fidelium ccelum sunt, 
quia in coelos quotidie criguntur, diceute sacerdote, Sursum 

corda; securi respondent, Habemus ad Dominum. 

ss Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. Hom. 22. in Heb. 
p. 1898. Hom. 5. de Pcenitent. t. 6. Edit. Savil. Hom. 
24. in 1 Cor. p. 536. Hom. 38. de Euchar. t. 5. p. 5G9. 

^* See Book XIII. chap. G. 

55 Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 3. 

5" Anastas. Serm. de Syuaxi, ap. Albertin. de Eucharistia, 
p. 529. 

5' Cffisar. Hom. 12. 

^ Eligius, Hom. 11. de Cona Domini. E.x verbis Cy- 

5" Cone. Milevit. can. 12. Placuit, ut preces vel orationes 
et missae sive praet'ationes, quae probata; fuerint in concilio, 
ab omnibus celebrentur. 

•5" Mabillon. de Liturg. Gall. lib. 1. cap. 3. n. 17. 

*' Justin. Apol. 2. p. 97. 

Chap. III. 



and water was brought to the president ; who, re- 
ceiving them, gave praise and glory to the Father 
of all things by the Son and Holy Spirit, and made 
ivxapmriav Itti to ttoXv, a long thanksgiving for the 
blessings which he vouchsafed to bestow upon 
them. And when he had ended the prayers and 
thanksgiving, all the people that were present an- 
swered with acclamation. Amen. After the same 
manner Irenaeus -.'^ We oiler unto him his own gifts, 
thereby declaring the communication and truth 
both of flesh and Spirit. For as the bread, which 
is of the earth, after the invocation of God upon it, 
is no longer common bread, but the eucharist, con- 
sisting of two parts, the one earthly, the other hea- 
venly ; so all our bodies, receiving the eucharist, 
are no longer corruptible, whilst they live in hopes 
of a resurrection. But we offer these things to 
him, not as if he stood in need of them, but as giv- 
ing him thanks for his gifts, and sanctifying the 
creature. So Origen®^ says. They eat the bread 
that was offered to the Creator with prayer and 
thanksgiving for the gifts that he had bestowed on 
them, which bread was made a holy body by 
prayer, sanctifjdng those that used it with a pious 
mind. Cyril of Jerusalem more particularly speci- 
fies the substance of this thanksgiving in his Mysti- 
cal Catechisms, saying,"*' After this, that is, after we 
have said, " Let us give thanks to the Lord," and " it 
is meet and right so to do," we make mention of the 
heaven, and earth, and sea, and the sun, moon, and 
stars, and all the creatures, rational and irrational, 
visible and invisible, angels, archangels, hosts and 
dominions, principalities and powers, thrones, and 
cherubims covering their faces, saying, with David, 
" Magnify the Lord with me." We also make men- 
tion of the cherubims, which Esaias saw in the 
Spirit, standing about the throne of God, and with 
two wings covering their faces, and with two their 
feet, and flying with two, and saying, " Holy, holy, 
holy. Lord God of hosts." This is much the same 
with the thanksgiving in St. James's liturgy, which 
was used in the church of Jerusalem, in this form : 
It is very meet and right, becoming us and our 
duty,"^ that we should praise thee, and celebrate 
thee with hymns, and give thanks unto thee, the 
Maker of all creatures, visible and invisible, the 

Treasure of all good, the Fountain of life and im- 
mortality, the God and Lord of all things, whom 
the heavens and the heavens of heavens praise, 
and all the host of them ; the sun, and moon, and 
the whole company of stars; the earth, and sea, 
and all that are in them ; the celestial congregation 
of Jerusalem ; the church of the first-born, who are 
written in heaven ; the spirits of just men and pro- 
phets, the souls of martyrs and apostles ; angels and 
archangels, thrones and dominions, principalities 
and powers, the tremendous hosts and cherubims 
with many eyes, and seraphims with six wings, 
with two whereof they cover their faces, and with 
two their feet, and with two they fly, crying out in- 
cessantly one to another, and singing with loud 
voices the triumphal song of the magnificence of 
thy glory, " Holy, holy, holy. Lord of hosts, heaven 
and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the 
highest. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of 
the Lord. Hosanna in the highest." 

St. Chrysostom*" also speaks of this thanksgiving, 
though he does not give us the whole form of it, but 
only the introduction, saying. The pi'ayer of thanks- 
giving is common both to priest and people. For 
not only the priest gives thanks, but all the people. 
For, first, he receives their answer and attestation, 
That it is meet and right to praise the Lord, and 
then he begins the thanksgiving. And why should 
you wonder, that the people should sometimes speak 
with the priest, when they do, even with the cheru- 
bims and celestial powers, send up those sacred 
hymns to heaven above ? He means those hymns, 
" Holy, holy, holy," &c., and, " Glory be to God on 
high ;" which, as we shall presently see, were one 
part of this great thanksgiving. 

Among the Latin writers this previous giving of 
thanks is mentioned by Fulgentius also," who 
says. In the Christian sacrifice there was both a 
thanksgiving and a commemoration made of the 
flesh of Christ, and of his blood which he shed for 
our sakes. And so St. Ambrose, or whoever was 
the author of the books De Sacramentis among his 
works; distinguishing between the thanksgiving 
and the consecration, he asks,^ With what words, and 
with whose words is the consecration made ? And 
answers, With the words of the Lord Jesus. For all 

*- Iren. lib. 4. cap. 34. Offerimus ei quae sunt ejus, con- 
gruenter communicationem et veritatem procdicantes carnis 
et Spiritus. Quemadmodum eniin qui est a terra panis, 
percipiens invocationem Dei, jam non communis panis est, 
sed eucharistia, es duabus rebus constans, terrena et coe- 
lesti: sic et corpora nostra, percipientia eucharistiam, jam 
non sunt corruptibilia, spem resurrectionis habentia. Ofi'cr- 
imus autem ei, non quasi indigeuti, sed gratias agentes do- 
nationi ejus, et sanctificantes creaturam. 

'^ Orig. coqt. Gels. lib. 8. p. 399. 

"« Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 5. 

•■•■• Liturg. .Tacobi, Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 2. p. ]2. 

«" Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. It. Horn. 2. in 

2 Cor. p. 739. 'Yirip t;")? OLKov/xtuii^ Kal rHiv kolvwv 
tiiyitpLdTOviXiV &yaBwv. 

"=' Fulgent, de Fide ad Pctrum, cap. 19. In isto autem 
sacrificio gratiarum actio, atque commemoratio est carnis 
Christi, quam pro nobis obtulit, sanguinis qucm pro nobis 
idem Deus efFudit. 

•^^ Ambros. de Sacrament, lib. 4. cap. 4. Consecratio 
igitur quibiis verbis est, et cujus sermonibus ? Domini 
Jesu. Nam rcliqua omnia quae dicuntur, laus Deo defertur, 
oratione petitur pro populo, pro rogibus, pro cneteris. Ubi 
venitur ut coniiciatur vcnerabile sacramentura, jam non 
suis sermonibus sacerdos, sed utitur sermonibus Christi. 

3 D 2 



Book XV. 

that goes before, is either the glorification and praise 
of God, or prayer for the people, for kings, and the 
rest of mankind. But v/hen the priest comes to 
the consecration of the holy sacrament, then he 
uses not his own words, but the words of Christ. 
By all which it is indisputably evident, that the 
consecration of the sacrament was ushered in with 
a solemn thanksgiving, or glorification of God, for 
all his gifts and benefits, whence the whole action 
had the name of ivxapiaria, the eucharist or thanks- 
giving, because this was always premised as a 
necessary part of the sacred mystery ; and the whole 
action and ceremony was concluded with another 
thanksgiving after communicating, as we shall see 

At present we are to observe, that 

Of the use of the ouc part of tliis glorificatiou or thanks- 

ra|IS"''hymn, giving, was the hymn called the Tri- 

" Holjr, holy, holy," O _ »' . : . t ■ ^ 

in this thanksgiv- scif/ion, and Ejumcioti, the seraphical 
and triumphal hymn^ " Holy, holy, 
holy. Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full 
of thy glory." This is evident from the last-men- 
tioned passages of St. Cyril,"" and St. Chrysostom,™ 
who, in other places, gives a more particular ac- 
count of the use of it at the Lord's table. Hereto- 
fore, says he, this hymn was only sung in heaven ;" 
but after that the Lord vouchsafed to come down 
upon earth, he brought this melody to us also. 
Therefore the bishop, when he stands at this holy 
table, to present our rational service, and offer the un- 
bloody sacrifice, does not simply call upon us to join 
in this glorification, but first naming the cherubims, 
and making mention of the seraphims, he then ex- 
horts us all to send up these tremendous words ; and 
withdrawing our minds from the earth by intimating 
with what company we make a quire, he cries out to 
every man, and says, as it were, in these words, " Thou 
singest with the seraphims, stand together with the 
seraphims, stretch forth thy wings with them, with 
them fly round the royal throne." In another place," 
showing the obligation which the eucharist lays 
upon men to keep every member of the body pure 
from sin, the hands and mouth that receive it, the 
eyes that view it, the tongue that ministers in those 
mysteries and is dyed in blood, he argues thus par- 
ticularly with respect to the ears : How absurd is it, 
after that mystical hymn, which was brought by the 
cherubims from heaven, to pollute your ears with 
songs of harlots, and the effeminate melodies of the 
theatre ! "Which plainly implies, that this seraphical 
hymn was one part of this great thanksgiving. He 

69 Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 5. 

'» Chrys. Horn. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 873. 

" Horn, in Seraphim, t. 3. p. 890. 

'- Horn. 21. ad Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 266. 

" Hom. 1. in Esai. t. 3. p. 8:34. 

" Hom. 3. in Ephes. p. 1052. 

'^ Hom. 21. tie Baptismo Christi, t. 1. p. .317. 

says the same in his first homily upon Isaiah :^ The 
seraphims above sing the holy Trisagion hymn ; the 
holy congregation of men on earth send up the 
same ; the general assembly of celestial and earthly 
creatures join together ; there is one thanksgiving, 
n'la svxapiaTia, one exultation, one quire of men and 
angels in one station rejoicing together. In another 
place, reproving those who stayed at the commu- 
nion service, when they would not communicate, he 
tells them,''* It was better that they should be ab- 
sent, for they did but affront Him that invited them, 
whilst they stayed to sing the hymn, professing 
themselves to be of the number of the worthy, 
whilst they did not recede with the unworthy. How 
could you stay, and not partake of the table ? I am 
unworthy, say you. If so, you are unworthy to 
communicate in prayers also. For it is not only 
the bare elements, but those hymns, that cause the 
Spirit to descend upon them. Though he does not 
here name the hymns, he plainly intimates, however, 
that they were commonly used in this part of the 
eucharistical service. And elsewhere" he speaks 
more plainly : The faithful, says he, know what are 
the hymns of the powers above; what the che- 
rubims sing in heaven; what the angels sung, " Glory 
be to God in the highest." Therefore hymns come 
after the psalmody, as a thing of greater perfection. 
He means, that psalmody was only a part of the 
service of the catechumens ; but these hymns were 
vised by the rsXttot, the communicants, in the service 
of the altar. He mentions the same in many other 
places,'^ which the reader may find above," in the 
collection of the ancient liturgy out of St. Chry- 
sostom's works : I will only repeat one passage more 
out of his homily upon the martyrs. The martyrs, 
says he,'* are now" joining in consort, and partaking 
in the mystical songs of the heavenly quire. For 
if, whilst they were in the body, whenever they 
communicated in the sacred mysteries, they made 
part of the quire, singing with the cherubims the 
Trisaf/ion hjTnn, " Holy, holy, holy," as all ye that 
are initiated in the holy mysteries very well know ; 
much more now, being joined with them whose 
partners they were in the earthly quire, they do with 
greater freedom partake in those solemn blessings 
and glorifications of God in heaven above. There 
needs no recourse now, after this, to be had to the 
liturgy of St. Chrysostom, to prove that this Divine 
hymn was always a part of the solemn thanksgiving, 
since it is more solidly proved out of his genuine 
writings. To which we may add Severianus" of 

"" Horn. 4. de Incomprchcnsibili, t. 1. p. 374. Hom. 16. 
Si esurlerit Inimicus, t. 5. p. 229. Hom. 3. de Poenitent. t. 
4. p. 562. Epist. 2. ad Olympiad, t. 4. p. 715. Hom. 14. in 
Ephes. p. 1127. 

" Book XHI. chap. 6. '» Hom. 74. de Mart. 1. 1. p. 900. 

'" Horn. 37. de Filio Prodigo, inter Opera Chrysost. t. G. 
p. 375. 

Chap. III. 



Gabala for the Greek church, and the council of 
Vaison^" for the Latin, which says, that in all com- 
munion services, whether they were morning ser- 
vices, or quadragesimal, or commemorations for the 
dead, the hymn, " Holy, holy, holy," should be used 
in the same order as in the public service. 

e , ,„ Next after this, there follows in the 

Sect. 10. 

th'^Kvin-forthe Coustitutions a particular enumera- 
rXrjSioHf n;an' tlou of the mcrcics of God vouch- 
im bychri!.t. g^fcd to mankind in the rederription 
of the world by the death of Christ, and a more 
special thanksgiving with respect to them ; wherein 
also is contained a sort of creed, or summary of the 
chief articles of the Christian faith. Which was 
all the creed that the church in that age made use 
of in that service. For as yet the formal repetition 
of the baptismal creed was no part of the commu- 
nion service, as it was in after ages, but only such 
doctrines were related as were the subject of a par- 
ticular thanksgiving for the great mysteries of the 
incarnation and redemption. Thus it is represented 
in the Constitutions, with which St. Chrysostom 
exactly corresponds. For, commenting on those 
words of the apostle, " The cup of blessing which 
we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of 
Christ ? " he brings in the apostle thus explaining 
himself: When I speak of a blessing, I unfold all 
the treasure of God's beneficence, and commemorate 
all his great and glorious gifts. And he adds. We 
also in offering the cup recite the ineffable mercies 
and kindness of God, and all the good things we 
enjoy : and so we offer it, and communicate ; 
giving him thanks for that he hath delivered man- 
kind from error ; that he hath*' made us near, who 
were afar off; that when we were without hope, 
and without God in the world, he hath made us the 
brethren of Christ, and fellow heirs with him. For 
these and all the like blessings we give him thanks, 
and so come to his holy table. We cannot have a 
plainer proof of a particular thanksgiving than this 
is, and therefore I shall seek for no further evi- 
dence in the case ; but proceed to the immediate 
form of consecration. 

Now, this anciently was not a bare 
The^fom'of con repetition of those words, Hoc est cor- 

secration always nni • • i. j l • i j* 

toniposeii of a re piis 711611111, 1 his IS my Dody, which tor 

pftitioii of the words i i i t 

of institution, and niauv asfcs has been the current doc- 
prayer to God to . o .11, 

sanctify the gifts by triue of the Romish schools; but a 

his Holy bpirit. 

repetition of the history of the insti- 
tution, together with prayers to God, that he would 
send his Holy Spirit upon the gifts, and make them 
become the body and blood of Christ ; not by alter- 

ing their nature and substance, but their qualities 
and powers, and exalting them from simple ele- 
ments of bread and wine to become types and sym- 
bols of Christ's flesh and blood, and efficacious 
instruments of conveying to worthy receivers all the 
benefits of his death and passion. Thus it is evi- 
dently set forth in the Constitutions, which, for the 
reader's ease, I will here again repeat : " We, there- 
fore, in commemoration of these things"^ which 
Christ suffered for us, give thanks to thee. Almighty 
God, not as thou dcservest, and as we ought, but as 
we are able, so fulfilling his command. For he, in the 
same night that he was betrayed, took bread in his 
holy and immaculate hands, and looking up to thee 
his God and Father, he brake it, and gave it to his 
disciples, saying, ' This is the mystery of the new 
testament ; take of it, and eat it. This is my body, 
which is broken for many for the remission of sins. 
This do in remembrance of me. For as oft as ye 
eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show forth 
my death till I come.' We, therefore, being mindful 
of his passion, and death, and resurrection from the 
dead, and his return into heaven ; and also of his 
second coming, when he shall return with glory and 
power to judge the quick and dead, and render to 
every man according to his works ; do offer unto 
thee, our King and God, this bread and this cup, 
according to his appointment ; giving thanks to 
thee by him, for that thou dost vouchsafe to let us 
stand before thee, and minister unto thee : and we 
beseech thee to look propitiously upon these gifts 
here set before thee, and to accept them favourably 
to the honour of thy Christ, and to send thy Holy 
Spirit upon this sacrifice, the Spirit that is witness 
of the suffering of the Lord Jesus, that it may make 
this bread become the body of thy Christ ; that they 
who partake of it, may be confirmed in godliness, 
and obtain remission of sins ; may be delivered 
from the devil and his impostures ; may be filled 
with the Holy Ghost, and be made worthy of Christ, 
and obtain eternal life, thou being reconciled to- 
them, O Lord Almighty." 

Who sees not, that the consecration in this form 
is made by a repetition of the history of the in- 
stitution, and prayer for the coming of the Holy 
Ghost on the elements to sanctify them ? And for 
this there is the concurrent testimony of all an- 
tiquity. Justin Martyr*' makes the consecration 
to consist in thanksgiving and prayers, which be- 
ing ended, all the people answer, Amen. Irenajus 
says more expressly,'* that it is done by invocation 
of God : for the bread, which is taken from the 

^ Cone. Vasens. 2. can. 3. Ut in omnibus missis, sen in 
matutinis, sen in quadragesimalibns, sen in illis quaj pro de- 
finictorum commeiiiorationc fiunt, semper Sanctus, sancttis, 
sanctus, eo ordine quo ad missas piiblicas dicitur, dici 

«' Chrys. Horn. 24. in 1 Cor. p. 532. So Cyprian. Ep. 

113. p. 1.56. Fassionis ejus mentionem in omnibus sacrificiis 


S2 Constit.lib.8. cap. 12. p.402. ^ .Justin. A pel. 2. p. 97. 

*" Iren. lib. 4. cap. 34. Qui est a terra panis, percipiens 
iiivocationera Dei, jam non communis panis est, sed eu- 



Book XV. 

earth, has the invocation of God upon it, and then 
it is no longer common bread, but the eucharist. 
Origcn says,** it is sanctified by the word of God 
and prayer. Cyril of Jerusalem tells his catechu- 
mens, that before the invocation of the holy 
Trinity*'' the bread and wane of the eucharist is 
common bread and wine ; but after the invocation 
it is no longer bare bread, but the body of Christ : 
as the holy oil is not bare oil after the invocation, 
but the gift of Christ. So again," After we have 
sanctified ourselves by those spiritual hymns, we 
then pray the merciful God, "that he would send 
forth his Holy Spirit upon the elements lying upon 
the altar, that he may make the bread the body of 
Christ, and the wine the blood of Christ. Which 
manifestly declares that the consecration was made 
by prayer and invocation. And the same is im- 
plied by St. Basil,*' when he asks, Which of the 
saints hath left us in writing the words of the in- 
vocation, by which the bread of the eucharist and 
the cup of blessing is consecrated ? Gregory Nys- 
sen,*" St. Basil's brother, says, the bread is sancti- 
fied by the word of God and prayer. Theophilus 
of Alexandria, that the bread and wine, which re- 
present the Lord's body and blood upon the table, 
are consecrated by invocation and coming of the 
Holy Ghost °" upon them. And Theodoret most 
plainly in one of his dialogues,"' What do you call 
the gift that is offered, before the priest has made 
the invocation over it ? Bread made of such seeds. 
What do you call it after sanctification ? The body 
of Christ. The Latin fathers are as plain in their 
verdict. St. Ambrose^ says. The sacraments which 
we take, are ti'ansformed into flesh and blood by the 
mystery of holy prayer. And Optatus,'" describing 
the fury of the Donatists, asserts the same, when he 

*^ Ovig. in Matt. xv. t. 2. p. 27. Sanctificatur per verbum 
Dei, perque obsecrationem. 

"^ Cyril. Catech. Myst. 3. n. 3. Mtxa tiiv iiriKXtia-iv tou 
Ayiov nviu/xaTO^, ovk txi ct/OTOs Xitos, dWa awfia H-picr- 

TOV, K.T.X. 

«' Id. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 5. 

^ Basil, de Spir. Sancto, cap. 27. 

^ Nyssen. Orat. Catechetic. cap. 37. 

^ Theoph. Ep. Paschal. 1. Panem Dominicum, quo Sal- 
vatoris corpus nstenditur, &c., per invocationem et adven- 
tum Sancti Spiritus consecrari. 

9' Theodor. Dial. 2. t. 4. p. 85. 

^- Ambros. de Fide, lib. 4. cap. 5. Quotiescunque sacra- 
inenta sumimus, quae ppr sacrai orationis mysterium in car- 
nem transfigurantur et sanguinem, mortem Domini annun- 

^ Optat. lib. 6. p. 93. Quid tam sacrilegum, quam altaria 
Dei frangere — quo Deus omnipotens invocatus sit, et pos- 
tulatus descendit Spiritus Sanctus ? 

"* Hieron. Ep. 85. ad Evagriiim. Ad quorum preces 
Christi corpus sanguisque conficitur. 

^^ Id. Com. in Zephan. cap. 3. p. 98. Ei)X«.'Ho-T/«i' im- 
precantis facere verba, &c. 

9^ Ambros. de Sac ram. lib. 4. cap. 5. Vis scire, quia ver- 
bis coelestibus consccratur ? Accipe quae sunt verba. Dicit 
sacerdos : Fac nobis, inquit, banc oblatiocem ascriptam, ra- 

asks them, what greater sacrilege they could be 
guilty of, than to pull down the altars of God, where 
God Almighty was invocated, and the Holy Spirit 
came down at the supplication of the priest ? St. 
Jerom'^ says, it was the peculiar office of the pres- 
byters to consecrate the body and blood of Christ by 
prayer. And again, that prayer was necessary for 
this purpose."^ The author of the books De Sacra- 
mentis, under the name of St. Ambrose,"^ gives us 
the very form of words used in this prayer : Make 
this oiu- oblation a chosen, rational, acceptable ob- 
lation, which is the figure of the body and blood of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Juvencus" says, Christ him- 
self consecrated it by prayer. And Gregory the 
Greaf was of opinion, that the apostles used only 
the Lord's prayer as the form of^ their consecration. 
And Cyprian probably was of the same opinion; 
for he thinks, that petition in the Lord's prayer, 
" Give us this day our daily bread," may be under- 
stood both in a spirituaP^ and common sense, to de- 
note the body of Christ, which is our bread, that 
we pray may be given us every day. A great many 
other fathers speak of the """ benediction or thanks- 
giving as that which consecrates the eucharist. 
Which is not much different from this ; for the 
thanksgiving was always a part of the eucharistical 
prayers. And therefore some join them both to- 
gether, as Justin Martyr and Ireneeus, in the places 
now mentioned. And so Origen"" tells Celsus, that 
by thanksgiving and prayer they made bread a holy 
body, sanctifying such as received and eat it with a 
pure mind. And St. Austin, who in some places 
calls it barely the benediction'"- or thanksgiving, 
in other places says more expressly that the eu- 
charist was consecrated by prayer : We call that 
the body of Christ,'"' which is taken from the fruits 

tionalem, acceptabilem, quod est figura corporis et sangui- 
nis Domini nostri Jesu Christi. 

=" Juvencus, Hist. Evangel, lib. 4. Bibl. Patr. t. 8. p. 654. 
Sancteque precatus, discipulos docuit proprium se tradere 

98 Greg. lib. 7. Ep. 63. Orationem Dominicam ideirco 
mox post precem dicimus, quia mos apostolorum fuit, ut 
ad ipsam solummodo orationem oblationis hostiam conse- 

9'Cypr. de Orat. p. 146. Quod potest et spiritaliter et 
simpliciter intelligi — quia Christus noster panis est. Hunc 
autem panem dari nobis quotidie postulamus. 

""> Tertul. cont. Marcion. lib. I. cap. 23. Clem. Alex. 
Pffidagog. lib. 2. cap. 2. Chrys. Hom. 82. in Mat. Victor. 
Antioch. in Marc. xiv. Facundus Hermianensis Defens. 
Trium Capitulor. lib. 9. Cyril. Alexandria. Com. in Esa. 
XXV. item passim in Glaphyris super Genes. Exod. Levit. 
styles it eulogia, vphich is the same as eucharist or bene- 
diction. Vid. Albertin. de Euchai'ist. lib. I. cap. 6. p. 21. 

101 Orig. cont. Cels. lib. 8. p. 390. Meto; tiixftpicTias Kai 

£ll)(J;S, K.X.X. 

'"2 Aug. Ep. 59. ad Paul in. 

103 Aug. de Trinitate, lib. 3. cap. 4. Corpus Christi dici- 
mus illud, quod ex frugibus terrao acceptum, et mystica 
prece consecratum rite, sumimus ad spiritalcm salutem, in 
niemoriam Dominicae pro nobis passiouis. 

Chap. III. 



of the earth, and consecrated by mystical prayer 
in a solemn manner, and so received by us unto sal- 
vation in memory of our I^ord's suffering for us. 
And writing against the Donatists,'"' who denied the 
validity of the sacraments when they were conse- 
crated and administered by sinners, he asks them, 
How then docs God hear a murderer, when he prays 
either over the water of baptism, or the oil for unc- 
tion, or over the eucharist, or over the heads of those 
that receive imposition of hands ? Implying, that 
the consecration of the eucharist, as well as the rest 
of the things mentioned, was performed by prayer. 
To this mighty cloud of witnesses, the Romanists 
have nothingmaterial to oppose, but a few mistaken 
passages of the ancients, which the reader may find 
related with proper answers in that excellent book 
of Mr. Aubertine upon the Eucharist.'"^ I shall 
only take notice of one, which carries the fairest 
pretence, out of Chrysostom, who in one of his homi- 
lies ""' speaks of the consecration after this manner : 
It is not man that makes the elements become the 
body and blood of Clirist, but Christ himself that 
was crucified for us. The priest stands fulfilling 
his office, and speaking those words ; but the power 
and grace is of God. Christ said, " This is my body :" 
this word consecrates the elements. And as that 
word which said, " Increase and multiply, and re- 
plenish the earth," was spoken but once, }'et at all 
times is effectual in deed to strengthen our nature 
to beget children ; so this word once spoken, from 
that time to this day, and until his coming again, 
perfects and consummates the sacrifice on every 
table throughout the churches. The meaning of 
which is not, as the Romanists mistake, that the 
pronouncing of these words by the priest is the 
thing that makes the sacrifice ; but that Christ, by 
first speaking those words, gave pow^r unto men to 
make his symbolical body ; as by once speaking 
those words, " Increase and multiply," he gave them 
power to procreate children. Christ's words are 
the original cause of the consecration; but still 
prayer, and not the bare repetition of his words, is 
the instrumental cause and means of the sanctifica- 
tion. As Chrysostom himself says plainly in ano- 
ther place,"" where he attributes the consecration 
of the elements to the invocation of the Spirit, and 
the Spirit's descent pursuant to such invocation. 
What meanest thou, man ? says he. When the 
priest stands by the holy table, lifting up his hands 
to heaven, and invocating the Holy Spirit, to come 
down and touch the elements, there should then be 

'"* DeBaptismo, lib. 5. cap. 20. Qiiomodo ergo exaiulit 
homicidain deprecantem, vel super aquam baptismi, vel 
super oleum, vel super eucharisfiam, vel super capita eorum 
qnibusmauus iniponitui- ? 

'"•^ Albertin. de Eucharistia, lib, 1. cap. 7. 

'"^ Chi vs. Horn. 30. de Proditione Juda;, t. 5. p. 4&3. 

'•'■ Ibid. Horn. 32. in Coeineterii Appellationem, t. 5. p. 

great tranquillity and silence. When the Spirit 
grants his grace, when he comes down, when he 
touches the elements, when thou seest the Lamb 
slain and offered, dost thou then raise a tumult and 
commotion, and give way to strife and railing ? In 
which words, it is plain, Chrysostom attributes the 
consecration to the power of Christ and the Holy 
Spirit, as the principal and efficient cause ; to prayer 
and supplication, as the instrumental cause, oper- 
ating by way of condition and means, to sanctify 
the elements according to Christ's command, by a 
solemn benediction, and to the words, " This is my 
body," and "This is my blood," as spoken by Christ 
in the first institution, implying a declaration of 
what was then done, and what should be done by 
his power and concurrence to the end of the world. 
So that in all things relating to the consecration, 
we find the practice of the ancients exactly corre- 
sponding and agreeing to the order prescribed in the 
Constitutions. And whereas the author of the Con- 
stitutions makes it a very gi-eat part of the consecra- 
tion prayer, that they who partake of the eucharist 
may be confirmed in godliness, and obtain remission 
of sins, may be delivered from the devil and his 
impostures, may be filled with the Holy Ghost, and 
be made w^orthy of Christ, and obtain eternal life ; 
St. Chrysostom '°^ evidently refers to such a prayer, 
when he says. In the oblation we offer up our sins, 
and say, " Pardon us whatever sins we have com- 
mitted either \villingly or unwiUingly." We first 
make mention of them, and then ask pardon for 
them. And so it is in the liturgy which goes under 
St. Chrysostom's name : " We offer unto thee this 
rational and unbloody service, beseeching thee to 
send thy Holy Spirit'"' upon us and these gifts; 
make the bread the precious body of thy Christ, and 
that which is in the cup, the precious blood of thy 
Christ ; transmuting them by thy Holy Spirit, that 
they may be to the receivers for the washing of their 
souls, for pardon of sins, for participation of the 
Holy Ghost, for obtaining the kingdom of heaven, 
for boldness towards thee, and not for judgment and 

Immediately after the consecration, 
followed prayer for the whole catholic AftorThis followed 
church, as redeemed by the precious "j''"''' cathouc 
blood of Christ, which was then com- 
memorated in the oblation and sacrifice of the altar. 
Thus it is represented in the Constitutions, and 
thus also in St. Chrysostom,"" who, speaking of 
Eustathius, bishop of Antioch, says, he had the care 

487. It. de Sacerdot. lib. 6. cap. 4. p. 93. t. 4. Etde Sacer- 
dot. lib. 3. cap. 4. 

"«* Ibid. Hem. 17. in Hebr. p. 1870. 

"" Ibid. Liturg. t. 4. p. 614. It. p. 619. Snyx'-VN'^oi' fiot 
Tin dfiapTioXio TO. irapaiTTwixaTa fxov to. tKovctd Tt Kal 

(CKOUCriCl, K.T.X. 

"» Ibid. Horn. 52. in Eustath. t. I. p. 619. 



Book XV 

of the whole church upon him ; which he learned 
to be his duty from the prayers of the church. For 
if prayers ought to be made for the catholic church 
from one end of the earth to the other, much more 
did he think it his duty to show his concern for the 
whole church, and w^atch for their preservation. In 
another place'" he says. The priest, when the sacri- 
fice was offered, bid the people to pray, or give 
thanks rather, for the whole world, for those that 
were absent, and those that were present ; for those 
that were before them, and for those that were then 
living, and for those that should be after them. 
And again,"- he speaks of prayer for the world, the 
church, and the common peace and tranquillity of 
mankind. He says,"' The priest prayed at the altar 
in the time of oblation for the whole city, and not 
for the whole city only, but for the whole world. 
So Cyril of Jerusalem"' says. As soon as the spi- 
ritual sacrifice was offered, they besought God for 
the common peace of the church, and the tranquil- 
lity of the world, &c. And Vigilius,"* in a letter to 
Justinian, reminds him, how it was customary, from 
ancient tradition, for all bishops, in offering the 
sacrifice, to beseech God to unite all men in the 
catholic faith, and to protect and keep it throughout 
the world. Nay, Optatus says,"" the Donatists con- 
tinued to use this prayer in the celebration of the 
sacramental mysteries, though their doctrine and 
practice were the absolute reverse of it. They said, 
they offered for the church, which was one, diffiised 
over all the world; but their practice gave their 
prayers the lie ; for they divided it into two, and 
confined the true church to a corner of Africa, and 
the party of Donatus. However, this shows it was 
the practice both of Donatists and catholics to pray 
for the universal church. 

Sect. 13. More particularly, they now repeat- 

foMhl wlh^ps"^'! ed their prayers again for the bishops 
''"^^' and clergy of the whole catholic 

church, and that church especially whereof they 
were members. Which is not only noted in the 
Constitutions, but by Epiphanius,'" in his letter to 
John, bishop of Jerusalem, where he wipes off a 
slander, which some had falsely suggested to the 
bishop of Jerusalem, as if he had prayed pubhcly, 
that God would grant him an orthodox faith, imply- 
ing that he was in error ; which he denies, telling 

them, That however he might pray for him after 
that manner privately in his heart, yet he never 
did so in the oblation of the sacrifice ; for in offering 
those prayers, according to the order of the holy 
mysteries, they were used to say both for him and 
all other bishops, " Keep him, Lord, that preach- 
eth the truth;" or else after this manner, "Pre- 
serve him, O Lord, and grant that he may preach 
the truth ;" according as the occasion and order of 
prayer required. St. Chrysostom also takes notice 
of this solemn praying for bishops and the clergy, 
and among many other particulars, when the obla- 
tion was offered. Some, says he,'" are so incon- 
siderate, dissolute, and vain, as to stand and talk, 
not only in the time of the catechumens, (that is, 
when prayers were made for them in the first ser- 
vice,) but also at the time of the faithful (or when 
their prayers were offered at the altar). And this, 
says he, is the subversion and ruin of all religion, 
that at that time when men ought chiefly to render 
God propitious to them, they go away provoking 
his wrath against them. For in the prayers of the 
faithful, we are commanded to supplicate the mer- 
ciful God for bishops, for presbyters, for kings, for 
all that are in authority ; for the earth and sea, for 
the temperature of the air or good weather, and for 
the whole world. When therefore we, who ought 
to have so much boldness and freedom as to pray 
for others, are not vigilant enough to pray for our- 
selves with an attentive mind, what excuse can we 
make ? what pardon can we expect ? We cannot 
desire a plainer evidence than this of Chrysostom, 
that all these things were the subject matter of 
their petitions, when the oblation was made upon 
the altar. 

And therefore hence it appears, 
that as they prayed for the bishops For kings and 

<> r •^ *■ magistrates. 

and the clergy, so they repeated their 
supplication for kings and magistrates in this prayer 
also. I have noted before'" the several authors 
that take notice of their praying for kings in the 
prayers before the oblation, and here I will subjoin 
such as mention it in the oblation prayer. Eusebius, 
describing the dedication of the church which Con- 
stantine built at Jerusalem, says, some of the bishops 
then present made panegyrical orations upon Con- 
stan tine's great respect for the common Savioirr, and 

"• Chrjs. Horn. 26. iu Mat. p. 259. 

"= Horn. 37. in Act. p. 329. 

'" Sacerdot. lib. 6. cap. 4. t. 3. p. 93. 

"* Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 6. 

"* Vigil. Ep. ad Justinian. Imperator. Cone. t. 5. p. 315. 
Omnes pontificcs, antiqua in nfferendo sacrificia traditione, 
deposcimus, ut catholicam fidom adunare, regere Dominum 
et custodire toto orbe dignctur. 

"" Optat. lib. 2. p. 5.3. Vos illud Icgitimum in sacramen- 
torum mysterio proeterire non posse. Ofi'erre vos dicitis 
pro ecclesia, quae una est. Hoc ipsum mendacii pars est, 
unam vocare, de qua feceris duas. Et offerre vos dicitis 

pro una ecclesia, quae sit in toto teiTarum orbe diffusa, &c. 

'" Epiphan. Ep. ad Joan. Hierosol. p. 313. Dixerunt 
quod in oratione, quando offerimus sacrificia Deo, soleamus 
pro te dicere : Domine, proesta Joanni, ut recte credat. 
Noli nos in tantum pntare rusticos, &c. Qiiando autem 
complemus orationem secundum ritura mysteriorum, et pro 
omnibus et pro te qiioque dicimus: Custodi ilium qui prae- 
dicat veritatem. Vel certe ita : Tu prscsta Domine, et 
custodi, ut ille verbum prsodicet veritatis, sicut occasio 
sermonis se tulerit, et habuerit oratio consequcntiam. 

"" Chrys. Hem. 2. in 2 Cor. p. 745. 

"" Boo'kXIII. chap. 10. sect. 5. Book XV. chap. i. sect. 3. 

Chap. III. 



the magnificence of his temple; others preached 
upon })oints of divinity proper to the occasion; 
others explained the mystical sense of Scripture ; 
and others, who could not attain to this, celebrated 
the mystical service, and offered the unbloody sacri- 
fice to God, making prayers for the common peace'-" 
of the world, for the church of God, for the em- 
peror himself, the founder of the church, and for 
his pious children. In like manner, Cyril of Jeru- 
salem, describing the order of the communion ser- 
vice, says. After the spiritual sacrifice and the 
unbloody service of the propitiatory oblation is 
completed, we beseech God for the common peace 
of the churches, for the tranquillity of the world, 
for kings, for their armies, for their allies, for those 
that are sick and afflicted, and, in short, for all that 
stand in need of help and assistance. St. Chrysos- 
tom elsewhere mentions both private and public 
prayers'-' for kings, the latter of which may be 
understood of these prayers after the oblation, as 
well as any others. Arnobius says expressly,'-^ 
they prayed at once for the magistrates, for their 
armies, for kings, for their friends, and for their 
enemies, for the living, and for the dead. Where 
his mentioning the dead plainly shows, that he 
speaks of those prayers which were made after the 
eucharist was consecrated, in which, as we shall 
see by and by, a particular commemoration was 
made of all those that were departed in the faith. 
Next after prayer for kings, fol- 
lowed prayer for the dead, that is, for 
all that were departed in the true 
faith in Christ; for so it is in the Constitutions: 
" We offer unto thee for all thy saints, that have 
lived well-pleasing in thy sight, from the foundation 
of the world, for patriarchs, prophets, holy men, 
apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, presbyters, 
deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, virgins, wi- 
dows, laymen, and all whose names thou knowest." 
And that this was the general practice of the church, 
to pray for all without exception, appears from the 
concurrent testimony of all the writers of the church. 
We have heard Arnobius say already,'^ that they 
prayed for the living and the dead in general. And 
long before him Tertullian '^* speaks of oblations 

Sect. 15. 

For the dead in 


for the dead, for their birth-days, that is, the day of 
their death, or a new birth unto happiness, in their 
annual commemorations. He says eveiy woman '■^ 
prayed for the soul of her deceased husband, desiring 
that he might find rest and refreshment at present, 
and a part in the first resurrection, and offering an 
annual oblation for him on the day of his death. In 
like manner'-* he says the husband prayed for the 
soul of his wife, and offered annual oblations for 
her. St. Cyprian often mentions the same prac- 
tice, both when he speaks of martyrs and others 
For the martyrs they offered the oblation of prayer, 
and of praise and thanksgiving ; for others, prayers 
chiefly. Those for the martyrs he calls oblations '" 
and sacrifices of commemoration, which they offered 
especially on the anniversary days of their martyr- 
dom,'^ giving God thanks for their victory and 
coronation. But for others th^ey made solemn sup- 
plications and prayers, as appears from what he says 
of one Geminius Victor,''^ that because he had ap- 
pointed a presbyter to be his executor contrary to 
law, no oblation should be made for his rest or sleep, 
nor any deprecation be used in his name according 
to custom in the church. The author under the 
name of Origen upon Job'^" says. They made devout 
mention of the saints, and their parents and friends, 
that were dead in the faith; as well to rejoice in 
their refreshment, as to desire for themselves a pious 
consummation in the faith. And Origen ''' himself 
says, They thought it convenient to make mention 
of the saints in their prayers, and to excite them- 
selves by the remembrance of them. Cyril of Je- 
rusalem, in describing the prayer after consecration, 
says. We offer this sacrifice in memory of all those 
that are fallen asleep before us,"^ first patriarchs, 
prophets, apostles, and martyrs, that God by their 
prayers and intercessions may receive our supplica- 
tions ; and then we pray for our holy fathers and 
bishops, and all that are fallen asleep before us, be- 
lieving it to be a considerable advantage to their 
souls to be prayed for, whilst the holy and tremendous 
sacrifice lies upon the altar. Epiphanius disputes 
at large against the Aerians, Avho ridiculed all prayers 
for the dead. For they said. If the prayers of the 
living will advantage the dead, then it was no mat- 

'^ Euseb. Vit. Constant, lib. 4. cap. 45. 

'■-' Chrys. Horn. 20. ad Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 258. 

'-■- .'Vrnob. lib. 4. p. 181. Cur immaniter convent icula 
nostra dimi meruerint? In quibus summus oratur Deus, 
pa.\ cunctis et venia postulatur magistratibiis, e.\eicitibus, 
regibus, familiaribus, inimicis, adhuc vitani degeutibus, et 
resolutis corporum vinctione. 

'^ Ibid, cited above. 

'-' Tertid. de Coron. Militis, cap. .3. Oblationes pro de- 
fuuctis, pro natalitiis, annua die facimus. 

'=5 De Monogainia, cap. 10. Pro anima ejus orat, et re- 
frigerium interim adpostidat ei, et in prima resurrectione 
consortium, et oifert annuis diebus dormitionis ejus. 

'" Exhortat. ad Castitat. cap. 11. Jam repete apud Deum 

pro cujus spiritu postules, pro qua oblationes annuas reddas. 

'■^' Cypr. Ep. 37. al. 22. ad Clenmi, p. 28. Celebrentur hie 
a nobis oblationes et sacrificia ob cnmmemoratioues eorum. 

'^ Ep. 34. al. 39. p. 77. Sacrificia pro eis semper, ut me- 
ministis, ofFerinius, quoties martyrum passiones et dies anni- 
versaria coramemoratione celebramus. 

'-" Ep. 66. al. 1. p. .3. Non est quod pro dormitionc ejus 
apud vos flat oblatio, aut deprccatio aliqua nomine ejus ia 
eccdesia frequeutetur. 

'3» Orig. in Job, lib. 3. t. 1. p. 437. 

"' Orig. lib. 9. in Rom. xii. t. 2. p. 607. Meminisse sancto- 
rum sive in collectis solennibus, sive pro eo ut ex recorda- 
tione eorum proficiamus, aptum et conveniens videtur. 

'^•- Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 6. 



Book XV. 

ter for being pious or virtuous ; a man only needed 
to get his friends to pray for liim after death, and 
he would be liable to no punishment, nor would his 
most enormous crimes be required of him. To whom 
Epiphanius replies, that they had many good rea- 
sons for mentioning the names of the dead ; because 
it was an argument that they were still in being, 
and living with the Lord ; because it was some ad- 
vantage to sinners, though it did not wholly cancel 
their crimes ; because it put a distinction between 
the perfection of Christ, and the imperfection of all 
other men : therefore they prayed for righteous men, 
fathers, patriarchs,"' prophets, apostles, evangelists, 
martyrs, confessors, bishops, hermits, and all orders 
of men. And it appears from all the ancient litur- 
gies, under the names of St. Basil, Chrysostom, 
Gregory Nazianzen, and Cyril,"' that they prayed 
for all saints, the Virgin Mary herself not excepted. 
And it is remarkable, that in the old Roman Mis- 
sal they were used to pray for the soul of St. Leo, 
as Hincmar,'^ a writer of the ninth age, informs 
ns, who says the prayer ran in this form, " Grant, 
O Lord, that this oblation may be of advantage 
to the soul of thy servant Leo, which thou hast 
appointed to be for the relaxation of the sins of 
the whole world." But this was thought so incon- 
gruous in the following ages, that in the later 
Sacramentaries, or Missals, it was changed into 
this form, " Grant, O Lord, we beseech thee, that 
this oblation may be of advantage to us by the 
intercession of St. Leo," as Pope Innocent the 
Third"" assures us it was in his time. And such 
another alteration was made in Pope Gregory's Sa- 
cramentarium. For in the old Greek and Latin 
edition'" there is this prayer : " Remember, Lord, 
all thy servants, men and women, who have gone 
before us in the seal of the faith, and sleep in the 
sleep of peace : we beseech thee, O Lord, to grant 
them, and all that rest in Christ, a place of refresh- 
ment, Hght, and peace, through the same Jesus 
Christ our Lord." But in the new reformed Mis- 
sals ''" it is altered thus, " Remember, Lord, thy serv- 
ants and handmaids N. and N. that have gone be- 
fore us," &c. ; that they might not seem to pray for 
saints as well as others that were in purgatory. 
Which makes it very probable, that St. Cyril's Cate- 
chism has also been tampered with, and a clause 
put in, which speaks of their praying to God by the 
intercession of patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and 
martyrs : since the ancient liturgies prayed for them 

as well as for all others. St. Chrysostom says ex- 
pressly'^' they offered for the martyrs. And so it 
is in his Greek liturgy,'^" " We offer unto thee this 
reasonable service for the faithful deceased, our 
forefathers, fathers, patriarchs, prophets, and apos- 
tles, evangelists, martyrs, confessors, religious per- 
sons, and every spirit perfected in the faith ; but 
especially for our most holy, immaculate, most bless- 
ed Lady, the Mother of God, and ever Virgin Mary." 
Though, as Bishop Usher '" has observed, some of 
the Latin translators have also given a perverse 
turn to these words, rendering them thus, " We offer 
unto thee this reasonable service for the faithful 
deceased, our forefathers and fathers, by the inter- 
cession of the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, mar- 
tyrs, and all the saints." For it sounded ill to the 
Latin ears to hear St. Chrysostom say. The ancient 
church prayed for saints and martyrs. And yet he 
says it, not only in the forementioned places, but 
over and over again in others. In his forty-first 
homily upon the First of Corinthians,'" speaking 
against immoderate sorrow for the death of sinners, 
he says. They are not so much to be lamented, as 
succoured with prayers and supplications, and alms 
and oblations. For these things were not designed 
in vain, neither is it without reason that we make 
mention of those that are deceased in the holy mys- 
teries, interceding for them to the Lamb that is slain 
to take away the sins of the world ; but that some 
consolation may hence arise to them. Neither is 
it in vain, that he who stands at the altar when the 
tremendous mysteries are celebrated, cries, " We 
offer unto thee for all those that are asleep in Christ, 
and all that make commemorations for them." For 
if there were no commemorations made for them, 
these things would not be said. — Let us not there- 
fore grow weary in giving them our assistance, and 
offering prayers for them. For the common pro- 
pitiation of the whole world is now before us. 
Therefore we now pray for the whole world, and 
name them with martjTs, with confessors, with 
priests ; for we are all one body, though one member 
be more excellent than another ; and we may ob- 
tain a general pardon for them by our prayers, by 
our alms, by the help of those that are named toge- 
ther with them. He supposes here that the saints 
prayed for sinners, though, at the same time, the 
church prayed both for the saints and martyrs and 
sinners together. In another place'" he says. Pray- 
ers were made in general for all those that were de- 


'™ Epiphan. Haer. 75. Aerian. u. 3. 

'3< See these quoted by Bisliop Usher, Answer to the 
Challenge, p. 136. Et Dallajus de Poeuis et Satisfaction, 
lib. 5. cap. 8. 

'3^ Hincmar. de Prscdestin. lib. 1. cap. 34. Annue nobis, 
Domine, ut aniniae famuli tui Lcouis haec prosit oblatio, 
quam immolando totius mundi tribuisti relaxari delicta, 
1. 1. p. 297. 

'^^ Innoc. Epist. in Decretal. Gregor. lib. 3. Tit. il. cap. 

6. p. 1372. Annue nobis, queesumus Domine, ut interces- 
sione beati Leonis, haec nobis prosit oblatio. Missal. Fest. 
Leonis, Juu. 28. '" Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 2. p. 129. 

''" Missal. Roman, in Canone Missae, p. 301. 

"5 Chrys. Horn. 21. in Act. t. 4. Edit. Savil, p. 736. 

"» Chrys. Liturg. t. 4. p. 614. 

'" Usher's Answer to the Challenge, p. 136. 

"- Chrys. Horn. 41. in 1 Cor. p. 701. 

"•■* Ibid. Horn. 3. in Philip, p. 1225. 

Chap. III. 


ceased in the faith, and none but catechumens dying 
in a vohuitaiy neglect of baptism, were exchided 
from the benefit of them. At that time, says he, 
when all the peoj^le stand with their hands lift up 
to heaven, and all the company of priests with 
them, and the tremendous sacrifice lies upon the 
altar, how shall we not move God to mercy, when 
we call upon him for those that are deceased in the 
faith ? I speak of them only : for the catechumens 
are not allowed this consolation, but are deprived 
of all assistance, except only giving alms for them. 
This, then, was a punishment inflicted upon the 
catechumens, of which Chrysostom speaks in other 
places ; "* and it appears to have been a settled rule 
by some ancient canons '" of the church, of which 
I have had occasion to speak in a former Book,"" to 
deny^ catechumens the benefit of the church's pray- 
ers after death. Chrysostom says again,'" that a 
bishop is to be intercessor for all the world, and to 
pray to God to be merciful to the sins of all men, 
not only the living, but the dead also. Cassian 
says also the biothanati, as they called them, that is, 
men that laid violent hands upon themselves, were 
excluded from the benefit of the church's prayers. 
And therefore when one Hero, an old hermit, had 
by the delusions of Satan cast himself into a deep 
well, Paphnutius the abbot could hardly be prevailed 
upon to let him be reckoned any' other than a self- 
murderer, and unworthy '" of the memorial and ob- 
lation that was made for all those that were at rest 
in peace. Which is also noted in the council of 
Braga,'" where catechumens and self-murderers are 
put in the same class together, as persons that de- 
served neither the solemnities of Christian burial, 
nor the usual prayers and commemoration that was 
made for the rest of Christians at the altar. 

St. Austin indeed had a singular opinion in this 
matter about prayer for the dead ; for he thought 
the martyrs were not properly to be prayed for as 
other men, because they were admitted to the im- 
mediate fruition of heaven. There goes a common 

"^ Chrys. Horn. 24. in Joan. p. 159. Horn. 1. in Act. p. 14. 

'" Cone. Bracar. 1. can. 35. 

'« Book X. chap. 2. sect. 18. 

'" Chrys. de Sacerdot. lib. 6. cap. 4. Vid. Horn. 22. in 
Mat. p. 307. 

'" Cassian.Collat. 2. cap.5. VixaprcsbyteroabbatcPaph- 
nutio potuit obtineri, ut nou inter biothanatos reputatus, 
etianiiuemoriaet oblatione pausantium judicareturiudignus. 

'■'' Cone. Bracar. 1. can. 35. 

'^^ Innoc. in DecretaU Gregorii, lib. 3. Tit. 41. cap. 5. 
Sacrue Seriptura; dicit auctoritas, quod injuriam tacit mar- 
tyri, qui orat pro martyre. 

'*' Aug. Ser. 17. de Verbis Apostoli, 1. 10. p. 132. Perfoctio 
in hac vita nonnulla est, ad quam sancti martyres pcrvenc- 
runt. Ideoque habet ecclesiastiea disciplina, quod lideles 
noverunt, cum martyres eo loco recitantur ad altare Dei, 
ubi noa pro ipsis oretur, pro cajteris autem couimemoratis 
defunctis oratur. Injuria est euim pro martyre orare, cujus 
nos debenius orationibus commendari. 

saying under his name, (which Pope Innocent III. 
(juotes as Holy Scripture,'" ) That he who prays for 
a martyr, does injury to the martyr, because they 
attained to perfection in this life, and have no need 
of the prayers of the church,'^' as all others have. 
Therefore he says,'" when they were named at the 
altar, and their memorials celebrated, they did not 
commemorate them as persons for whom they 
prayed, as they did all others that rested in peace, 
but rather as men that prayed for the church on 
earth, that we might follow their steps, who had 
attained to the perfection of charity in laying down 
their Uves for Christ, according to that aphorism of 
Christ himself, "Greater love than this hath no 
man, that he lay down his life for his friend." 
Upon this account St. Austin thought the obla- 
tions and alms, that were usually offered in the 
church for all the dead that had received baptism, 
were only thanksgivings for such as were very 
good ; '** and propitiations for those that were not 
very bad ; and for such as were very evil, though 
they were no helps to them when they were dead, 
yet they were some consolation to the living. But, 
as Bishop Usher rightly observes,'^ this was but a 
harsh interpretation of the prayers of the church, 
to imagine that one and the same act of praying 
should be a petition for some, and for others a 
thanksgiving only. And therefore it is more rea- 
sonable to suppose, that the church designed to 
pray for all; especially since St. Austin'" himself 
owns that the church made supplications for all 
that died in the society of the Christian and catho- 
lic faith, as all the ancient forms of prayer do mani- 
festly evince beyond all possibility of exception. 

Supposing, then, that the ancient 
church made prayers for saints and upmrwhlt 

,, ,, , . grounds the ancient 

martyrs, as well as all others, it re- church prayed for 

the dead, saints, 

mams to be mqmrcd, upon what martyrs, confessors, 

^ ^ as well as all others. 

grounds and reasons she observed this 

custom ; whether upon the modern supposition of 

a purgatorv fire, or upon other reasons more agree- 

'^'- Aug. Tract. 8 '.. in Joan. t. 9. p. 185. Ad ipsam men- 
sam nou sic eos commenioramus, queiuadniodum alios qui 
in pace requiescuiit, sed magis ut (orent) ipsi pro nobis, ut 
eorum vestigiis adhaereamus, quia implcverunt ipsi charita- 
tem, &c. 

1^ Aug. Enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. 110. Cum ergo sacri- 
ficia sive altaris sive quarumcumque eleemosynarum pro 
baptizatis defunctis omnibus ofi'eruntur, pro valde bonis 
gratiaruui aetiones sunt : pro non valde malis propitia- 
tiones sunt : pro valde nialis etsi nulla sunt adjuiuenta nior- 
tuorum, qualescunque vivorum consolatioues sunt. Quibus 
aiitcm prosuut, aut ad hoc prosuut, ut sit plena remissio, 
aut ccrte tolerabilior fiat ipsa daninatio. 

'•^' Usher's Answer to the Challenge, p. 142. 

i.'i5 Aug. de Cura pro JNIortuis, cap. 4. Non sunt pra;ter- 
mittendee supplicationes pro spiritibus mortuorutn : qiias 
faciendas pro omnibus in Christiana et catholiea societate 
dcfimctis, ctiam tacitis nominibus quorumque, sub gencrali 
commemoratione suscepit ecclesia. 



Book XV. 

able to such a general practice ? That she did not do 
it upon the supposition of purgatory, appears evi- 
dently from what has been already observed out of 
the public offices of the church, that she prayed 
for all the saints, martyrs, confessors, patriarchs, 
prophets, apostles, and even the Virgin Mary her- 
self, and all other holy men and women from the 
foundation of the world, who were supposed to be 
in a place of rest and happiness, and not in any 
place of purgation or torment. And this appears 
further from the private prayers made by St. Am- 
brose'^'' for the emperors Theodosius, and Valen- 
tinian, and Gratian, and his own brother Saturus ; 
and the directions he gives to Faustinus,'" not to 
weep for his sister, but to make prayers and obla- 
tions for her ; for all these were persons of whom 
he had not the least doubt but that their souls 
were in rest and happiness. As all the funeral 
service of the ancients supposes, where they usual- 
ly sung those verses of the Psalms, " Return again 
unto thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath re- 
warded thee : " and again, " I will fear no evil, be- 
cause thou art with me : " and again, " Thou art 
my refuge from the affliction that compasseth me 
about." Which St. Chrysostom'^' often bids his hear- 
ers remember, that whilst they prayed for the de- 
ceased party, they should not weep and lament im- 
moderately, as the heathen did, but give God thanks 
for taking him to a place of rest and security : 
which is utterly inconsistent with their going into 
the dreadful pains of purgatory. St. Austin both 
prayed in private for his mother Monicha,'*' and 
also speaks of the church's prayers for her at her 
funeral, and afterward at the altar ; and yet he made 
no question of her going hence fi'om a state of piety 
here to a state of joy and felicity hereafter. And 
after the same manner Gregory Nazianzen "^'' prays 
God to receive the soul of his brother Caesarius, 
who was lately regenerated by the Spirit in baptism. 
It is certain these prayers were not founded on a 
belief of a purgatory fire after death, but upon a 
supposition that they were going to a place of rest 
and happiness, which was their first reason for 
praying for them, that God would receive them to 
himself, and deliver them from condemnation, 2. 
Upon the same presumption, some of their prayers 
for the dead were always eucharistical, or thanks- 
givings for their deliverance out of the troubles of 
this sinful world. As appears not only from the 
forementioned testimonies of Chrysostom, but from 

the author under the name of Dionysius,"'' who, in 
describing their funeral service, speaks of the tvxn 
tvxapiT7ipioQ, the eucharistical prayers, whereby they 
gave God thanks not only for martyrs, but all 
Christians that died in the true faith and fear of 
God. A third reason of praying for them was, be- 
cause they justly conceived all men to die with some 
remainders of frailty and corruption, and therefore 
desired that God would deal with them according 
to his mercy, and not in strict justice according to 
their merits. For no one then was thought to have 
any real merit or title to eternal happiness, but only 
upon God's promises and mercy. St. Austin dis- 
courses excellently upon this point in the case of 
his mother Monicha, after this manner : " I now 
pour out unto thee, my God, another sort of tears 
for thy handmaid, flowing from a trembling spirit, 
in consideration of the danger that every soul is in 
that dies in Adam. For although she was made 
alive in Christ, and lived so in the days of her flesh, 
as to bring glory to thy name by her faith and prac- 
tice : yet I dare not say, that from the time she was 
regenerated by baptism, no word came out of her 
mouth against thy command. And thou hast told 
us by Him who is truth itself, that * whosoever shall 
say to his brother, Thou fool, shall be in danger of 
hell-fire.' And woe to the most laudable life of 
man, if thou shouldst sift and examine it without 
mercy ! But because thou art not extreme to mark 
what is done amiss, we have hope and confidence 
to find some "'" place and room for indulgence with 
thee. But whoever reckons up his true merits be- 
fore thee, what does he more than recount thy own 
gifts ? Oh that all men would know themselves, 
and they that glory, glory in the Lord ! I there- 
fore, O my Praise and my Life, the God of my 
heart, setting aside a little her good actions, for 
which I joyfully give thee thanks, now make in- 
tercession for the sins of my mother. Hear me 
through the medicine of His wounds, who hanged 
upon the tree, and now sitteth at thy right hand to 
make intercession for us." He adds a little after, 
that he believed God had granted what he asked : 
yet he prays, " That the lion and the dragon might 
not interpose himself, either by his open violence 
or subtlety. For she would not answer, that she 
was no debtor, lest the crafty adversary should 
convict her and lay hold of her ; but she would 
answer, that her sins were forgiven her by Him, to 
whom no man can return what he gave to us with- 

"''* Ambros. de Obitu Theodosii. De Obitu Valentin. Dc 
ObiUi Fratris. 

'" Ep. 8. ad Faustin. 

''" Chrys. Horn. 4. in Hebr. p. 1785. Horn. 29. de Dor- 
luiontibus, t. 5. p. 4'23. Vid. Cassian. Collat. 2. cap. 5. 

IS9 Aug. Confess, lib. 9. cap. 12 ct 13. 

'«» Naz. Oral. 10. p. 176. 

"" Dionys. Eccles. Hierarch. cap. 7. p. 408. 

"^'^ Aug. Confess, lib. 9. cap. 1.3. Va; etiam laudabili 

vitae hominiim, si remota miscricnrdia discutias earn. Quia 
vero non e.\q\iiris delicta vehementer, fiducialitcr speramus 
aliquera apud to locum invenire indulgentiis. Quisquis 
autem tibi enumerat vera merita sua, quid tibi onumerat 
nisi munera tua? &c. Ego itaque, Laus meaet Vitamea, 
Ueus cordis mei, sepositis paulisper bonis ejus actibus, pro 
quibus tibi gaudens gratias ago, nunc pro peccatis matris 
nieae deprecor te, &c. Et credo jam feceris quod te 
rogo, &c. 

Chap. III. 



out any obligation. Let her therefore rest in peace 
with her husband; and do thou, my Lord God, 
inspire all those thy servants that read this, to 
remember thy handmaid Monicha at thy altar, 
with Patricius her consort." This was not a prayer 
for persons in the pains of purgatory, but for 
such as rested in peace, only without dependence 
upon their own merits, and with a humble reli- 
ance upon God's mercy, that he would not suffer 
them to be devoured by the roaring lion, nor 
deal extremely with them for the sins of human 
frailty. 4. Another like reason for these prayers, 
is that which we have heard before out of Epipha- 
nius,'^ That it was to put a distinction between the 
perfection of Christ, and the imperfection of all 
other men, saints, martyrs, apostles, prophets, con- 
fessors, &c. He being the only person for whom 
prayer was not then made in the chm'ch. 5. They 
prayed for all Christians, as a testimony both of 
their respect and love to the dead, and of their own 
belief of the soul's immortality ; to show, as Epipha- 
nius words it in the same place, that they believed 
that they who were deceased were yet alive, and 
not extinguished, but still in being, and living with 
the Lord. 6. Whereas the soul is but in an imper- 
fect state of happiness till the resurrection, when 
the whole man shall obtain a complete victory over 
death, and by the last judgment be established in 
an endless state of consummate happiness and 
glory ; the church had a particular respect to this 
in her prayers for the righteous, that both the 
living and the dead might finally attain this blessed 
estate of a glorious resurrection. It is observed by 
some,'^* that there are some prayers yet extant in 
the Roman mass, which are conformable to this 
opinion, as that which prays, that " God would ab- 
solve the souls of his servants from eveiy bond 
of sin, and bring them to the glory of the resun-ec- 
tion," &c. 

All these were general reasons of praying for the 
dead, without the least intimation of their being 
tormented in the temporary pains of a purgatory 
fire. Besides which, they had some particular opi- 
nions, which tended to promote this practice. For, 
1. A great many of the ancients believed, that the 
souls of all the righteous, except martyrs, were se- 
questered out of heaven in some place invisible to 
mortal eye, which they called hades, or paradise. 

or Abraham's bosom, a place of refreshment and 
joy, where they expected a completer happiness at 
the end of all things. This is the known opinion 
of Hermes Pastor, Justin Martyr, Pope Pius, Irc- 
neeus, Tertullian, Origen, Caius Romanus, Victori- 
nus Martyr, Novatian,Lactantius, Hilary, Ambrose, 
Gregory Nysscn, Prudentius, Austin, and Chrysos- 
tom. Therefore, in praying for the dead, tliey may 
be supposed to have some reference to this, and to 
desire that the souls of the righteous thus sequestered 
for a time, might at last be brought to the perfect 
fruition of happiness in heaven. 2. Many of the 
ancients held the opinion of the millennium, or the 
reign of Christ a thousand years upon earth, before 
the final day of judgment : and they supposed, like- 
wise, that men should rise, some sooner, some later, 
to this happy state, according to their merits and 
preparations for it. And therefore some of them 
prayed for the deceased on this supposition, that 
they might obtain a part in this resurrection, and a 
speedier admittance into this kingdom: it being 
reckoned a sort of punishment, not to be admitted 
with the first that should rise to this state of glory. 
TertulKan plainly refers "** to this, when he says, 
Every little oflence is to be punished by delaying 
men's resurrection. And therefore he says,"* They 
were wont to pray for the souls of the deceased, that 
they might not only rest in peace for the present, 
but also obtain part in the first resurrection. And 
for this reason St. Ambrose'" prayed for Gratian 
and Valentinian, that God would raise them with 
the first, and recompense their untimely death with 
a timely resurrection. And he says elsewhere,'®' 
That they that come not to the first resurrection, 
but are reserved unto the second, shall be burned 
until they fulfil the time between the first and 
second resurrection ; or if they have not fulfilled 
that, they shall remain longer in punishment. 
Therefore let us pray, that we may obtain a part in 
the first resm'rection. Bishop Usher '^ also shows 
out of some Gothic Missals, that the church had 
anciently several prayers directed to this very pur- 
pose. 3. Many of the ancients believed, that there 
would be a fire of probation, through which all must 
pass at the last day, even the prophets and apostles, 
and even the Virgin Mary herself not excepted. 
Which is asserted not only by Origen,"" Irenajus '" 
and Lactantius,'" but also by St. Ambrose, who 

'^ Epiphan. Haer. 75. Aerian. n. 7. 

"=' Vid. Du Moiiliu, Novelty of Popery, lib. 7. c. i. p. 459. 

•"5 Teitul. de Anima, cap. 58. INIodicum quodque delic- 
tum mora resurrectionis luendum, &e. 

""* De Mouogam. cup. 10. Pro auima ejus oral, et refri- 
gerium iuterim adpostulat ei, et in prima resurrectione con- 
sortium. Confer 1. 3. cont. RIarciou, cap. 24. Post mille 
annos, intra quam aetatem concluditiir sanctorum resurrectio 
promeritis maturius vel tardius resurgentium, &c. 

"^ Ambros. de Obitu Valentin, ad finem. Te qu£Bso, 
summe Deus, ut charissimos juvenes matura resm-rectione 

suscites et resuscites; ut immaturum hunc vita; istius cnr- 
sum matura resurrectione compenses. 

"* Id. in Psal. i. Qui non veuiunt ad primam resurrec- 
tionem, sed ad secundam reservantur, isli urentur donee 
impleant tempora inter priraam et secundam resurrectio- 
nem : aut si non impleveriut, diutius in suppliciu porniaiie- 
bunt. Ideo ergorogeraus, ut in prima resurrectione partem 
habere mereamur. 

"^^ Usher, Answer to the Cliallenge, p. 151. 

"0 Orig. Horn. 3. in Psal. xxxvi. p. 41G. 

'" Ireu. lib. 4. cap. 9. "- Lactaut. lib. 7. cap. 21. 



Book XV. 

says''^ after Origen, That all must pass through the 
flames, though it be John the evangehst, though it 
be Peter. The sons of Levi shall be purged by 
fire,"* Ezekiel, Daniel, &c. And these having been 
tried by fire, shall say, We have passed through fire 
and water. And St. Hilary, much after the same 
manner,'" They that are baptized wath the Holy 
Ghost, are yet to be perfected by the fire of judg- 
ment. For so he interprets those words of the 
evangelist, " He shall baptize you with the Holy 
Ghost and with fire." And again,"* Do we desire 
the day of judgment, in which we must give an 
account of every idle word ; in which those grievous 
punishments for expiating souls from sin must be 
endured ? If the Virgin herself, who conceived God 
in her womb, must undergo the severity of judgment, 
who is so bold as to desire to be judged by God ? 
There are many like passages in Gregory Nazian- 
zen,'" and Nyssen,"' and St. Jerom,'" and St. Aus- 
tin,'^" which the Romish writers commonly produce 
for the fire of purgatory, whenas they plainly relate 
to this purging sacrament, as Origen'" calls it, or, 
in St. Austin's language, the purging pains of the 
fire of judgment at the last day. And the fear of 
this was another reason of their praying for the 
dead. 4. Some of the ancients thought, likewise, 
that the prayers of the church Avere of some use to 
mitigate the pains of the damned souls, though not 
effectual for their total deliverance. And, lastly, 
that they served to augment the glory of the saints 
in happiness. St. Austin'^- says, they were of use 
to render the damnation of the wicked more toler- 
able. And this was the opinion of Prudentius,"' 
and St. Chrysostom,"* who advises men to pray for 
the dead upon this account, that it would bring 
some consolation to them, though but a httle ; or if 
none at all to them, yet it would be accepted of God 
as a pleasing sacrifice from those that offered it. 
And the like may be read in Paulinus,"" and the 
author of the Questions to Antiochus under the 
name of Athanasius."* St. Chrysostom says'" fur- 
ther, That their prayers and alms were of use to 
procure an addition to the rewards and retribution 
of the righteous. These are all the reasons we meet 
with in the ancients for praying for souls departed, 

none of which have any relation to their being tor- 
mented in the fire of purgatory, but most of them 
tend directly to overthrow it. Whence we may 
safely conclude, that though the ancients generally 
prayed for the dead, at least from the time of Tertul- 
lian, who first speaks of it ; yet they did it not upon 
those principles, which are now so stiffly contended 
for in the Romish church. Which is also evident 
from many ancient forms still remaining in the Mass- 
book, and the liturgies of the modern Greeks, who 
continue to pray for the dead without any belief of 
purgatory, as it were easy to demonstrate out of their 
Rituals, but that it is wholly foreign to the design 
of the present discourse. 

There is one thing more to be noted 
upon this matter, that some time be- 

Sect. 17. 
A short account of 
n 1 t t T ' f 1 t 1 *'^^ diptvchs, and 

tore they made oblation for the dead, their use in the an- 

cient church. 

it was usual in some ages to recite the 
names of such eminent bishops, or saints, or martyrs, 
as were particularly to be mentioned in this part of 
the service. To this purpose they had certain books, 
which they called their holy books, and commonly 
their diptychs, from their being folded together, 
wherein the names of such persons were written, 
that the deacon might rehearse them, as occasion 
required, in the time of Divine service. Cardinal 
Bona'^' and Schelstrate make three sorts of these 
diptychs : one, wherein the names of bishops only 
were written, and more particularly such bishops 
as had been governors of that particular church : 
a second, wherein the names of the living were writ- 
ten, who were eminent and conspicuous either for 
any office and dignity, or some benefaction and good 
work, whereby they had deserved well of ihe church; 
in this rank were the patriarchs and bishops of great 
sees, and the bishop and clergy of that particular 
church ; together with the emperors and magis- 
trates, and others most conspicuous among the peo- 
ple : the third was, the book containing the names 
of such as were deceased in catholic communion. 
The first and the last of these seem to be much the 
same, and the consideration of them is only proper 
to this place. For the recital of the names of the 
living, as benefactors by their oblations, has been 
spoken of already,"" and here we are only concerned 

'"' Ambros. Ser. 20. in Psal. cxviii. 

"' Id. Horn. .3. in Psal. xx.xvi. 

»" Hilar, in Mat. Canon. 2. p. 148. Quia baptizatis in 
Spiritu Sancto reliquum sit consumraari igne judicii. 

"" Id. Enarrat. in Psal. cxviii. voce Gimel, p. 254. Cum 
ex omni ocioso verbo rationem sinius prsestituri, diem ju- 
dicii concupiscomus, in quo nobis est indefessus ignis ob- 
eundus : in quo subeunda sunt gravia ilia expiandee a pec- 
catis anima? supplicia ? &c. 

'" Naz. Orat. 42. 

178 Nyssen. De Dormieutibus. 

'" Hieron. in Esa. Ixvi. 

'"» Aug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 20. cap. 25. 

'»' Oiig. Horn. 14. in Luc. p. 22.3. 

"2 Aug. Enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. 110. Pro valdc malis 

valere, ut tolerabilior sit damnatio. 

183 Prudent. Cathemerinon. Carm. 5. de Cereo Paschali. 
Sunt et spiiitibus sajpe nocentibus poenarum celebres sub 
Styge feriaj, ilia nocte sacer qua rcdiit Deus stagnis ad 
superos e.x Acheronticis. 

'8^ Chrys. Horn. 3. in Phil. p. 1225. Vid. Horn. 21. in 
Act. et Horn. 32. in Mat. 

'85 Paulin. Ep. 19. 

^^^ Athanas. Quast. ad Antioch. qn. 34. 

'^" Chrys. Horn. 32. in Mat. p. 307. YlpoadnKy) yivi]Tai 
fxirrdov Kal dv-rio6(Ttwi. 

"^^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 12. n. 1. 
Concilio Aiitiocheno, can. 2. cap. 6. p. 216. 

'89 Book XV. chap. 2. sect. 4. and Book II. chap. 20. 
sect. 5. 




w iih the dead. Of this there is no mention made 
ill the Constitutions, which seems to argue, that the 
custom of rehearsing the diptychs was not brought 
into the Rituals of that church whence the compiler 
of that book made his collections. But Cyprian'"" 
Mild Tertulhan'" speak of them under another name; 
a'ld Thcodoret mentions them in the case of St. 
vsostom, whose name for some time was left out 
I he diptychs, because he died excommunicate 
( I hough unjustly) by Theophilus, bishop of Alexan- 
dria, and other Eastern bishops, with whom the West- 
nii church would not communicate"*^ till they hadre- 
si I )ix'd his name to the diptychs again. The author 
under the name of Dionysius '"^ gives this account of 
tlu'in : That after the salutation of the kiss of peace, 
the diptychs were read, which set forth the names of 
those who had lived righteously, and had attained to 
till' perfections of a virtuous life ; which was done, 
]i:!rily to excite and conduct the living to the same 
happy state by following their good example ; and 
partly to celebrate the memory of them as still 
living, according to the principles of religion, and 
not properly dead, but only translated by death to 
a more Divine life. It appears from this author, 
that these diptychs were then read before the con- 
secration, immediately after the kiss of peace. 
And so it is in the Acts of the Council of Constanti- 
nople under Mennas, which makes frequent mention 
of them, and particularly in one place '^* notes the 
time of reading them, namely, after the reading 
of the Gospel and the creed : for by this time the 
creed was also become a part of the communion 
service in the Eastern church : therefore it is said, 
after the reading of the Gospel, when the commu- 
nion service was begun, (not ended, as the Latin 
translation falsely renders it,) the creed was read ac- 
cording to custom, Tov ayiov fiaQijiiarog Kara to avvt]- 
Qiq XtX^'ivTOQ ; (not the prayers and prefaces going 
before the oblation, as some learned men,'"^ not un- 
derstanding the true meaning of the word naQr](ia, 
render it hctio, and interpret it prayers and prefaces, 
which most certainly'^'' signifies the creed in this 
place ;) then, after the reading of the creed, in the 
time of the diptychs, all the people ran and stood 
about the altar with great silence, to give attention ; 
and when the deacon had named the four holy 
synods, and the archbishops of blessed memory, 
Euphemius, Macedonius, and Leo, they all \\Ai\\ a 
loud voice cried out, " Glory be to thee, O Lord," and 

after that, with great tranquillity, the Divine service 
was piously performed. It is here observable, that 
the recital of the diptychs was before the consecra- 
tion prayer, as it is represented in the hierarchy of 
Dionysius, (though in the Latin church it seems to 
have been otherwise,) and that now it was usual to 
mention the four first general councils, to show their 
approljation of them. Which may be also evidenced 
from one of Justinian's letters to Epiphanius, bi- 
shop of Constantinople, now extant in the Code,'"' 
wherein he assures him, that it was in vain for any 
one to trouble him upon any false hopes, as if he 
had done, or ever would do, or suffer any other to 
do, any thing contrary to the four councils, or allow 
the pious memory of them to be erased out of the 
diptychs of the church. These, therefore, were of 
use, partly to preserve the memory of such eminent 
men as were dead in the communion of the church, 
and partly to make honourable mention of such 
general councils as had established the chief articles 
of the faith : and to erase the names either of men 
or councils out of these diptychs, was the same thing 
as to declare that they were heterodox, and such as 
they thought unworthy to hold communion with, 
as criminals, or some ways deviating from the faith. 
Upon this account St. Cyprian ordered the name of 
Geminius Victor to be left out among those that were 
commemorated at the holy table,'"* because he had 
broken the rules of the church. And Evagrius ob- 
serves'"" of Theodorus, bishop of Mopsuestia, that 
his name was struck out of the holy books, that is, 
the diptychs, upon the account of his heretical 
opinions, after death. And St. Austin, speaking 
of Ceecilian, bishop of Carthage, whom the Do- 
natists falsely accused of being ordained by tradi- 
tores, or men who had delivered up the Bible to be 
burned in time of persecution, tells them,^° that if 
they could make good any real charge against him, 
they would no longer name him among the rest of 
the bishops, whom they believed to be faithful and 
innocent, at the altar. 

Having made this short digression 
concerning the diptychs of the church, Next^o the dead, 

^ 1 *" 1 p 1 praver made for the 

1 now return to the order ot the ser- living members of 

, ^ that particular 

vice laid down in the Constitutions, '^''''■■c . and every 

order in it. 

Where, next after prayer for the dead, 
supplication is made for the living members of that 
particular church then assembled, and every distinct 
order of persons in it : " We offer unto thee for 

'"" Cypr. Ep. 66. al. 1. ad Plebem Fumitan. 

'"' Tertid. de Coron. Mil. cap. 3. 

"2 Theod. lib. 5. cap. .34. 

'^ Dioiiys. Eccles. Hieraich. cap. 3. p. 253 et 254. 

•"* Cone. Constant, sub Menna, an. 536. Act. 5. Cone. t. 
5. p. 181. 

"* Schelstrat. de Concil. Antioch. p. 217. 

'"« See this proved before, Book X. chap. 3. sect. 3. 

'"^ Cod. Justin. lib. 1. Tit. 1. de Summa Trinitate, Leg. 7. 
NuUus frustra nos turbet, spc vana innixus, q\iasi nos con- 

trarium quatuor conciliis fecerimus, aut fieri a quibnsdain 
pennittaums, aut aboleri eorundem sanctorum conciliorum 
piam meinoriam ex ecclesiae diptychis sustineainus. Vid. 
Evagrium, lib. 4. c. 4 et II. 

'^8 Cypr. Ep. 66. al. 1. ad Pleb. Furnitan. 

"" Evagr. lib. 4. cap. 38. 'Ek rioy hpwu aTryiXtirfm 6t\- 

TWl>, K.T.X. 

200 Aug. Serm. 37. e.\ edilis a Sinnondo, t. 10. p. 810. In- 
ventus sit prorsus reus, &c., deincepseum ad altare inter epis- 
copos, qnos fideles et innocentes credimus, non recitabmius. 



Book XV. 

this people,""" that thou wouldst make them, to the 
glory of thy Christ, a royal priesthood and a holy 
nation ; for all that live in virginity and chastity ; 
for the widows of the church ; for all that live in 
honest marriage ; for the infants of thy people ; 
that none of us may be a cast-away ; we pray thee 
for this city, and all that dwell therein." St. Austin 
likewise speaks ^"^ of these prayers at the altar, for 
the faithful, that they by the gift of God may per- 
severe in that wherein they have begun. Again,^"' 
Who ever heard the priest praying over the faithful, 
and saying, " Grant, O Lord, that they may perse- 
vere in thee unto the end," and durst either in word 
or thought reprehend that prayer, and not rather 
answer Amen to such a benediction ? Chrysostom 
in like manner, describing the bishop's office, says,-"* 
It is his business to pray for a whole city, and not 
for a whole city only, but as an ambassador for the 
whole world, that God would be propitious and 
merciful both to the sins of the living and the dead. 
Which makes it the more probable, that the prayers 
of the like kind that occur in St. Chrysostom's 
liturgy ,°°^ are but a copy of such prayers as were then 
commonly used in the ancient church. 

The next petition in the Constitu- 

For those that are tlous is, for all that are in affliction, 

banishment, and ' wliethcr by sickness, or slavery, or 

proscription, and 

that travel by sea banishment, or confiscation and pro- 

or by land. ^ 

scription : and for all that are exposed 
to any perils upon the account of their necessary 
travels by sea or by land. Of these petitions I find 
no particular mention made in other writers, save 
only in Cyril of Jerusalem, who says,-"'' After they 
had prayed for the common peace of the church, 
and the tranquillity of the world, for kings, and for 
their armies and allies, they also besought God for 
all that were sick and afflicted, or in any kind of 
want : and last of all they prayed for the dead. By 
which we may judge, that though the order of the 
petitions was a little varied in the liturgies of difier- 
ent churches, yet the substance was the same. And 
there is little question but the sick and distressed 
were remembered in these prayers in all the churches ; 
since in the deacon's bidding prayer before the 

oblation, there is express direction given to the 
people, to pray for the sick, and those that travel 
by sea or by land, and those that are in the mines, 
in banishment, in prison, in bonds, and in slavery, 
as I have showed out of several passages in St. 
Chi-ysostom, St. Basil, and St. Austin, comparing 
them with the form of bidding prayer for the whole 
state of Christ's church in the Constitutions, related 
before in the first chapter of this Book, sect. 2 and 3. 

The next petition in the Constitu- ^^^^ ^^ 
tions is, for their enemies and perse- persecuior^heretk^ 

. r 1 j_" 1 IT and unbehevei-s. 

cutors, tor heretics and unbehevers, 
those that are without the pale of the church, and 
wandering in error ; that God would convert them 
to good, and mitigate their fury. And of this there 
are frequent examples in the writings of the an- 
cients. For nothing was more strictly observed by 
the ancients, than to pray for their enemies and per- 
secutors, for Jews, infidels, and heretics ; of which Dr. 
Cave-"' has given several instances out of Cyprian,-"* 
Justin Martyr,-"" and Irenajus.^'" Which because 
they may seem only to refer to their private prayers, 
I will add a few more which more expressly relate 
to their public devotions. TertuUian ^" tells the 
heathen, they were taught by the Scriptures (which 
they themselves might read) to exhibit a more than 
ordinary kindness toward men, in praying to God 
for their enemies, and wishing all good to their per- 
secutors. For they had no greater enemies or per- 
secutors in those days than those very emperors for 
whom they made supplications to God"'^ as oft as 
they met in public, and for their officers, and for the 
state of the world, and for the peace and tranquillity 
of their affairs, and for the duration of their em- 
pire. Arnobius says their churches were oratories,"" 
wherein they prayed for peace and pardon, for the 
magistrates and princes, for their armies, for their 
friends, and for their enemies. St. Austin"'* par- 
ticularly notes, that the priest was wont to exhort 
the people at the altar to pray for unbelievers, that 
God would convert them to the faith. And again, 
When does not the church"'^ pray for infidels and 
her enemies, that they may believe ? In like man- 
ner Pope Celestine^'^ says, The whole church prayed 

»» Constit. lib. 8. cap. 12. 

202 Aug. Ep. 107. ad Vitalem. Pro fidelibus, vit in eo quod 
esse ca;perunt, ejus inunere perseverent. 

-03 De Dono Porseverautiaj, cap. 23. t. 7. p. 571. Quis 
sacerdotem super fideles Dorainum iuvocantem, si quando 
dixit, Daillis Domine in te perseverare usque in liuem, non 
solum voce ausus est, sed saltern cogitatioue reprehendere, 
ac non potius super ejus taleiu benedictionem et corde cre- 
dente et ore confitente respondit, Amen ? 

-"* Chrys. de Sacerdot. lib. G. cap. 4. p. 93. 

2»5 Chrys. Liturg. t. 3. p. 616. 

-•"! Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. G. 

-<" Cave, Prim. Christ, part 3. chap. 2. p. 212. 

-"' Passio Cypriani. 

=»' Justin. Dial, cum Tryphon. p. 254, 323, 363. 

2'" lien. lib. 3. cap. 46. ' -" Tertul. Apol. cap, 31. 

^'2 Ibid. cap. 39. Coimus in coetum — Oramus pro inipei a- 
toribus, pro ministris eorum, pro statu saeculi, pro reruui 
quiete, pro mora finis. 

213 Arnob. lib. 4. p. 181. 

-•'' Aug. Ep. 107. ad Vitalem. Audis sacerdotem Dei ad 
altare exhortantem populum Dei, orare pro incredulis. ut 
eos Deus convertat ad fidem, &c. 

"'^ De Dono Perseverantia;, cap. 23. Quando non ma- 
tum est in ecclesia pro infidelibus atque inimicis ejus ut 
crederent ? 

-'" Coelestin. Ep. 1. ad Gallos, cap. 11. Postulant et pre- 
cantur, ut infidelibus donetur fides, ut idololatrae ab impie- 
tatis suae liberentur errore, ut Judasis, ablato cordis velamine 
lux veritatis appareat, ut haoretici catholicoe fidei percop 
tione resipiscant, ut schismatici spiritum redivivae charitalii 
accipiant, &c. i 

Chap. III. 



with the priests for infidels, that faith miyht be 
given unto them ; for idolaters, that they might be 
delivered from the errors of their impiety ; for Jews, 
that, the veil being taken away from their heart, 
the light of truth may appear unto them ; for here- 
tics, that they may repent by returning to the ca- 
tholic faith ; for schismatics, that they may receive 
the spirit of charity reviving from the dead. And 
the same is repeated by Gennadius,-" or whoever 
was the author of the book De Ecclesiasticus Dog- 
matibus under the name of St. Austin. And in 
both places it is said, that this practice was de- 
rived from the apostles, and uniformly observed in 
the whole catholic church throughout the world. 
Nay, it is evident they prayed for many heretics, 
whom they looked upon as guilty of the sin against 
the Holy Ghost. For they did not esteem that sin 
absolutely unpardonable, but only punishable in 
both worlds, on supposition that men did not re- 
pent of it. Therefore St. Austin^" and others say, 
they prayed that they might repent and be saved ; 
and accordingly admitted them to the peace and 
communion of the church upon their repentance. 
In a word, as Chrysostom says,^" they prayed for 
the whole world without exception ; they prayed 
that all men whatsoever might be converted. 

Next after heretics and unbelievers, 
Is^ prayer is made in the Constitutions 
for the catechumens of the church, 
that God would perfect them in the faith ; for the 
energumens, that were vexed with evil spirits, that 
God would cleanse and deliver them from the 
power and agitation of the wicked one ; and for the 
penitents, that God would accept their repentance, 
and pardon both them and the whole church what- 
ever offences they had committed against him. 
Whence we may observe, that these several orders 
were three distinct times prayed for in Divine ser- 
vice ; first, in the prayers that were said for them in 
their presence, in the first service, called the ser- 
vice of the catechumens ; secondly, in the deacon's 
bidding prayer for the whole state of the church 
before the oblation ; and now again, thirdly, after 
the oblation, when all orders of men were prayed 
for at the sacrifice of the altar. This last is par- 
ticularly noted by St. Austin,"" who says. The priest 

Sect. 21. 
For the cat 
mens, energumens 
and penitents. 

at the altar was used to exhort the people to pray 
for the catechumens, that God would inspire them 
with a desii'e of regeneration. And so it is said by 
Celestine"' and Gennadius ^-'^ in the same words, 
that they prayed for the lapsers, that God would 
grant them the remedy of repentance ; and for the 
catechumens, that God would bring them to the 
sacrament of baptism, and open to them the great 
treasure of his heavenly mercy. 

In the next place they prayed for 
health and provision ; for the tempera- For heaithfui ami 

'■ ' ^ fruitful seasons. 

ture of the air, and the increase of the 
fruits of the earth, as the Constitutions word it, 
that they, participating of the good things which 
God bestows upon men, might, without ceasing, 
praise him, who giveth food to all flesh. St. Chry- 
sostom, among other particulars of this prayer, 
notes the same,^ when he says. They prayed for 
the earth and sea, for the air, and for the whole 
world. And though Tertullian does not particularly 
speak of this prayer, yet he intimates in general, 
that they were used to pray for temporal blessings, 
and among these for rain, as in the German expe- 
dition of Marcus Aurelius, when his army was 
saved from perishing for want of water bj^ the 
prayers of the Christians, which never failed^* to 
drive away drought upon other occasions. The 
like observation is made by Cyprian,"^ that they 
offered continually supplications and prayers night 
and day for victory over their enemies, for obtaining 
rain, for averting or moderating all adversities, and 
for the peace and safety of the public. Which being 
their continual prayer night and day, it is not to be 
doubted but that it was a part of those prayers which 
they now more solemnly oflTered at the altar. 
The last petition mentioned in the 

^ ... 11 1 1 Sect. 23. 

Constitutions, is tor all those that, For all llielr absent 


upon just and reasonable cause, were 
then absent from the assembly, that God would 
preserve both the absent and present in godliness, 
and keep them without change, blame, or rebuke, 
and finally gather them all into the kingdom of his 
Christ, the universal King, and God of all things 
in nature, both visible and invisible. The like 
petition is mentioned by Chrysostom, in one of his 
homilies upon St. Matthcw,^"^ according to the old 

-" GennaJ. de Ecclcs. Doffinat. cap. 30. 

-18 Aug. Retractat. lib. ]. cap. 19. De quocunque pessimo 
in hac vita constituto non est utique desperandum ; nee pro 
illo impnidenter oratur, de quo non desperatur. 

-"' Chrys. Horn, in 1 Thess. p. 1413. Horn. 6. in 1 Tim. 
p. 1550. 

'--" Aug. Ep. 107. ad Vitalem. Audis sacerdotem Dei ad 
altare exhortantein populum Dei, orare pro incredulis ut 
eos Deus convertat ad fidem, et pro catechumenis ut eis 
desiderium regenerationis inspiret. 

^' Celestin. Ep. 1. ad (Jallos, cap. 2. Postulant et pre- 
cantur, ut lapsis poeniteutia; remcdia conferantur; ut de- 
nique catechumenis ad regenerationis sacramenta perductis, 
3 E 

coelestis misericordiaj aula reseretur. 

"- Gennad. de Eccles. Dogmat. cap. 30. 

■^ Chrys. Horn. 2. in 2 Cor. p. 745. 

■^ Tertul. ad Scapul. cap. 4. Quando non gcniculationi- 
bus et jejunationibus nostris siccitates sunt depulsx' ? 

-■^ Cypr. ad Demetrian. p. 193. Pro arcendis hostibus et 
imbribus impetrandis, et vel auferendis vel temperandis ad- 
versis, rogamus semper et preces fundimus, &.c. 

--^ Chrys. Horn. 26. in Matt. p. 259. Ahari assistens sa- 
cerdos, pro universo orbe terraruni, pro absentibus atque 
preesentibus, pro his qui pnstea futuri sunt, sacrificio illo 
proposito, Deo nos gratias jubct offenc. 



Book XV. 

translation of Anianus : The priest, says he, when 
he stands at the altar, bids us give thanks for the 
whole woi'ld, for those that are absent, and those 
that are present, for those that are gone before us, 
and those that shall be after us, while the sacrifice 
lies upon the altar. 

Sect 34 '^^'^ conclusion of this long prayer 

n ^Sosy ^to'the ^^ tile ConstitutioHs, is a doxology to 
wi.oic Tr.nity. ^j^^ ^j^^^^ Trinity : and this was of 

old the constant custom of the church, as is evident 
from what has been largely discoursed before,'" 
both concerning the adoration of the whole Trinity 
as the true and only object of Divine worship, and 
also concerning the use of Divine hymns and dox- 
ologies to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Of 
w^hich I need say no more in this place to confirm 
the order laid down in the Constitutions, save only 
to observe, that two of the most ancient writers we 
have, Irenaeus and TertuUian,"^ do both mention 
one part of this doxology, as particularly used at 
the consecration of the eucharist. Irenaeus says 
the Valentinians made it an argument for their 
(sones, that the catholics used to say ei'e a'wvaq tUv 
aibivbiv in their eucharistical service; referring to 
the last words of this doxology, " world without 
end." And Tertullian particularly asks those who 
frequented the Roman games, how they could give 
testimony to a gladiator, with that mouth where- 
with they had answered Amen at the eucharist ? or 
say " world without end" to any other but Christ 
their God? implying, that the glorification of Christ 
with this doxology was then a noted close of the 
consecration prayer, as the author of the Constitu- 
tions represents it. 

And from this passage of Tertullian 
To \viiich ■ the it is no Icss apparent, that the people 

people with one 

voice answered, wcre uscd to subjoin tlicir Amen to 

Amen. '^ 

the end of this prayer. Which was a 
custom as ancient as the apostles. For St. Paul 
seems plainly to allude to it, 1 Cor. xiv. 16 ; " When 
thou shalt bless with the spirit," that is, bless the 
cup of blessing, or the eucharist, in an unknown 
tongue, " how shall he that occupieth the room of 
the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, 
seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest ? " 
Justin Martyr,-" in describing the Christian rites in 
celebrating the eucharist, takes notice of this among 
the rest, that when the president had ended his 
prayers and thanksgivings over the bread and wine, 
all the people assented with their acclamations. 

sajang. Amen. And Dionysius of Alexandria,'-'"' 
speaking of one who had never been truly baptized, 
but had often notwithstanding been partaker of the 
eucharist, says. They would not rebaptize him, be- 
cause he had for a long time heard the thanksgiving, 
and joined with the people in the common Amen. 
And so Chrysostom, interpreting those words of the 
apostle, " How shall he that occupieth the room of 
the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, 
seeing he imderstandeth not what thou sayest ? " 
plainly refers to this custom : for he says, idiurriQ, 
which we render "unlearned," signifies a private man 
or layman : and if thou blesscst in an unknown 
tongue,'^' not understanding what thou sayest, nor 
being able to interpret it, the layman cannot an- 
swer Amen ; for he, not hearing those words, 
" world without end," which is the close of the 
thanksgiving, cannot say Amen. Where we may 
observe, both that the consecration prayer ended 
with a known doxology to the holy Trinity, whereof 
those words, " world without end," were a part ; 
and that the people hearing them answered Amen. 
There is no mention made in the „ , .„ 

Sect. 26. 

Constitutions of the formal rehears- ere^edTJsuT'' '''^ 
ing either of the creed or the Lord's ;;\"de''"a"par''t'of 
prayer in this place immediately after "^ ' ™''^' 
consecration : and the reason is, that when that 
author made his collections, it was not yet become 
the custom to use the creed in any other service, 
but only that of baptism, in any church whatsoever. 
The first that brought the rehearsing of the creed 
into the liturgy, was Peter FuUo, bishop of Antioch, 
about the year 471. And after that, about the year 
511, Timotheus, bishop of Constantinople, brought 
it into use in the liturgy of that church, as we learn 
from the history of Theodoras Lector. '■^^ After 
that we find it mentioned in the council of Con- 
stantinople under Mennas, anno 536, as being re- 
hearsed^^ according to custom between the reading 
of the Gospel and the diptychs. After this, about 
the year 589, it was brought into the Spanish 
church at the petition of King Rccaredus, by the 
order of the third council of Toledo, and that after 
the example of the Eastern churches : and then it 
was ordered to be said*** with a loud voice after the 
consecration, immediately before the Lord's prayer, 
to be an instruction and declaration of the people's 
true faith, who were lately converted from Arian- 
ism, and to prepare their hearts, thus purified by 
faith, to the following reception of the body and 

2" Book XIII. chap. 2. Book XIV. chap. 2. sect. 1. 

^^ Iren. lib. 1. cap. 1. Tertul. de Spectac. cap. 25. Quale 

est ex ore quo Amen in sanctum protuleris, gladiatori 

testimonium reddere? fk- aiwv<L<i alii omnino dicere, nisi 
Deo Christo? See Chrysostomj Horn. 35. in 1 Cor. in the 
next section. 

■■^■•» Justin. Apol. 2. p. 97. ^so ^p. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 9. 

■«' Chrys. Horn. 35. in 1 Cor. p. 640. 

232 1'heodov. Lector, lib. 2. p. 563 et 566. 

"^ Cone. Constant, sub Menna, Act. 1. p. 41. edit. 
Crab, quae est Act. 5. edit. Labbe. 

-^' Cone. Tolet. 3. can. 2. Consnltu Reccaredi regis con- 
stituit synodus, lit per omnes ecclesias Hispaniae et Gallicia?, 
secundum fnrmam Orientalium ecclesiarum, concilii Con- 
stantinnpolitani, hoc est, centum quinquaginta episcoporum 
symbolum fidei recitetur : et priusquam Dominica dicatnr 
oratio, voce clara praedicetur, quo fides vera manifesta sit it 
testimonium habeat. &c. 

Chap. III. 



blood of Christ. It was not thus used in the Gal- 
ilean liturgy till the time of Charles the Great ; nor 
in the Roman liturgy, till the beginning of the 
eleventh century, as I have more fully showed'^ in 
a former Book. But as it had earlier admittance in 
the Spanish churches, so the rehearsal of it appears 
to have been appropriated to the time after conse- 
cration, between that and the Lord's prayer, which 
in most churches they were used to repeat also to- 
ward the conclusion of these prayers following the 

For though there be no mention 
And" fhe' Lords made of the Lord's prayer in this part 
of the service in the Constitutions, 
(as probably not in use in that church whence the 
author made his collections,) yet we are assured it 
was almost generally used in all churches. For not 
only the forementioned council of Toledo, and the 
fourth of the same name,^^" speak of the Lord's 
prayer as coming before the reception of the bread 
and wine in the Spanish churches ; but St. Austin 
says,^' the whole church almost concluded the ob- 
lation prayers with it. And I have already confirmed 
his observation from several other passages of St. 
Chrysostom, and Cyril of Jerusalem, and St. Jcrom, 
and Gregory the Great,^ who was also of opinion 
that the apostles used no other prayer to consecrate 
the eucharist,™ but the Lord's prayer. In which he 
was something singular. For there is little question, 
but that the apostles consecrated as the Lord had 
done before them. As to the practice of the church 
in using the Lord's prayer at this time, Optatus^*" 
says it was become so customary by necessary pre- 
script, that the Donatists themselves did not pretend 
to omit it. And in some of the French councils"' 
an order was made. That no layman, even of those 
that did not communicate, should leave the assembly 
before the Lord's prayer was said. 

g^^j ,g It appears, from the last-mentioned 

tenu€t^dil?:f place of Optatus, that when any peni- 
p^Iyer, wfth ^o°cca- tcnts werc to recclve a solemn abso- 

eional benedictions, i ,• • ,i Ar • "U i '^ 

lution, m the Aincan church, it was 
usually given them about this time, between the 
offering of the oblation and the Lord's prayer. For 
he tells the Donatists,-" that the very moment after 
they had given penitents imposition of hands and 

pardon of sins, they were obliged to turn to ihe 
altar, and say the Lord's prayer ; which implies that 
absolution was commonly given at this season. And 
here we may suppose several of those prayers of 
thanksgiving or benecUction, mentioned in the 
seventh and eighth Books of the Constitutions, to 
have had their place, such as the benediction of the 
holy oil, and the thanksgiving for the first-fruits of 
the earth :"' there being no time more proper for 
such things, than the time of the oblation. But as 
nothing is said positively and expressly of this mat- 
ter, I only mention it by way of conjecture. 

But there is niore evidence of an- 
other sort of benediction following the Bencd'icMon«fterihe 
Lord's prayer in many of the Western °' ^ """'" 
churches. For the third council of Orleans-" had a 
canon, which orders all laymen to stay till they had 
heard the Lord's prayer, and received the bishop's 
benediction. Cardinal Bona-'^ understands this of 
the final benediction, which followed the commu- 
nion ; but Mabillon more truly interprets it of the 
benediction before communion,"^ immediately fol- 
lowing the Lord's prayer. Concerning which there 
is a canon in the council of Toledo-" which censures 
some priests for communicating immediately after 
the Lord's prayer, without giving the benediction to 
the people; and orders. That for the future, the 
benediction should follow the Lord's prayer, and 
after that the communion. And by this we are to 
interpret some"* other canons of the councils of 
Agde and Orleans, which order the people not to 
depart till the bishop has given his benediction; 
which is to be understood of the benediction before 
the communion, and not that which came after it. 
And this agrees with the order in the Constitutions ; 
where, after the long prayer of the consecration and 
oblation is ended,"^ the bishop is appointed to give 
this short benediction, " The peace of God be with 
you all :" and then, after the deacon has rehearsed 
a bidding prayer, (much to the same purpose with 
the former, for the whole church, and every order in 
it, and particularly for the sacrifice then offered, that 
God would receive it to his altar in heaven, for a 
sweet-smelling savour, by the mediation of Christ,) 
the bishop again recommends the people to God in 
another prayer, which the Greeks call irapdOtmc, and 

235 Book X. chap. 4. sect. 17. 

236 Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 18. 237 Aug. Ep. 59. ad Paulin. 
^^ See these cited at large, Book XIII. chap. 7. sect. 3. 
239 Greg. lib. 7. Ep. 64. Orationem Dominicamidcircomo.x 

post precem dicimus, quia mos apostolorum fuit, ut ad ipsam 
solummodo orationem oblatiouis hostiam cousecrarent. 

^^o Optat. lib. 2. p. 57. 

*^' Cone. Aurelian. 3. can. 28. De missis nullus laicorum 
ante discedat, quam Dominica dicatur oratio, &c. 

*'2 Optat. ibid. Inter vicina momenta, dum manus im- 
ponitis, et delicta donatis, mox ad altare conversi, Domini- 
cam orationem praetermittere non potestis. 

"' Vid. Coastit. lib. 7. cap. 42. Lib. 8. cap. 40. 
3 E 2 

2'^ Cone. Aurel. 3. can. 28. De missis nullus laicorum 
ante discedat, quam Dominica dicatur oratio, et si cpiscopus 
fuerit praesens, ejus benedictio expectetur. 

-'* Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 16. n. 2. 

='" Mabil. de Liturg. lib. ]. cap. 4. n. 14. 

-" Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 18. NonnuUi sacerdotes post dic- 
tam orationem Dominicam statim communicant, et postoa 
benedictionem in populodant: quod deinceps interdicinius: 
sed post orationem Dominicam benedictio in populum se- 
quatur, et tunc demum corporis et sanguinis Dominici 
sacramentum sumatur. 

-*" Cone. Agathen. can. 44 et 47. Cone. Aurel. 3. can. 28. 

=" Constit. lib. 8. cap. 13. 



Book XV. 

the Latins, commendatio, and hcneclictio, the com- 
mendation, or benediction, beseeching God to sanc- 
tify their bodies and souls, and to make them worthy 
of the good things he has set before them ; which 
relates both to their worthy reception of the eucha- 
rist, and their obtaining eternal life. This is what 
I conceive those Latin councils call the bishop's 
benediction, of which there are some instances in 
the Mosarabic liturgy, and many more in the old 
Gothic and Galilean Missals lately published by 
Mabillon, where the prayer that follows the collect 
after the Lord's prayer, is always styled, bencdictio 
populi, the benediction of the people : and these are 
commonly different prayers, composed with some 
respect to the several festivals to which they were 
appropriated, like the collects before the Epistles 
and Gospels in our present liturgy. But I return 
to the ancient service. 

Sect 30 There is one petition in the deacon's 

b."ung''pr4vr™ter blddlug praycr after the consecration 

thecoSsecniUon. ^^ ^^^ CoUStltutionS, which is UOt tO 

be passed over in silence ; that is, that God would 
receive the gift that was then offered to him, to his 
altar in heaven, as a sweet-smelling savour, by the 
mediation of his Christ. This form seems as ancient 
as Irena?us: for he says. We have an altar ^'' in 
heaven, and thither om- prayers and oblations are 
directed. And so it is in all the Greek liturgies, 
with a small variation. And frequently in the 
Mozarabic liturgy,^' and the old Gothic Missal 
pubhshed by Mabillon,^'- there are prayers for the 
descent of the Holy Ghost to sanctify the gifts, and 
make them the body and blood of Christ, even after 
the repetition of the words, " This is my body," and, 
" This is my blood ;" which evidently shows, that 
the ancient formers of the liturgy did not think the 
consecration to be effected by the bare repetition 
of those words, but by prayer for the descent of the 
Holy Ghost upon the elements of bread and wine. 
And it is very remarkable, that even in the present 
canon of the Roman Mass, there is still such a prayer 
as this remaining after what they call consecra- 
tion : the priest offering the host says, " Be pleased 
to look upon these things with a favourable and 
propitious eye,^ as thou wert pleased to accept the 

gifts of Abel thy righteous servant." He adds, " We 
beseech thee. Almighty God, to command that these 
things may be carried by the hands of thy holy an- 
gels to thy altar on high." Concluding, "By Christ 
our Lord, by whom thou dost always create, sanc- 
tify, quicken, and bless these good things unto us." 
These words in this prayer, as our polemical writ- 
ers"* have rightly observed, were used before tran- 
substantiation was invented, and when the conse- 
cration was thought to be made by prayer, and not 
barely by pronouncing the words, " This is my 
body." And then they were good sense, when they 
were said over bread and wine, to consecrate them 
into the memorial and symbols of Christ's body 
and blood. But now they are become absurd, and 
contrary to the primitive intention. For how can 
the real body and blood of Christ be called these 
gifts ? or be compared to the sacrifice of Abel, who 
offered a beast ? How can men pray (without in- 
dignity to the Son of God) that the sacrifice of God's 
only Son may be as acceptable to God as the sacri- 
fice of Abel was ? Or how does Christ, who sits at 
the right hand of the Father, need the mediation 
of angels to be carried or presented to his Father at 
the heavenly altar ? With what propriety of speech 
can Christ be called " all these good things ? " and the 
good things " which God createth always, and quick- 
eneth, and sanctifieth always ?" Doth God create, 
and quicken, and bless Jesus Christ by Jesus Christ? 
It is proper to say all this of the gifts, supposing 
them still to be real bread and wine ; but altogether 
improper, if they are transubstantiated into the 
natural flesh and blood of Christ. Whence we may 
conclude, that the first compilers of this prayer 
knew nothing of the new doctrine of transubstan- 
tiation, which makes this prayer absurd in every 
syllable of it ; to enter here no further upon a de- 
bate concerning the change which is made in the 
elements by consecration, which every one knows ' 
where to find discussed at large in our polemical 
writers, and something will be said of it hereafter 
under the head of Adoration, chap. 5. sect. 4. 

Immediately after the benediction sect. si. 
of the bishop, the deacon in the Con- .s°"«jTd''Z''' 
stitutions is appointed to say, np6(Txa>- God "n iiigh7 

-■'" Ircn. lib. 4. cap. 34. Est altare in ca'lis, illuc preces 
nostrx' etoblationes diriguntiir. 

'"' Missa Mozarab. in Natali Domini. Item Dnminica 
2 et 5. post Epiphan. et Domin. ] et 3. Quadragesima!. 
Die Paschatis, et Domin. .3. post Pasch. cited by Bona, lier, 
Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 13. n. 5. 

252 Missal. Gothic, a p. Mabil. lib. 3. p. 314. in Festo As- 
sumptionis. Dcscendat, Domine, in his sacrificiis tua> be- 
nedictionis coajternus et coopcrator Paracletns Spiritus : ut 
oblationem quam tibi de ttia terra fructificante porrigimus, 
ctele.sti permutatione, tc sanctificante, sumamiis ; ut trans- 
lata fnige in corpore, calice in cruore, proficiat meritis, 
quod obtulimus prodelictis, S:c. It. Missa in Circumcisione, 
ibid. p. 202. Hoc sacrificiiim suscipere et bcnedicere et 

sanctificare digneris, ut fiat nobis cucharistia legitima, 
&c. Vid. ibid. Missa 20. in Cathedra Petri, p. 228. et 
Missa '65. in Festo Leodegarii, p. 285. et Missa 27. iu 
SyraboliTraditione, p. 235. Missa 77. Dominicalis, p. 296. 

2^ Missal. Roman, in Canone Missaj, p. 3(X). Antwerp. 
1574. Supra qua; propitio ac sereno vultu respicere dig- 
neris, nt accepta habere dignatus es munera pueri tui justi 
Abel — Snpplices te rogamus Deus omnipotens, jube haec 
perferri per raanus sancti angeli tui in sublime ahare tunra. 
— Per Christum Dominum nostrum, perqnem, Domine, haac 
omnia semper nobis bona creas, sanctiticas, vivificas, be- | 

2-'''' Vid. Du Moulin, Novelty of Popery, lib, 7. chap. 5. 
p. 730. and Buckler of Faith, p. 510. 

Chap. III. 



utv, Let us give attention. And then the bishop, 
caUing to the people, says, "Ayia toTq dyioig, " Holy 
things for those that are holy." To which the 
people answer, " There is one holy, one Lord, one 
Jesus Christ, to the glory of God the Father, who 
is blessed for ever. Amen. Glory be to God in the 
highest, and on earth peace, good will towards men. 
Hosanna to the Son of David. Blessed be God the 
Lord, that came in the name of the Lord, and ap- 
peared unto us; hosanna in the highest." Cyril 
of Jerusalem takes notice of one part of this in the 
church of Jerusalem, where it came immediately 
after the Lord's prayer. After that, says he,^^ the 
priest says, Holy things for holy men. Holy are 
the elements which lie before us, when they have 
received the illapse of the Holy Ghost upon them. 
Holy are ye also, when ye are endowed with the 
Holy Ghost : and therefore holy things agree to 
holy men. Then ye say, There is one holy, one 
Lord Jesus Christ. There is one truly holy, who is 
holy by nature : ye also are holy, not by nature, but 
by participation, by exercise and prayer. St. Chry- 
sostom also'-^" takes notice of the same, comparing 
the service of the church to the Olympic exercises, 
where the herald stands and cries wdth a loud voice. 
Does any one accuse this man ? Is he a thief? Is 
he a slave ? Is he an immoral man ? So the eccle- 
siastical herald, the priest, standing on high, calls 
some, and rejects others, not with his hand, but 
with his tongue : for when he says. Holy things for 
holy men, he says this. If any one be not holj^, let 
him not come here. He does not barely say, if he 
be free from sin, but, if he be holy : for it does not 
make a man holy, merely to be free from sin, but to 
be endowed with the Spirit, and to abound with 
good works. Therefore he says, I would not have 
you only free from mire, but white and beautiful. 
St. Chrysostom also often speaks of the hymn, 
" Glory be to God on high," and tells us particularly 
that it was sung at the eucharist, as well as upon 
other occasions. God, says he,^' first brought the 
angels down hither, and then carried men up to 
them. The earth was made a heaven, because 
heaven was about to receive the things of the earth. 
Therefore, tvxapi^c^TovvTiQ Xsyo/isv, when we give 
thanks, or celebrate the eucharist, we say, " Glory 
be to God on high, in earth peace, good will to- 
wards men." And that by the thanksgiving he 
here means the eucharist, is evident from another 
place, where he more precisely specifies t1ie time 
of using it in the communion service : tffacriv oi 

TTtffroi, &c. They who are communicants know-'"' 
what hymn is sung by the spirits above; what (he 
cherubims say above ; what (he angels said, "Glory 
be to God on high." Therefore our hymns come; 
after our psalmody, as something more perfect. 
Meaning that psalms were sung in the service of 
the catechumens ; but these hymns, the cherubical 
hymn and (he angelical hymn, more peculiarly in 
the communion service. 

St. Cyril adds,"" that after the sect. 32 
hymn, " One holy," a psalm was sung i„^[^hT^^Zn. 
inviting them to participate of the '"°"' 
holy mysteries, which was the thirty-first Psalm, 
and particularly those words, " Taste and see that 
the Lord is gracious." "Which, he tells them, was 
not to be estimated or discerned by their corporeal 
taste, but by the certainty of faith. For they were 
not bid to taste bread and wine, but the antitype or 
sign of the body and blood of Christ. This was a 
distinct psalm from those which were used to be 
sung afterward, whilst the people were communicat- 
ing : for this was an invita'tory to communicate, but 
the other were for meditation and devotion whilst 
they were actually partaking; of which there will 
be occasion to say something further in the next 

Here we must note tw^o things more 
which concern the consecration in The comwraiion 

. , , always perfornifd 

general, in opposition to the corrup- "''^ »" auuiue 
tions of later ages. First, That as all 
Divine service was in a known tongue, so par(icu- 
larly the consecration of the eucharist was ordered 
to be pronounced both intelligibly and audibly, that 
the people might hear it, and answer. Amen. The 
contrary practice now prevails in the Roman church : 
but both Habertus'™ and Bona"*" own it to be au 
innovation, of which there is no footstep till the 
tenth age, when first the ancient custom was su- 
perseded. It would be impertinent to produce 
authorities for a thing that is so plainly confessed 
and beyond dispute. And therefore I shall only 
note one thing upon this point, that when some liltle 
grumbling of this disease began to appear' in the 
time of Justinian, he checked it in its first symp- 
toms, by a severe law,''^' commanding all bishops 
and presbyters to make the Divine oblation, and 
the prayers used in baptism, not in secret, or with 
a low and muttering voice, but so as all the faithful 
people might hear them, to the greater devotion of 
their souls, and the greater praise and glory of God. 
For so the lioly aposde teaches, saying in the First 

-5^ Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 16. 

2^«Chrys. Horn. 17. in Ilebr. p. 1873. See also Horn. 
123. t. 5. p. 809, 810. Edit. Savil. 
«' Horn. .3. in Colos. p. 1337. 
2^^ Ham. 9. in Colos. p. 1380. 
=»'' Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 17. 
■■"=" Hubert. Archicratic. par 8. obser. 9. p. 115. 

-•" Bona, Ker. Litiirg. lib. 2. cap. 13. n. 1. 

-"■- Justin. Novel. 137. cap. 6. Jnbenuis omnes episcopos 
et presbytcros nou in secreto, sed cnm ca voce quoe a fideli 
populo exautliatur, Divinam oblatiouem et procationcni 
qnce fit in baptismatc sancto, facere, nt indc audiontiuni 
animi in majorem devotionem ct Dei laudalionem et bene- 
dictioueui efferantur, &c. 



Book XV. 

Epistle to the Corinthians, " If thou shalt bless with 
the spirit only, how shall he that occupieth the 
room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of 
thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou 
sayest ? For thou verily givest thanks well, but the 
other is not edified." Therefore if any bishop or 
presbyter contemn this rule, they must give an ac- 
count hereof in the dreadful judgment of our God 
and Saviour Jesus Christ ; and we, when they come 
to our knowledge, will not suffer them to remain 
quiet and unpunished. It is well for the Roman 
church, that the canon law is superior to the civil ; 
else such a horrible abuse of all righteous both 
Divine and human laws, would not go without its 
just revenges. This is tme of those many good 
laws for which the church is beholden to that learn- 
ed emperor ; whom yet Baronius,-*^ for the sake of 
these very laws, does bespatter and rally, as an ig- 
norant analphabetus, an impious heretic, an in- 
vader of Divine rights, a man sick of the common 
distemper of kings, and whatever a partial historian 
could think of, that was indecent to be said, who 
was himself indeed sick with prejudice in favour of 
the common abuses and corruptions of his own 
church, among which this is one of the most flam- 
ing and intolerable, to pray every day in an un- 
heard and unknown tongue, so contrary to the au- 
thority of the apostle, and the rules of the primitive 
church, and the edification of Christian people, and 
the common sense and reason of mankind.-" 

The other ceremony to be noted 

Sect. 34. . ^, . „ , . . , 

And with breaking lu the practice or the ancients is, that 

of bread to repre- 

sent our Saviours m cousecratiug the cucharist they 

passion. o J 

always brake the bread, in conformity 
to our Saviour's example, to represent his passion 
and crucifixion. Clemens Alexandrinus speaks of 
this as a general custom,"'^^ when the eucharist was 
divided or broken, to let every one of the people 
take his part. And St. Austin""^ says the whole 
church observed it, in blessing the bread, to break 
it for distribution. The reader that pleases may 
find other testimonies collected by Hospinian"" out 
of Irenseus,-'** Dionysius the Areopagite,-'''* Theophi- 
lus of Alexandria,^'" and Cyril of Alexandria,"' and 
St. Chrysostom.-"- Neither does Bona"' himself 
deny this, but proves it further from Gregory Na- 
zianzen,-'* and Caesarius Arelatensis, and all the 
older ritualists and liturgies, of which he says there 

is not any that does not prescribe this breaking of 
bread, the Greeks into four parts, the Latins into 
three, and the Mosarabic liturgy into nine parts. 
Which is also noted by Mabillon, who adds,^^ that 
these nine parts in that liturgy are characterized by 
so many several names, viz. Incarnation, Nativity, 
Circumcision, Epiphany or Manifestation, Passion, 
Death, Resurrection, Glory, and Kingdom. Which 
is a little deviation from the simplicity of the an- 
cient church, yet not so culpable as the practice of 
the present Roman church, where, instead of break- 
ing bread for the communicants to partake of it, 
they only break a single wafer into three parts (of 
which no one partakes) only to retain a shadow of 
the ancient custom. Bona indeed calls this break- 
ing of bread according to Christ's institution, or 
rather, breaking of Christ's body under the species 
of bread, when yet, according to their doctrine, 
Christ's body is not broken, neither is it bread, but 
the species of bread; nor common bread, but a 
wafer, whereof the species is only broken, not the 
substance, and that not for communicating, but a 
show, to make men beheve they are retainers of an 
ancient custom. The first disputers against the 
Reformation are more ingenuous. They freely 
own, that the Roman church has made an alter- 
ation,'"^ only they say she had good reasons for it, 
lest in breaking the bread some danger might happen, 
and some crumbs or particles of it perish ; and then 
again, because the pope has power to alter any 
thing relating to the sacrament, according to the 
exigence of time and place, if it only concerns the 
ornament or accidentals of it. As if Christ himself 
could not have foreseen any dangers that might 
happen, or given as prudent orders as the pope con- 
cerning his own institution ! But it is sufficient to 
have observed this variation of the church of Rome, 
though in a smaller matter, from the primitive 
practice, together with their reasons for such a 
change ; of which the reader may see more in Cha- 
mier or Bishop Jewel, who have more particularly 
canvassed and examined all the pleas that are of- 
fered on the other side by the advocates of that 
church for this and many other alterations."' I 
now go on with the primitive account, which leads 
us next to consider the communicants themselves 
who were allowed to receive this sacrament, and ^ 
the manner of communicating and receiving it. 

«® Baron, an. 528. t. 7. p. 144. 

"*• See Chamier against Bellarmine, and Jewel against 
Harding upon this subject. 
=« Clem. Strom, lib. I. p. 318. 
26« Aug. Ep. .')9. ad Paulin. 
^" Hospin. Hist. Sacrament, p. 30. 
^'s Iren. lib. 4. cap. 34. ^eo Dionys. Eccl. Hier. cap. 3. 
2-oTheoph. Ep. Paschal. 1. 
2" Cyril, in Joan. lib. 14. 
-'- Chrvs. Horn. 21. in 1 Cor. 

2" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. 

2'^ Naz. Ep. 240. ad Amphiloc. 

2" Mabil. de Liturg. Gall. lib. 1. cap. 2. p. 12. Sub haec ' 
frangit hostiam in novem pavticulas, quae his nominibus 
dcsignantur, Corporatio, Nativitas, Circumcisio, Appari- 
tio, Passio, Mors, Resurrectio, Gloria, Regnum. 

2"= Salmero, Tract. 30. in Act. ap. Chamier. de Euch. 
lib. 7. cap. 11. n. 26. p. 381. 

2"' V'id. Chamier, ubi supra. Jewel, Reply to Harding, 
A. tic. 11. p. 327. 

Chap. IV 





Sect. 1. 

Now that we are come to the act of 
cept" STumena commuiiicating, we must first consider 
oMis'^d'to^rewive what pcrsoHs wcre allowed, or rather 

obliged, to receive this holy sacra- 
ment ; and then, after what manner they received it. 
For the first, we are to remember, what has been 
often observed before, that as soon as the service 
of the catechumens was ended, a deacon was used 
to call upon all catechumens, and those that were 
under penance, to withdraw ; and admonish all 
others to stay at the prayers of the faithful, and 
make their oblation, and receive the communion. 
"Whence it is evident, that the most ancient and 
primitive custom was, for all that were allowed to 
stay and communicate in prayers, to communicate 
in the participation of the eucharist also, except 
only the last class of penitents, who were admitted 
to hear the prayers, but not to make their oblation, 
nor receive the communion ; whence they had the 
name o{ co)isisfe})fes, co-standers, because they might 
stay to communicate in the prayers, but still Sixa 
7rpoa<popag, without the oblation, as the ancient 
canons word it. These only excepted, all other 
baptized persons were not only permitted, but by 
the rules of the church obliged to communicate in 
the eucharist, under pain of ecclesiastical censure. 
The most ancient canons are very express to this 
purpose. Among those called the Apostolical 
Canons' there is one runs in these words: "All 
such of the faithful as come to church, and hear the 
Scriptures read, but stay not the prayers, and to par- 
take of the holy communion, ought to be suspended 
as authors of disorder in the church." Which the 
council of Antioch - repeats with a little enlarge- 
ment : " All such as come into the church of God, 
and hear the Holy Scriptures read, but do not 
communicate with the people in prayer, and re- 
fuse to partake of the eucharist, which is a dis- 
orderly practice, ought to be cast out of the church, 
till they confess their fault, and bring forth fruits 
of repentance ; when, if they ask pardon, they may 
obtain it." Martin Bracarensis' puts this canon 
into his coHection for the use of the Spanish church. 
And Gratian'' alleges a decree of Pope Anacletus, 
which orders all to communicate when the con- 
secration was ended, if they would not be cast out 
of the church : for so the apostles appointed, and 
the holy Roman church observed that order ; which 

though it be a supposititious decree, yet it is made 
in conformity to the ancient discipline, and shows 
the practice that was then prevailing even in the 
Roman church. 

In St. Chrysostom's time some be- j.^^^ , 
gan to desire they might have liberty .hiTdHS^^ 
to stay during the performance of the «""°«'"- 
whole office, and yet not be obliged to communicate. 
They wcre not willing to be accounted penitents, 
and be driven out with them ; and yet they would 
not be communicants, and orderly partake with the 
church. Against these St. Chrysostom inveighs, 
after his usual manner, with a great deal of elo- 
quence, and becoming sharpness. Are you un- 
worthy of the sacrifice, and unfit to partake of it ?* 
(for that was their plea:) neither then are you 
worthy of the prayers. Do you not hear the 
church's herald standing, and proclaiming. All ye 
that are penitents, withdraw ? All they that do not 
communicate, are penitents. If thou art of the num- 
ber of penitents, thou mayest not partake. For he 
that is not a partaker, is a penitent. Why does he 
say. All j^e that cannot pray, be gone ? And why do 
you impudently stay ? You are not one of those, 
you Avill say, but of those that may partake. Con- 
sider, I pray, and seriously weigh the matter. The 
royal table is prepared, the angels stand minister- 
ing by, the Lord himself is present, and do you 
stand yawning as an idle spectator only? Your 
garments are defiled, and are you under no con- 
cern ? Yea, but, say you, they are clean. Then 
sit down, and partake. The King comes daily to 
see the guests, and discourses with them all : and 
now he says in your consciences. Friends, how come 
you to stand here, not having on a wedding gar- 
ment ? He said not. Why art thou set down ? But 
before he was set down, before he was entered, he 
pronounced him unworthy. For he said not, Why 
art thou set down ? but. Why camest thou in hi- 
ther ? The same now he says to every one of us, 
that stand here with an impudent boldness. For 
every one that does not partake, is shameless and 
impudent. They that are in sin, are for this reason 
first cast out. As therefore none of those, who are 
not initiated, ought to be present ; so neither any 
of those who are initiated, if they be defiled. Tell 
me, if any one that is invited to a feast, washes his 
hands, and sits down, and is ready for the table, 
and yet after all eats not, does he not affront him 
that invited him ? Were it not better that such a 
man should not be present ? Likewise thou also 
art present, thou hast sung the hymn, and made pro- 
fession with the rest that thou art one of those tliat 
are worthy, in that thou didst not depart with the 

' Canon. Apost. 10. Vid. can. 8. ibid, for the Clergy. 

- Cone. Antioch. can. 2. 

' Martin. Bracarens. Collect. Canon, c. 83. 

'' Gratian. de Consecrat. Dist. 2. cap. 10. Peracta con- 

secratione omnes commnnicent, qui nolueriut ecclesiasticis 
carere liminibus. Sic enim et apostoli statiierunt. et saucta 
Romana tenet ccclesia. 
5 Chrys. Horn. 3. in Ephes. p. 1051. 



Book XV, 

unworthy. How is it that thou remainest, and yet 
dost not partake at the table ? Thou sayest, I am 
unworthj*. Thou art then unworthy also of the com- 
munion of prayers. I have transci-ibed this long, 
but elegant passage of Chrj-sostom, to show, that 
in his time by the rules of the church none were 
allowed to refrain fi-om partaking of the eucharist 
upon the pretence of unworthiness, who were not 
deemed unworthy to be present at the prayers also. 
But in the very next age this discipHne was a 
little relaxed, and men who would not communicate 
were not only permitted, but enjoined to stay 
during the whole service, till after the Lord's prayer 
and the bishop's benediction ; which, as has been 
showed in the last chapter, (sect. 29,) was not till the 
whole consecration was ended, immediately before 
the act of partaking; at which time this sort of 
non-communicants were dismissed with a solemn 
prayer, called the benediction, as appears from the 
councils of Orleans and Agde, before referred to. 
For the council of Agde gives special order,^ That 
all secular men on the Lord's day should stay to 
hear mass, and not depart before the bishop's bene- 
diction. And the council of Orleans' says the 
same, That the people should not depart before the 
solemnity of the mass was ended ; that is, till the 
consecration prayers were completed ; and then, 
if the bishop were not present, they should receive 
the benediction of the priest. So that what in 
Chrysostom's time was reckoned a crime, was 
presently after accounted a piece of devotion, for 
the people to stay and hear the whole solemnity of 
the service to the time of communicating, and then 
they might depart without partaking of the com- 
munion. Which was plainly a relaxation of the 
ancient discipline, and a deviation from the primi- 
tive practice. 

And this brought in another inno- 
whcn first the vatiou aloug witli it, that such as 

use of culoqifB cuTtie ^ . . _ 

in insifad of the would uot commuuicate, might yet 

eucharist, for such ° •' 

mu^catt °°' '"'"' Partake of the eulogice, or a sort of 
consecrated bread, distinct from the 
eucharist. The euloc/ics, in the more ancient writers, 
is the veiy same with the eucharist, and used by 
them to signify the same thing as St. Paul means, 
when he says, " The cup of blessing," ■jror-npiov rrjg 
tiXoyioQ, " which we bless, is it not the communion 
of the blood of Christ ?" 1 Cor, x. 16. And so it is 
always used by Cyril of Alexandria and Chrysos- 
tom, as learned men* have observed out of manv 

places of their writings. But in after ages it was 
distinguished from the eucharist, as something that 
after a sort supplied the room of it. The council 
of Nante,^ about the year 890, ordered the presby- 
ters to keep some part of the people's oblations till 
after the service, that such as were not prepared to 
communicate, might on every festival and Lord's 
day receive some of this eulogia, when blessed with a 
proper benediction. Some collectors of the canons '" 
ascribe this decree to Pope Pius the martyr, who 
lived in the second century ; but Bona ingenuously 
owns " that to be a forgery, and says further, that 
the men who father this decree upon him, con- 
sidered not that in his time there was no such thing 
as this kind of eulorjia in the church, about which 
Tertullian, Cyprian, and all their contemporaries 
are altogether silent ; because in those days all that 
were present at the sacrifice were wont to commu- 
nicate ; but these eulocjifB were invented in after 
ages for those who could not, or would not, be par- 
takers of the holy mysteries. This is an ingenuous 
confession of that learned writer, who, where the 
cause of his church is not deeply concerned, com- 
monly speaks his mind with a great deal of freedom, 
and uses a just liberty in taxing the innovations of 
the monks and schoolmen. 

But in the business of private or 
solitary mass, where the credit and The corruption of 

private and solitary 

interest of the Roman church is more "^^s, unknown to 

former ages. 

immediately concerned, he acts a little 
more like an artist, and labours to palliate what he 
cannot either heartily or solidly defend. That we 
call solitary mass, where the priest receives alone 
^\-ithout any other communicants, and sometimes 
says the office alone without any assistants : such 
are all those private and solitary masses in the Ro- 
man church, which are said at their private altars 
in the corners of their churches, without the pre- 
sence of any but the priest alone, and all those 
public masses, where none but the priest receives, 
though there be many spectators of the action. As 
there is no agreement of either of these with the 
institution of Christ, but a direct opposition to it ; 
(for that was designed to be a communion among 
many : " We being many are one bread and one 
body ; for we are all partakers of that one bread :" 
which is impossible where there are no communi- 
cants ;) so there is not the least footstep of any such 
practice in the primitive church. Bellarmine offers 
faintly some poor conjectures about it, whilst he 

^ Cone. Agathen. can. 41. Missas die Dominica seculari- 
bus audire speciali ordine prEccipimns, ita lit ante benedic- 
tionem sacerdotis egredi popiiliis non prassuniat, &c. 

'' Cone. Aurelian. 1. can. 28. Cum ad celebiandas missas 
in Dei nomine convenitur, populus non ante discodat, quam 
niissoe solennitas compleatur; et ubi episcopus non fuerit, 
benedictionem accipiat sacerdotis. 

* Vid. Casaubon. Exercit, 16. in Baron, n. 33. Albertin. 

de Eucharist, p. 749. Snicer. Thesaur. Eccles. voce EuXoyj'a. 
And Bona himself owns it. 

^ Cone. Nannetens. can. 9. Partes incisas habeat in vase 
nitido et convcnicnti, ut post missavum solennia, qui com- 
municare non fuerint parati, eulogias omni die Dominico, 
et in diebus festis e.xinde accipiant, quae cum bonedictiono 
prius faciat. '" Crab. Cone. t. 1. p. 87. 

" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 1. cap. 23. n. 12. 

CH.vr. IV. 



fairly owns,'- that there is no express testimony to 
be found among the ancients, that they ever offered 
the sacrifice without the communion of one or more 
persons beside the priest. All his conjectures are 
mere trifles, and the first of them directly against 
himself. For he would have his reader conjecture, 
from the council of Nante, cited by Ivo," that the 
ancients allowed of solitary mass by the priest alone, 
because that council takes occasion to mention the 
practice, onlj' to forbid and censure it. Which it 
does in very severe terms, which it will not be amiss 
here to transcribe, to show what opposition the cor- 
ruption met with, as soon as it began to appear 
among the monks, who were the first inventors of 
it. The holy council, say they, gives strict order. 
That no presbyter shall presume to celebrate mass 
by himself alone. For to whom shall he say, " The 
Lord be with you ;" or, " Lift up your hearts ;" or, 
" Let us give thanks to our Lord God ;" when there 
is none to answer him ? Or how shall he say those 
words in the canon itself, " All that are here pre- 
sent," when there is no one present with him ? Or 
whom does he invite to pray, when he says, " Let 
us pray;" when there is no one to pray with him? 
Therefore he must either pass over these things in 
silence ; and so not only make the sacrifice imper- 
fect, and incur that terrible sentence which says, "If 
any one shall take away from this, God shall take 
away his part out of the book of life :" or else, if 
he mutters these things to the bare stones and walls, 
it will be ridiculous. Therefore this dangerous su- 
perstition is by all means to be exterminated, espe- 
cially out of the monasteries of the monks. And 
let all prelates take care, that the presbyters in 
convents and other churches have always some fel- 
low workers or attendants in the celebration of mass. 
One must needs conclude, that Bellarminewas driven 
to very hard shifts in defence of a desperate cause, 
when he was forced to allege this canon as a proof of 
the practice of solitary mass among the ancients, 
which does not so much as prove it to be a lawful 
practice among the moderns, but is such a flaming 
evidence against it, as a novelty, that makes nonsense 
of all their service, and makes them speak to the 
walls, and is by all means to be exterminated out of 
the monasteries, where it first began, as a dangerous 
and ridiculous superstition. Cardinal Bona is not 
much happier than Bellarmine, in his management 
of this point. For in one chapter he inidertakes '* 
to prove solitary mass a novelty, unknown to the 

ancient church, and against the very tenor of the 
l)resent Roman canon ; and in the next chapter he 
pretends to prove, that private mass, without com- 
municants or assistants, is a very ancient and laud- 
able practice. First he tells us, That the very tenor 
of the mass and the practice of the ancient church 
evince, that the sacrifice was originally instituted 
principally to be publicly and solemnly performed 
by the clergy and people standing, oflering and com- 
municating together.'^ For all the prayers, and the 
very words of the canon, are spoken in the plural 
number, as in the name of many. Hence it is, that 
the priest, inviting the people to pray, says, " Let 
us pray." And when he salutes them, he says, " The 
Lord be with you." And then the people, being 
admonished to lift up their hearts unto God, answer, 
" We lift them up unto the Lord." Hence it is, that 
in the very canon he always prays in the name of 
the people gathered together, of which giving seve- 
ral instances, he infers, that from thence it is clear, 
that the mass is nothing else but the action of the 
priest and whole congregation ; which, he says, is 
proved further from those words of the prayer, 
Omnium circumsfantium, &c., " All that stand here, 
whose faith and devotion is known to thee ;" which 
cannot be wrested to any other sense. And that 
all that were present did communicate, he says, ap- 
pears from those words of the priest, when he prays, 
that " the body and blood of Christ may be to all 
that receive to eternal life." And after the commu- 
nion, he says, " What we have received with our 
mouths, let us receive with a pure mind:" and, 
" Thou hast filled thy family with thy gifts :" and 
almost all the prayers, which are said after commu- 
nicating, are of the same tenor, because no others 
could be present but such as could offer and partake 
of the sacrament. Which he proves from Cyjjrian 
and Pope Leo, and the Apostolical Canons, and the 
council of Antioch. To these he adds the testi- 
monies of Micrologus, and Odo Cameracensis, and 
Stephanus Eduensis, concerning the same practice of 
the primitive church, which they own was different 
from that of their own times, when solitary mass 
was brought in by the monks. Nay, he adds, that 
solitary mass was forbidden by several councils and 
canons expressly, when it began to appear. Among 
which, he relates the forementioned canon of the 
council of Nante, and the council of Mets under 
Leo III. can. 43, and the Capitular of the kings of 
France, collected by Benedictus Levita, lib. 5. cap. 

'- Bellarmin. de IMissa, lib. 2. cap. 9. p. 821. Nusquam 
expresse legitur a veteribus oblatuin sacrificiiim sine coui- 
mnnioue alictijus vel aliquovum prater ipsum sacerdotem. 

'* Cone. Nannetens. apud Ivouem, par. 3. cap. 70. Dcfi- 
nivit sanctum concilium, ut nullus presbyter solus prajsuniat 
missam celebrare. Cui enim dicit, Dominus vobiscum, 
Sursura corda, aut Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro, cum 
nulhis sit qui respondeat ? — Si ha;c muris et parietibus in- 

susurraverit, ridiculosum erit. Quapropter ilia periculosa 
superstitio maxinie a monastcriis niouachorum exterminan- 
da est, &c. 

" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. I. cap. 1.3. n. 2. 

'^ Et quidem ab initio sic sacrillcium principaliter insti- 
tutum fuisse, ut publice ac solenniter fieret, clero et populo 
astante, offereute, ac comraunicante, ipse tenor missic et 
veterisecdcsia; praxis evincunt, &c. 



Book XV 

93, and the Capitular of Theodulphus Aurelian- 
ensis, cap. 7- And the Synodical Epistle of Rathe- 
rius Veronensis, published by Dacherius, Spicileg. 
t. 2. And the synod of Paris under Gregory IV., 
anno 829; which is most remarkable, because it 
shows us both the original, and the grounds and 
motives that introduced this corruption. A very 
culpable custom, say they,'° is crept in in many 
places, partly by negligence, and partly by covet- 
ousness, which ought by all means to be reformed, 
that some presbyters celebrate mass without any 
attendants. Whence it is proper to convene, and 
ask every such busy consecrator of the body and 
blood of the Lord, to whom he uses those words, 
" The Lord be with you ?" And who answers him, 
" And with thy spirit ? " Or for whom he suppli- 
cates the Lord, when he says among other things, 
" Remember those that stand about me ;" when 
there are none standing about him ? Which cus- 
tom therefore, being contrary to apostolical and ec- 
clesiastical authority, and bringing a reproach upon 
so gi'eat a mystery, it seems good to us all in com- 
mon to inhibit it for the futvn-e ; and that every 
bishop take care, that no presbyter within his dio- 
cese shall presume to celebrate mass by himself 
alone. Bona owns, that all these councils prohibit- 
ed solitary mass upon this ground, that it made all 
such expressions as those, " The Lord be with you," 
and, " Lift up your hearts," &c., to be nonsense and 
absurd. And he adds some canons out of Gratian," 
under the name of Pope Soter and Anacletus, which 
ordain, That no presbyter should presume to cele- 
brate mass, except there be at least two present be- 
side himself. Upon which he takes occasion to 
make this just reflection. That these could not be the 
decrees of those ancient bishops, because '^ solitary 
mass was a thing never heard of in their age, and 
he could not think they would make laws to take 
away an abuse, which crept not in till some ages 
after among the monks. Would it not now per- 
fectly amaze a man, after all this, to hear the same 
author declare in the very first words of his next 
chapter, that the laudable custom of private mass, 
without any communicants, or the presence of any 
but one priest, was always the practice of the 

church ? And that the heretics who hate liturgy 
(so he wrongfully'^ slanders the protestants) could 
never demonstrate that it was prohibited ; when he 
himself has so fully demonstrated it to their hands. 
But now he will undertake to demonstrate on the 
contrary, that private mass, in whatever sense we 
take it, was always lawful and in use, from the most 
approved testimonies and examples of the primitive 
fathers. And yet, when he comes to the proof, he 
offers not so much as one instance of that sort of 
private mass, where the priest ministers alone with- 
out the presence of the people, which is called soli- 
tary mass, though he approves of it ; nor says he 
any thing material for that sort of private mass, 
where the priest partakes without any other com- 
municants, though in the presence of all the people; 
but only urges a mistaken passage of Chrysostom, 
(urged before by Bellarmine and Harding, and an- 
swered by Chamier,) where he says, In vain do we 
stand at the altar, in vain is the daily sacrifice offer- 
ed, there is'"' no one that communicates. As if 
Chrysostom had had neither presbyter, nor deacon, 
nor any of the people to communicate with him 
above once a year in the great churches of Antioch 
or Constantinople, because many were so negligent 
as not to communicate oftener ; whom he justly re- 
proves in a hyperbolical way of speaking, which 
does not mean that he communicated by himself 
alone, but that many were guilty of a gross neglect, 
whilst others, as Chrysostom himself says, were 
more assiduous and zealous. And yet this is one of 
the best proofs Bona can give, after all his boasts of 
demonstration ; which shov/s, that he was as hard 
put to it to defend an indefensible cause, as Pope 
Innocent III. was, when, to answer the objection 
that is urged in this very argument, how the priest 
can say. Orate pro me,fratres, " Pray for me, bre- 
thren ;" seeing he is alone without assistants ? he 
is forced to say,-' That it is piously to be believed, 
that the angels of God are our associates in prayer. 
Which answer does not untie the knot : *- for though 
they are present, they are not present as communi- 
cants to eat and drink with us the body and blood 
of Christ. Neither can the priest be supposed to say 
to the angels, " Take, eat, this is my body;" accord- 

•^ Cone. Paris, lib. 1. cap. 48. Irrepsit in plerisque lo- 
cis partim incuria partim avaritia, reprehensibilis usus et 
congnia emendatione dignus, eo quod nonnulli presbytero- 
rum sine ministris missanim solcnnia f'requentent. Unde 
conveniendus, imo interrogandus nobis videtur hujusmoili 
corporis ct sanguinis Domini solitarius consecrator, qui- 
bus dicit, Uoniinus vobiscuin, et a quo illi respondetur, Et 
cum spiritu tuo: vcl pro quibus supplicaudo Domino inter 
cajtera, Memento Domine, et omnium circumstantium, cum 
nuUus circumstct, dicit ? Quai consuetude, quia apostolicac 
ct ecclesiasticac authoritati refragatur, et tanto mysterio 
quandam dehouorationem irrogare videtur, omnibus nobis in 
commune visum est, ut deinceps hujusmodi usus inhibeatur, 
provideatque unusquisqne episcoporum, ne in sua parocbia 
quisquam prcsbyterorum missam solus celebrare prscsumat. 

" Grat. De Cousecrat. Dist. 1. cap. 61. 

'" Bona, lib. 1. cap. 13. n. 6. 

'^ Bona, ibid. cap. 14. n. 1. Semper viguit in ecclesia 
private missa?, nno saltern preesente et ministraute, lauda- 
bilis consuetudo, quam hseretici misoliturgi aliquando pro- 
hibitam fuisse nunquara poterunt demonstrare. Sive enim 
dicatur privata ex eo quod solus sacerdos in ea communicet; 
sive quia vel unus duntaxat vel panci ei intersint, sive alia 
quacunque e.x causa : semper earn licitam, semperque in 
usu fuisse, probatissimis patrum testimoniis et exemplis de- 

2" Chrys. Hom. 3. in Ephes. 

=' hinoc. de Offic. Missa;, lib. 2. c. 25. ap. .Juel. Art. 1. p. 51. 

-- Bona,lib. 2. cap. 5. n. I, says. This answer of the pope 
is piously meant, but not solid and true. 

Chap. IV. 



and those called b, 
jaciata and ti'ifud 

ing to Christ's command. Evident therefore it is, 
beyond all contradiction, that whether we consider 
the institution itself; or the practice of the apostles 
and the primitive chm-ch ; or the tenor of all the 
ancient htiirgies, which the reader may find collect- 
ed in Chamier,-' with the testimonies of the fathers 
upon the subject; or even the tenor of the Roman 
mass itself; or the opposition this corruption met 
with at its first appearance.; the eucharist was not 
intended as a sacrifice to be offered by a single priest 
in a corner, without communicants or assistants, 
or for the intention, or at the cost, of some particu- 
lar person paying for it ; but for a communion to 
the whole church, as the primitive chm-ch always 
used it ; and there is not an example to be found of 
the contrary practice. 

But this was not the only abuse 
othc^/coVraptions wliich crcpt iuto the church in later 

couutenanced some • j ji • ^ jy ^ 

time in the Roman agcs agaiust the ancicnt way oi cele- 

church. asthe mjssrt . . i i i • r 

n, brating the holy communion ; tor 
Bona himself-* takes notice of two 
more, which he censures as heartily 
as one could wish, though they found great encou- 
ragement in their time. They are corruptions not 
commonly met with in other authors, and therefore 
I will give the reader an account of them from him. 
The one was called missa sicca, dry mass, which, he 
says, took its original from the indiscreet and pri- 
vate devotion of some, to which the priests were too 
indulgent. It is a mere mask and counterfeit of the 
true mass, properly dry and jejune, as wanting not 
only the consecration, but the participation of the 
body of Christ, like that supper of wood and stones, 
which Lampridius and other historians tell us was 
exhibited by Heliogabalus to his guests. Yet it so 
prevailed, that for some time it was not displeasing 
to holy and learned men. Gulielmus de Nangiaco 
the monk, in his book of the Actions of St. Lewis, 
tells how that most religious king, returning from 
beyond sea into France, had the body of Christ in 
the ship with him, and there ordered all the whole 
Divine office and the mass, except the canon, to be 
daily celebrated. Genebrard commends the same 
in his book of the Apostolical Liturgy, cap. 30, for 
those that cannot be in the morning at the whole 
mass, and for those that are at sea, and for the sick, 
and for any that are buried in the afternoon; to 
which purpose he says it was used in his time, and 
he himself was present at Turin, anno 1587, at the 
funeral of a nobleman, who was buried in the even- 
ing with such a mass sung by a deacon and a sub- 
deacon. Durandus describes the manner of cele- 
brating it in his Rationale, lib. 4. cap. 1, where he 
says the whole office may all be used except the 

canon, although in the preface the angels seem to 
be invocated to the consecration of the body and 
blood of Christ. This, Durantus, in his book De 
Ritibus, lib. 2. cap. 4, says, is called the seamen's 
mass, missa nautica, because it was used to be cele- 
brated at sea, and upon the rivers, where, by reason 
of the motion and agitation of the waves, the sacri- 
fice could hardly be offered without danger of effia- 
sion. Estius declaims bitterly against it in his 
thirteenth Theological Oration, and Laurentius 
Laudmeter, lib. 2, De Veteri Clerico et Monacho, 
cap. 84, who both think it began a little before the 
time of Guido de Monte Rocherii, who commends 
and approves it in his book, called Manipulus Cu- 
ratorum, Ti'act. 4. cap. 7, which he wrote, anno 
1333 ; but they were mistaken, because, as we have 
seen, it was in use in the time of King Lewis the 
Saint, who died anno 12/0, and Durantus describes 
it, who lived at the same time. And Petrus Cantor, 
who flourished anno 1200, mentions it in his book, 
called Yerbum Abbreviatum, c. 29 ; where he says, 
Dry mass is without the grace and moisture of 
the consecrated eucharist, and profits the faithful 
nothing. Bona adds, that now, by the provident 
care of bishops, he thinks this abuse is abrogated 
and destroyed all over the world. But he forgets 
to tell his reader one thing, which Durantus tells 
us^ freely oiit of Navarre, that the book called"* 
Liber SacerdotaUs, where this missa nautica is 
described, was approved by Leo X. ; and that St. 
Antonine speaks of it as used at Tholouse by 
way of funeral office in the afternoon. By which 
we may judge, how gi'eat corruptions may creep 
into the church, and then gain the approbation both 
of their popes and saints, by their own confession. 
And when it is so, they will never want advocates 
to plead their cause, and put the face of antiquity 
upon them. As in this very case, though Bona and 
others censure this abuse as an innovation, yet Du- 
rantus derives its original from the primitive church, 
and tells us it was practised at Alexandria in the 
time of Socrates, because he says^' that on Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays they had the Scriptures read, 
and expositions made upon them, and all other 
things belonging to religious assemblies, except the 
celebration of the mysteries : which indeed is very 
true ; but altogether foreign to his purpose, unless 
we shall say, that there can be no prayers, nor ser- 
mons, nor psalmody, nor reading the Scriptures in 
the church, but presently it must be called dry mass, 
that is, using the consecration service without a 

The other corruption, which Bona censures as a 
detestable abuse, is that which they call missa hi- 

^ Chamier de Euchar. lib. 7. cap. 17, 18, 1&. 
^' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 1. cap. 15. n. 6. 
"■^ Duraiit. de Ritib. lib. 2. cap. 4. n. 8. 

"^ Navar. de Oratione, Misccl. 53. .\ntonin. par. 3. tit. 13. 
cap. 6. n. 4. 
" Socrat. lib. 5. cap. 22. 



Book XV. 

faciata and trifaciata, which he says Petrus Cantor, 
in the forementioned book, sharply rebukes. For 
some priests in his time had got a trick of throw- 
ing many masses into one, saying the mass of the 
day, or some special mass as far as the olFertory, 
and then beginning another as far as the same 
place ; and after that a third and a fourth in the 
same manner. After that they said as many secret 
prayers as they had begun masses, and then made 
one canon serve them all, adding as many collects 
in the end, as they had repeated in the beginning. 
Petrus Cantor ascribes the original of this abuse to 
the covetousness of the priests, who, knowing it to 
be unlawful for them to celebrate more than once 
in one day, invented this grafting of many masses 
upon one stock, that by once celebrating they might 
satisfy the devotion of many together, who desired 
the sacrifice to be offered for them, by which means 
they got the pay of several masses for one sacrifice. 
These masses Petrus Cantor calls by a barbarous 
name, hifaciatas and trifaciatas, because they had a 
double and a triple face : which he abominates and 
detests, as monstrous and contrary to the institution 
and custom of the church. It is great pity we have 
not this book of Petrus Cantor, called his Verbum 
Abbreviatum, or Short Work, here at hand in some 
of our libraries. It is a book so rare, that I find no 
mention made of it in Dr. Cave. But Du Pin gives 
a short account^ of the author. He says, He was 
chanter of the church of Paris in the beginning of 
the thirteenth century ; that he composed a book 
called The Word abridged, a work of great renown 
among the authors of the next centuries, of which 
a part was written against the proprietary monks. 
He likewise wrote a Grammar for Divines, very 
necessary for understanding the Scriptures ; a book 
of Distinctions ; a treatise about some Miracles ; 
three books of the Sacraments, and divers sermons, 
mentioned by Trithemius. Du Pin adds, That in 
their libraries they had his Glosses upon the Bible, 
and A Collection of Cases of Conscience. But none 
of them are printed beside the Verbum Abbrevia- 
tum. Trithemius"" says he was a bishop after- 
wards, as he had heard reported ; and he gives him 
this character, that he was excellently well learned 
in the Scriptures, and eminent in all philosophical 
knowledge ; that he was a rector of the Theological 
School at Paris for many years, where he trained 
up many eminent disciples. Were his books now 
to be seen, we might doubtless find many other such 

abuses of the monks as severely handled in them, 
as those which we have here noted out of Bona. 

Whilst I am upon this head of abuses, the reader 
will not be displeased, if I note another of this kind, 
which Baronius himself takes notice of" out of the 
17th council of Toledo, where there is a canon to 
censure and correct it. Some priests in Spain were 
so coniipt as to gratify revengeful men by saying 
the service of the dead for the living, for no other 
end, but that they for whom the office was said, 
might incur the danger of death, by having a sacri- 
fice offered for them ; and so that which was de- 
signed for men's salvation, was perversely abused 
at the instigation of wicked men to their destruc- 
tion. Against such compliers with the detestable 
requests of wicked men, the counciP' pronounces 
the severe sentence of deposition and excommunica- 
tion. We may also note another abuse mentioned 
in the twelfth council of Toledo,^ which was, that 
some priests having occasion to consecrate the 
eucharist more than once in a day, would not com- 
municate themselves every time, but only at the 
last consecration. Which was another sort of pri- 
vate mass, but as it were the reverse of that of the 
Romish chiu-ch. For as now the priest communi- 
cates without the people, (pardon the absurdity of 
the expression, when I call that communicating 
where there is no communion,) so then the people 
were forced to communicate without the priest ; 
both which the council thought preposterous and 
absurd, and therefore re-enforces the ancient dis- 
cipline, that both priest and people should commu- 
nicate together ; which was ever the constant and 
universal practice of the whole primitive church, to 
whose laws and rules about communicants, leaving 
these abuses and innovations, I now return. 

As all persons were obliged to re- g^^^. ^ 
ceive the communion constantly who no7''giver\o"iler"J^ 
were within the pale of the church, 'i-thout 'confosion 

.1-1 , ... /* J 1 -I and reconciliation. 

in the largest acceptation 01 the word, 
except catechumens and excommunicate persons ; 
so we must note, to avoid ambiguity, that heretics 
and schismatics were commonly ranked in the 
same class with excommunicate persons ; sometimes 
being formally cut off from the church by her cen- 
sures, and sometimes voluntarily by theii' own separ- 
ation ; and therefore, till they had made confession 
and renunciation of their errors, and were reconciled 
by imposition of hands and absolution, they were 
reckoned in the number of those to whom the com- 

"'' Du Pin, Biblioth. Cent. 13. p. 54. 

^^Trithem. de Scriptor. p. 81. 

3" Baron, an. G94. n. 9. 

^' Cone. Tolet. 17. can. 5. Missam pro requie defunc- 
torum promulgatam fallaci vote pro vivis student celebrare 
hominibus, non ob aliud, nisi ut is, pro qtio idipsum offertur 
officium, ipsius sacrosancti libaminis interventii, mortis ac 
perditionis incurrat periculum : et quod cuuctis datum est 

in salutis remedium, illi hoc perverso instinctu quibusdain 
esse e.xpetunt in interitum, &c. 

^- Ibid. 12. can. 5. Quale erit illud sacrificium cui noc 
ipse sacrificans particeps esse cognoscitur ? Ergo modis 
omnibus est tenendmn, ut quotiescunque sacrificans corpus 
et sanguinem Jesu Christi Uomini nostri in altario inimulat, 
toties perceptionis corporis et sanguinis Christi participem 
se pra;beat. Vid. Gratian. De Consecrat. Dest. 2. cap. 10. 

Chap. IV. 



munion of prayers and this holy sacrament was 
denied; and that whether they had been baptized 
in the church, or were baptized in heresy and schism. 
Sometimes they were allowed with all others to 
hear the Scriptures read, and the sermon preached, 
as has been showed "^ in a former Book : but then, 
when the service of the catechumens was over, they 
were obliged to depart with them ; the deacon's 
admonition commonly running in these terms, as 
we have often heard before, "Let no catechumen, 
no penitent, no unbeUever, no heretic or heterodox 
person, be present at the holy mysteries. After 
what manner they were received and reconciled 
upon their confessions, belongs to another subject ; 
which has in some measure been handled already,'^ 
and will come again under consideration in the 
next volume, when we treat of the discipline of 
the church : at present it is sufficient to observe, 
that whilst they continued in heresy or schism, 
they were of the number of those to whom the 
church refused to give the sacrament, as persons 
not being in full communion wdth her. 

g^^j , On the other hand it is beyond dis- 

fante a^nd'"chudren P^tc, that as she baptized infants, and 

for several ages. ^^^,^ ^^^^ ^^le UUCtloU of chrlsm with 

imposition of hands for confirmation, so she imme- 
diately admitted them to a participation of the 
eucharist, as soon as they were baptized, and ever 
after mthout exception. Some evidence has been 
given of this already, for at least eight centuries, in 
speaking of confirmation,'* out of Gennadius, and 
Alcuin, and the Ordo Romanus, and Jesse Ambi- 
anensis, and other public offices of the church con- 
taining the rules of baptism and confirmation, where 
orders are also given to communicate infants as soon 
as they were baptized. Here I will add the testi- 
mony of the more ancient writers, that it may not 
be thought a novelty and invention of latter ages. 
Cyprian often mentions it as the common practice :'" 
in his book of those that lapsed in time of persecu- 
tion, he speaks of some parents, who took their little 
children in their arms, when they went to sacrifice 
at the heathen altars ; and he brings in those in- 

fants thus complaining: We did nothing ourselves, 
neither did we leave the bread and cup of the Lord 
to run of our own accord to the profane contagions : 
it was the treachery of others that destroyed us, 
we fell by the hands of our parents. A little fur- 
ther he speaks of another infant, who was carried 
by her nurse, unknown to her ])arents, to the magis- 
trates to partake of the idol sacrifice; who, when 
she was brought by her mother afterwards '' to re- 
ceive the eucharist, vomited up the wine that was 
given her to drink in the communion. By which 
it is undeniable that infants were then admitted to 
communicate in both kinds, if they were capable of 
receiving them. Upon this account the author of 
the Constitutions,^' in his invitation of the faithful 
to the communion, bids mothers bring their chil- 
dren with them. And again,'" describing the order 
in which they communicated, he says, First let 
the bishops receive, then the presbyters, deacons, 
subdeacons, readers, singers, and ascetics ; among 
the women, the deaconesses, virgins, and widows ; 
after that the children, and then all the people in 
their order. The author under the name of Diony- 
sius** says the same. That children were admitted 
not only to baptism, but the eucharist, though they 
did not understand the reasons of either mystery. St. 
Austin not only mentions the practice in Cyprian's 
time," citing the foresaid passages out of his book De 
Lapsis ; but also seems to say it was necessary for in- 
fants in order to obtain eternal life ; grounding upon 
that saying of our Saviour, John vi., " Except ye eat 
the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood," ye 
have no life in you." Which, he says, is to be under- 
stood not of the sacrament of baptism, but of the 
sacrament of the Lord's table, where no one is 
rightly admitted but he that is baptized. And dare 
any one be so bold as to say, that this sentence does 
not appertain to little children, or that they can 
have life without partaking of this body and blood ? 
He repeats the same frequently in his disputes with 
the Pelagians,"" and his sermons on the words of 
the apostle," and in his epistle to Boniface,^* written 
jointly by him and Ahpius against the Pelagians. 

33 Book XIII. chap. 1. sect. 2. 

3' Scholast. Hist, of Baptism, part 1. chap. 1. n. 21. 

^ Book XII. chap. 1. sect. 2. 

3'* Cypr. de Lapsis, p. 125. Infantes qiioque parcntum 
manibus vel impositi vel attracti, amiseriint parviili, quod 
in primo statim nativitatis e.xordio fuerant consecuti. Nonne 
illi, cum judicii dies venerit, dicent: Nos nihil fecimus, nee 
derelicto cibo et poculo Domini ad profana contagia sponte 
properavimus. Perdidit nos aliena perfidia, parentes sen- 
simus parricidas. 

3' Ibid. p. 132. In corpore atque ore violato eucharistia 
permanere nou potuit. Sanctiticatus in Domini sanguine 
potus de pollutis visceribus erupit. 

38 Const, lib. 8. cap. 12. 39 HjJj c^p. 13. 

*" Dionys. Eccl. Hierar. cap. 7. p. 360 

*' Aug. Ep. 23. ad Bonifac. 

" Aug. de Peccator. Merit, lib. 1. cap. 20. Dominum 

audiamus non quidera hoc de sacramento sancti lavacri 
dicentem, sed de sacramento sanctaa mensae suae, qvio nemo 
rite nisi baptizatus accedit. Nisi manducaveritis carnem 
mcam, &c. An vero quisquam audebit etiam hoc dicere, 
q\iod ad parvulos hcec sententia non pertiueat, possuntque 
sine participatione corporis hujus et sanguinis in se habere 
vitam ? 

■■3 Cont. duas Epist. Pelag. lib. 1. cap. 22. Nee illud co- 
gitatis, eos vitam habere non posse qui fuerint e.xportes 
corporis et sanguinis Christi, dicente ipso. Nisi manduca- 
veritis, &c. 

'*'' Serm. 8. de Verbis Apostoli, p. 110. Infantes sunt, sed 
mensae ejus participes fiunt, ut habcant in se vitam. 

*^ Ep. 106. ad Bonifac. p. 185. Nulhis qui se meminit 
catholicae fidei Christianum, negat aut dubitat parvulos non 
accepta gratia regenerationis in Christo sine cibo carnis 
ejus et sanguinis potu, non habere, in se vitam. 



Book XV, 

And Pope Innocent his contemporary seems to 
have had the same opinion ; for he argues in his 
epistle to St. Austin and the council of Milevis" 
for the necessity of baptizing infants, from the ne- 
cessity of their eating the flesh and drinking the 
blood of the Son of man. There is great dispute 
among the Romish doctors about the sense of St. 
Austin and this Pope Innocent upon this point. 
Bona*' and others think it would be a great re- 
proach to their church, to have it thought that the 
council of Trent should condemn the opinion of the 
necessity of communicating infants, whilst two 
such great men as St. Austin and their own Pope 
Innocent were conceived to be of that opinion : and 
therefore they say, Though the ancients gave the 
communion to infants, yet they did not think it 
necessary to salvation. This is the salvo which the 
council of Trent put into their mouths ; for having 
condemned the opinion itself as heretical, yet, to 
bring off the ancient church, which was known to 
practise it, she adds : *' We do not hereby intend 
to condemn antiquity for observing this custom in 
some places. For as those holy fathers had a pro- 
bable reason, considering the state of the times 
they lived in, for their practice ; so it is certainly 
and without all controversy to be believed, that they 
did not do it upon any opinion of its being neces- 
sary to salvation. But Maldonate would not take 
the council's word for this ; for without any regard 
to their interpretation or authority, he asserts 
roimdly, that the ancients, and particularly St. Aus- 
tin and Pope Innocent, did believe, that infants 
could not be saved without partaking of the eucha- 
rist," and that they were induced to believe this by 
those words of our Saviour, " Except ye eat the 
flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye 
have no life in you." And, indeed, any one that 
reads but with half an eye the testimonies of St. 
Austin now alleged, (which Bona thought fit to 
conceal from his reader, only making a short refer- 
ence to some of them,) may easily perceive what was 
his opinion in the matter. And it were absurd 
to think, that the whole primitive church, Greek 
and Latin, from St. Cyprian's time, should give the 

communion to infants without imagining any man- 
ner of necessity from any Divine command to do 
it. But Bona endeavours to support his and the 
council's sense from the authority of Fulgentius, 
who was one of St. Austin's disciples, and who, as 
he represents him, says, that actual communion 
after baptism is not necessary to salvation. But he 
only abuses his reader with a false state of the case, 
and a false assertion grounded on it. For Fulgen- 
tius does not say that the actual participation of the 
eucharist is not necessary after baptism for infants ; 
for he is not speaking of infants, but adult persons, 
who die as soon as they are baptized, without having 
opportunity to receive the communion : concerning 
whom he concludes favourably, that though they 
die before they receive outwardly the elements of 
bread and wine, yet they are not to be despaired of, 
because they were made partakers of the body and 
blood of Christ in baptism : which in such cases 
of great necessity^" was sufficient to answer the end 
of the communion, when men were desirous of it) 
but had no opportunity to receive it. So that he 
believed the eucharist ordinarily to be necessary 
both for infants and adult persons, but in extra- 
ordinary cases of extreme necessity, not to be ne- 
cessary for either. 

But to set aside the question of right, and only 
pursue matter of fact, we find that this custom con- 
tinued even in the Roman church for many ages : 
Maldonate says, for six centuries, but Bona makes it 
double the number; for he says, it was not ab- 
rogated in France till the twelfth century. In Gre- 
gory's Sacramentarium^' there is an order concern- 
ing infants. That they should be allowed to suck 
the breast before the holy communion, if necessity 
so required. And the old Ordo Romanus,^- a book 
composed in the ninth century, has a direction to 
the same purpose ; That infants, after they were 
baptized, should not eat any food, nor suck the 
breast, without great necessit}-, till they had com- 
municated in the sacrament of the body of Christ. 
So Alcuin, or whoever wrote under his name, in the 
time of Charles the Great, says, The order then 
was," that when infants were baptized, they were 

■•5 Innoc. Ep.93. inter Epist. Augustini. Parvulos aetei-nae 
vitse proeiniis etiaiii sine baptismatis gratia donari posse, 
perfatuum est: Nisi cnim manducaverint sanguinem ejus, 
non habebunt vitam in semetipsis. 

" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 19. n. 1. 

■•s Cone. Trident. Sess. 21. cap. 4. Neque ideo tamen 
damnanda est antiquitas, si eum morem in quibusdam locis 
servavit. Ut enim sanctissimi illi patres sui facti probabi- 
lem causam pro illius temporis ratione habuerunt ; ita certe 
eos nulla salutis necessitate id fecisse sine controversia cre- 
dendum est. 

^" Maldouat. Com. in Joan. vi. .53. p. 316. 

^ Fulgent, de Baptismo jEthiopis, cap. 11. p. 611. Nul- 
lus debet moveri fidelium in illis, qui ctsi legitime sana 
mente baptizantur, prseveniente velocius morte, carnem 

Domini manducare, et sanguinem bibere non sinuntur, 
propter illam videlicet sententiam Salvatoris qua dixit, Nisi 
manducaveritis carnem Filii hominis, &c. Quod quisquis— 
Mysterii veritatem considerarc poterit, in ipsolavacrosanctae 
regenerationis hoc fieri providebit. 

^' Greg. Sacram. in Officio Sabbati Sancti. Non prohi. 
bentur lactari ante sacram communionem, si necesse fiierit. 

■" Ordo Rom. Bibl. Patr. t. 10. p. 84. De parvulis pro- 
videndum, ne postquam baptizati fuerint, uUum cibum ac- 
cipiant, neque lactentur sine summa necessitate, antequam 
communiccnt sacramento corporis Christi. 

^' Alcuin. de Officiis, cap. de Sabbato Sancto, ibid. p. 
259. Si episcopus adest, statim confirmari oportet (infans 
tinctus) chrismate, et postea communicare : et si episcopus 
decst, communicetur a presbytero, &c. Sed et hoc provi- 

Chap. IV. 



immediately confirmed by the bishop, if he were 
present, and admitted to communicate ; but if the 
bishop was absent, they should receive the commu- 
nion from the presbyter. Baluzius*' alleges two 
manuscript Pontificals of the same age, which have 
rubrics to the same purpose. And the orders of 
Jesse, bishop of Amiens," call it confirming cliil- 
dren with the body and blood of Christ, as they 
were confirmed before with imposition of hands and 
chrism. And it is remarkable of Walter, bishop of 
Orleans, in the same age, that among his synodical 
rules there is one to this purpose : That a presbyter*" 
shall always have the eucharist ready by him, that 
in case any one be infirm, or a young child sick, he 
may give him the communion, and not let him die 
without his riaticmn, or provision for his journey 
into the next world. The second council of Mas- 
con, which was held anno 588, and the third council 
of Tours," in the time of Charles the Great, order 
the remains of the eucharist to be given to innocent 
children. Radulphus Ardens, who lived in the be- 
ginning of the twelfth century, speaks of it still as 
the custom to give little children the sacrament,^'* at 
least in the species of wine, immediately after they 
were baptized, that they might not go without the 
necessary sacrament. And Hugo de Sancto Victore 
at the same time recommends the giving of it to 
children,*' if it might be done without danger : 
though he intimates now the custom was almost 
generally laid aside ; there being only a mere form 
and shadow of it remaining, which was to give chil- 
dren newly baptized common wine instead of conse- 
crated, which he thinks a superfluous rite, that ought 
to be laid aside. And so it was, not long after ; for 
Odo, bishop of Paris, anno 1 1 75, ordered. That nei- 
ther consecrated nor unconsecrated bread should by 
any means be given to little children.'"' And so says 
Bona,**' The custom of giving the communion to 
infants was superseded in the twelfth age in the 
Galhcan church. It continued a little longer in 
Germany, if Suicerus does not mistake*^ in his au- 
thor ; for he quotes Joannes Semeca, surnamed 
Teutonicus, who wrote the Gloss upon Gratian, as 

saying. That the custom prevailed in some places in 
his time to give the eucharist to children. But there 
is no such Gloss in the place" he alleges, in the 
Roman edition ; so that either he mistakes the place, 
or else some fraud has been used to expunge the 
passage by the Roman correctors. Zuinglius speaks 
of the custom continuing long among the Helve- 
tians; for he says, in the ritual book of Claron, called 
their Obsequial, there was this rubric. That a newly 
baptized child should have the eucharist'^ in both 
kinds ministered unto him. And Hospinian assures 
us from his own knowledge," that in Lorrain and 
the adjacent parts it was usual for the priest, when 
he had baptized a child, to dip his fingers in the cup, 
and drop the wine into the child's mouth, saying, 
The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be of advantage 
unto thee to eternal life. 

The Greek church was a little more tenacious of 
the ancient custom. For not only Basilius Cilix,°" 
and Evagi'ius," and Johannes ISIoschus,'^ mention 
the communion of children, and the giving the re- 
mains of the eucharist to children after the commu- 
nion was ended; but also Nicephorus, who lived in 
the fourteenth century ,'*' mentions the same : and 
Suicerus tells us out of Metrophanes Critopulus, a 
modern Greek writer,'" that they still continue to 
observe the custom to this day. As he also observes 
out of Osorius de Gestis Emanuelis, lib. 9, that it 
continues to be the practice of the Ethiopic or 
Abyssinian churches. And he cites Sigismundus Ba- 
ro's History of Muscovy for the same in the Russian 
churches. Mr. Brerewood" notes the like of the 
Russian churches out of Guaguinus. And Dr. 
Smith" tells for the present Greek church, that they 
give the eucharist in both kinds to little children of 
one or two years of age, and sometimes to new-born 
infants after baptism, in case of imminent danger 
of death ; grounding their belief of an absolute ne- 
cessity of this sacrament upon the words of our 
Saviour, John vi. 53, " Except ye eat the flesh," &c., 
and pleading the practice of the primitive church 
in their own justification. I have not said any 
thing of all this to reduce the custom into practice 

dendum est ut nullum cibum accipiant, neque lactentur, an- 
tequam communicent. 

** Baluz. Not. in Reginonem, lib. 1. cap. G9. 

" Jesse Ambianensis Epist. de Ordine Bapt. ap. Baluz. 
ibid. Episcopus puerum chrismate confirmet ; novissime 
autem corpore et sanguine Christi coniirmetur seu commu- 
uicetur, ut Christi membrum esse possit. 

*« Walter. Aurelian. CapiUil. 7. Cone. t. 8. p. 639. Pres- 
byter eucharistiam semper habeat paratam, ut quando 
quis infirmatus fuerit, aut parvulus tegrotaverit, statim eum 
commuuicet, ne sine viatico moriatur. The same is in 
Ansegisus Abbas de Legibus Francorum, lib. 1. cap. 155. 
al. 161. 

" Cone. Matiscon. 2. can. 6. Couc. Turon. 3. can, 19. 

^' Radulph. Serm. in Die Paschae. De eucharistiaj neces- 
sitate statutum est ut pueris mox baptizatis saltern in specie 
vini tradatur, ne sine necessario sacramento discedant. 

^' Hugo de S. Victore, de Sacrament, lib. 1. cap. 20. 

'^ Odo, Statut. Synodal, cap. 39. 

•>' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 19. n. 2. 

'^- Suicer. Thesaur. Ecdes. t. 2. p. 11.38. 

"' Grat. de Consecrat. Dist. 4. cap. 4, cited also by Hos- 

'^ Zuingl. Explanat. Artie. 18. Oper. t. 1. Baptizato 
puero mox detur cucharistiae sacramentum, similiter et po- 
culum sanguinis. 

"^ Hospinian, Hist. Sacram. lib. 2. cap. 2. p. 60. 

«" Basil, ap. Photium Cod. 107. «' Evagr. lib. 4. c. .35. 

'" Moschus, Viridarium, cap. 196. 

•» Niceph. lib. 17. c. 25. 

'" Suicer. t.2. p. 1138. Ex Metroph. Confess. Eccl. Orient, 
cap. 9. 

" Brerewood's Inquiries, cap. 18. 

" Smith, Account of the Greek Church, p. 161. 



Book XV. 

again, (though Bishop Bedle and some others have 
declared entirely for it,) because, as learned men" 
have showed, there are good reasons to persuade 
the contrary: I. Because it has no firm foundation 
in the word of God. 2. Because infants, which are 
baptized, are in effect thereby partakers of the body 
and blood of Christ, which are exhibited spiritually 
in baptism as well as the eucharist, according to St. 
Austin himself and all the ancient fathers, of which 
I have made full proof in another place." 3. Be- 
cause infants cannot do this in remembrance of 
Christ, which he requires all that partake in this 
sacrament to do. 4. Because there is the same 
analogy and agreement between the paschal lamb 
and the Lord's supper, as there is between circum- 
cision and baptism : an infant Israelite had a right 
to enter the covenant by circumcision, as it was the 
seal of it ; but he was not to partake of the pass- 
over, till he could ask his parents the meaning of 
the mystery, Exod. xii. 26. So an infant may en- 
ter the Christian covenant by baptism, but not par- 
take regularly of the eucharist, till he can do it in 
remembrance of Christ. What I have therefore 
discoursed upon this head, by deducing the matter 
historically from first to last, is rather to show the 
vanity of that pretence to infallibility and unerring 
tradition in the church of Rome in matters of doc- 
trine and necessary practice ; since they themselves 
have thought fit to alter one point, which their in- 
fallible popes and forefathers for so many ages ob- 
served as necessary, in communicating infants upon 
a Divine command ; and withal to show, that any 
other church has a better pretence than they to re- 
form any practice, however generally observed, if 
upon better examination it be found not to be 
grounded upon a good foundation in the word of 
God. I now return to the business of the ancient 

Where we find, that not only the 
Sent to' the ab- prcscut members were all communi- 

ppnt iTipmbers of 

their own or other cauts, but they that wcrc absent had 

churches. •^ 

it sent to them by the hands of a dea- 
con, to testify, that while they were absent upon 
any lawful occasion, they were still reputed to be in 
the communion of the church. Thus Justin Mar- 
tyr says," The same eucharist, which was received 
by them that were present, was carried by the dea- 
cons to the absent. For as they prayed for those 
that were absent upon a probable or reasonable 
cause, so they allowed them to communicate in the 
same sacrament also. Upon this account, as we 

have seen before,"" the eucharist at Rome in the 
time of Melchiades, Siricius, and Innocent, was 
usually sent from the bishop's church to the tituU, 
or lesser churches, for the presbyters ministering 
in those churches to communicate with him, and, 
as some think," for the whole congregations also. 
For they suppose, that at first there was but one 
altar in a city, and that at the mother-church, where 
the bishop ministered, and consecrated the eucha- 
rist, and sent it thence to the lesser congregations. 
And so they understand even that passage in Justin 
Martyr. I rather think, the presbyters had the 
privilege to consecrate the eucharist in their own 
churches ; but, however, a portion of the eucharist 
was for all that sent them by the bishop from his 
own church, to testify that they were in communion 
with him : he did not send to the country churches, 
because the sacraments were not to be carried to 
places at too great a distance, as Innocent words it 
in his letter to Decentius. Yet in case of testifying 
their communion with foreign bishops, they were 
wont to send it to far distant churches. As Irenseus, 
in his Epistle to Pope Victor,"* when he menaced 
the Asiatic churches with excommunication for 
their different way of observing Easter, tells him 
his predecessors never thought of such rough pro- 
ceedings against them, but, notwithstanding this 
difference, always sent them the eucharist to testify 
their communion with them. Valesius" and others 
observe the same in the Acts^" of Lucian the mar- 
tyr, and Paulinus's^' epistle to Severus. This was 
chiefly, if not solely, done at the Paschal festival, in 
token of their unity, love, and charity. But the 
council of Laodicea,'- for some inconveniences at- 
tending the practice, absolutely forbade it ; ordering 
that the holy sacraments should not be sent from 
one diocese to another under the notion of euloc/ice, 
or benedictions, at the Easter festival. Yet in some 
places the custom continued for several ages after. 
For Johannes Moschus*^ speaks of the communion 
being sent from one monk to another at six miles' 
distance : not to mention again the custom of send- 
ing the eucharist by Paulinus, and the bishops 
of Rome, from the mother-church to all the other 
churches throughout the city in every region. But 
where they left off this custom of sending the eu- 
charist, they introduced another way of testifying 
their mutual love and amity to one another by cer- 
tain symbols of bread, which they blessed and sanc- 
tified also in imitation of the eucharist, but with a 
different benediction. And to these also they gave 

'3 Vid. Hospin. et Snicer. locis citatis. 
'* Book II. chap. 10. sect. 4. 

" Justin. Apol. 2. p. 98. Vid. Justinian. Novel. 123. cap. 
.36. Aut sanctam eis communionem portandam. 
'« Book XV. chap. 2. sect. 5. 
" Maurice of Diocesan Episcopacy, p. 39. 
'8 Ap. Euseb. lib. 5. cap. 24. 

"^ Vales, in locum. 

8" Acta Lucian. ap. Metaphrast. 7. Jan. 

'^ Paulin. Ep. 1. ad Seveium. 

**- Cone. Laodic. can. 13., Tlzpl tov fii) to. ciyia tis \6- 
yov tuKoytwv kcltcl Tijv topTijU tov irdcrxa £is iTtpas irap- 
oiKia.'s Sia'TrifxTTtardai. 

•*3 Mosch. Pratum Spiritual, cap. 29. 


CllAP. IV. 



the names ofeiihr/ice andpanisbenedicttts, consecrated 
bread, which the modern Greeks call dvridwpa, vi- 
carious gifts, because they were given in many cases 
instead of the eucharist. It has been observed" 
already, that they were often given to such as 
would not communicate, when the ancient fervour 
of popular and general communions began to de- 
cay. Here we are to observe, that they were used 
to be sent from one country to another instead of 
the eucharist, as testimonies of their amity and af- 
fection. Some not improbably*' thus understood 
that canon of the council of Laodicea,^* which for- 
bids any to receive the eulor/ice, or blessings of here- 
tics, which were to be reckoned curses and absurdi- 
ties rather than blessings. As also that other 
canon*' which forbids them to receive either from 
Jews or heretics, to. Tninconiva iopraariKa, such gifts 
or presents as were used to be sent in festivals. 
Of this kind was that bread which Paulinus^' and 
Therasia sent to St. Austin as a testimony of their 
unanimity and cordial affection, which they desire 
him to bless by his acceptance. Some learned men 
mistake when they say the sending of the eucharist 
came in the room of this : for it was plainly the re- 
verse : these eulogice were invented in the room of 
the eucharist, as appears from the testimony of 
Irenseus, which speaks of sending the eucharist as 
the more ancient custom. 

Among the absent members of the 

And^o^hosc that church tlicy had a more especial re- 
were sick, or in pri- t » i • i • 

son, or under any gard to thosc that Were sick, or in 

confinement, or in 

penance at the point pnsou. Or uudcr any confinement, as 
the martyrs and confessors, who daily 
expected their dissolution ; and such also of the 
penitents as were seized with sickness and in immi- 
nent danger of death. To all these they commonly 
sent the eucharist, which in this case is more pecu- 
liarly styled the k^ohov, or viaticum, their prepara- 
tion or provision for their journey into the next 
world. Thus in the council of Nice*' there is a 
canon which orders, that all penitents should have 
their necessary and final t<p6Siov or viaticum, when 

they were at the point of death. Which though 
Albaspinaeus'" interpret only of absolution, yet all 
others with better reason understand it of the eu- 
charist, because it is added in the end of the canon, 
that the bishop shall impart the oblation to them. 
And so the council of Agde says,"' the viaticum 
shall not be denied to any penitents at the point of 
death. The first council of Vaison''' makes a pro- 
vision for such penitents as were snatched away by 
sudden death without the viaticum oi the sacrament, 
whilst they were preparing for it, that their obla- 
tions should be received, and their funerals and me- 
morials celebrated according to the rites of the 
church. And the 1 1 th council of Toledo"^ makes 
another provision for such as by reason of extreme 
weakness could not take the whole viaticum of the 
communion, nor swallow the bread, but only drink 
the cup, that since this proceeded not from any 
infidehty, but from mere infirmity, they should not 
be cut off from the body of the church. The fourth 
council of Carthage mentions it in several canons, 
and in one canon particularly'* speaks of a very 
remarkable case, which sometimes happened, that 
a penitent who desired to be admitted to penance 
in time of sickness, was sometimes suddenly taken 
speechless, or turned delirious by the paroxysm of 
his distemper, before the priest could come to him : 
in which case, if they that heard him could testify 
his desire, he was to be admitted : and if it was 
thought he would immediately die, he was to be re- 
conciled by imposition of hands, and then the eucha- 
rist was to be poured into his mouth. Which is called 
the viaticum of the eucharist"' in the two following 
canons. As it is also in the council of Orange"'' and 
Girone,"^ and many other places. The eucharist in 
these cases was commonly carried and dehvered by 
a presbyter or a deacon, as has been noted out of 
Justin Martyr : yet in cases of great necessity it 
might be carried and given by any other. As ap- 
pears from that case in Eusebius,"* related out of an 
epistle of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, to Fabian, 
bishop of Rome, where he tells of one Serapion, 

** See before in this chapter, sect. 3. 

'* Habert. Archieratic. par. 11. obser. 3. 

'* Cone. Laodic. can. 31. vel 32. Oi> 5ii alpiTiKuw iu- 
Xoyia's \afxjia.vtLV, uiTivii ii(7iu aXoyiai /ia.Woi> ij tii- 

" Ibid. can. .37. 

** Paulin. Ep. 31. inter Epist. Aug. Panem umim, quern 
unanimitatis indicio misimus charitati tuae, rogamus accipi- 
endo benedicas. Vid. Aug. Ep. 31. ad Faulinum. 

^^ Cone. Ni'c. can. 13. ^ Albaspin. Not. in bicum. 

^' Cone. Agathen. can. 15. Viaticum tamen omnibus in 
morte positis non est negandum. 

'-Cone. Vasens. 1. can. 2. Nefas est eorum commemo- 
rationes excludi a salutavibus sacris, qui ad eadem sacra 
fideli afFectu contendentes — absque sacramentorum vi^atico 
intercipiantur, &c. 

^' Cone. Tolet. 11. can. 11. In multorum exitu vidimus, 
qui optatum suis votis sacraj communionis viaticum e.xpe- 
3 F 

tentes, collatam sibi a sacerdote eucharistiam rejecerunt. 
Non quod intidelitate haec agerent, sed quod pra;ter Domi- 
nici calicis haustum, traditam sibi non possent eucharistiam 
deglutire. Non ergo hujusmodi a corpore ecclesia: sepa- 
randi sunt, &c. 

^* Cone. Carth. 4. can. 76. Is qui poenitentiam in infirmi- 
tate petit, si easu, dum ad eum sacerdos invitatus venit, op- 
pressus iniirmitate obmutuerit, vel in phrenesim versus 
f'uerit, dent testimonium qui eum audierunt, et accipiat poe- 
nitentiam. Et si continuo creditur moriturus, reconcilietur 
per manus iinpositionem, et infundatur ori ejus eucha- 
ristia, &c. 

^^ Can. 77. Pocnitentes qui in infirmitate sunt, viaticum 
accipiant. Can. 78. Poenitentes qui in iniirmitate viaticum 
acceperint, non se credant absolutes sine manus impositione, 
si supervi.xerint. 

"^ Cone. Arausican. I. can. 3. 

='Conc. Gerundens. can. 9. ^ Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 14. 



Book XV. 

who having sacrificed in time of persecution, could 
not die till he had sent for the presbyter to recon- 
cile him : but the presbyter, being sick, sent him a 
small portion of the eucharist by the hands of the 
messenger that came for him, giving him orders to 
dip it first and put it into his mouth, which he had 
no sooner done, but the man gave up the ghost in 
peace. But this was forbidden by the canons ^' in 
ordinary cases. 

Sometimes indeed they used private 
The em'hari=,t some- consccrations of the cucharist in the 

times consecrated in <» • i • • 

private iiouses for houscs 01 SICK men or in prisons, to 

tliese purposes. 

answer these pious ends and purposes : 
but most commonly they reserved some small por- 
tion of it in the church from time to time for this 
use, as most expeditious and convenient for sudden 
accidents and emergencies. There are very ancient 
instances and examples of both kinds. Cyprian 
speaks of private consecrations made in prisons for 
the martyrs and confessors in time of persecution. 
For he gives orders, that neither should the people 
visit them ghmeratim, in great multitudes, to raise 
envy; nor the presbyters, who went to offer'"" the 
eucharist with them, go more than one at once, and 
that by turns, accompanied only with a single dea- 
con, to decline envy and observation. There is no- 
thing more certain, than that in times of persecu- 
tion the Christians performed all Divine offices in 
every place whither necessity drove them : every 
place was then a temple, as Dionysius '"' of Alex- 
andria words it in Eusebius, for them to hold reli- 
gious assemblies in, whether it were a field, or a 
wilderness, or a ship, or an inn, or a prison. Luci- 
an's prison was his church, and his own breast his 
altar to consecrate the eucharist upon, for himself 
and those that'"^ were with him in confinement. 
In such a case, TertuUian "*^ says, Three were 
enough to make a church, when necessity would 
not allow them a greater number. It is as evident 
private consecrations were made in private houses 
upon the account of sickness. St. Ambrose was 
thus invited to offer the sacrifice in a private house 
at Rome, as we are told by the writer of his Life.'"^ 
And Paulinus, bishop of Nola, is said to have or- 
dered an altar to be prepared for himself in his 
chamber, where he consecrated the cucharist '"^ in 
his sickness not many hours before his death. 

Thus Gregory Nazianzen '"" tells us, that his father 
consecrated it in his own chamber ; and that his 
sister Gorgonia'"' had a domestic altar. Therefore 
we have no dispute with Bona upon this point, nor 
should we have any with his church, if this were 
all that Avere meant by private mass in the Roman 
communion. The reader may hence observe the 
mistake of those learned men,'°* who assert, that 
the primitive fathers, though passionately indulgent 
towards their sick brethren in granting them their 
spiritual viaticum, yet always took a care that the 
elements should be consecrated in the church. For 
the instances that have been given, both concern- 
ing the martyrs and the sick, are undeniable evi- 
dence to the contrary. And there want not some 
instances of private consecrations upon other occa- 
sions ; such as that mentioned by St. Austin in a 
private house at Zubedi, a place in his diocese, 
which was vexed with evil spirits, whither one of 
his presbyters went to pray and offer the sacri- 
fice '"' of the body of Christ, at the request of the 
owner, that it might be delivered from them. And 
what the historians"" tell us of Constantine's taber- 
nacle, which he carried about with him in his camp, 
where all Divine offices and the holy mysteries were 
celebrated, may be reckoned another instance of 
such private consecrations. 

It was also very usual for the min- s..ct. n. 
isters to reserve some part of the se?v"ed i^^Th™?hurch 
consecrated elements either in the "' sesame use. 
church, or with them at their own house, to be in 
great readiness upon all such pressing occasions. 
As is evident from the forementioned story of Sera- 
pion in Eusebius. And Optatus'" intimates as 
much in that remarkable story which he tells of the 
Donatist bishops, who, in their mad zeal against the 
catholics, threw the eucharist, which they found in 
their churches, to the dogs, but not without an im- 
mediate sign of Divine vengeance ; for the dogs, in- 
stead of devouring the elements, fell upon their 
masters, as if they had never known them, and tore 
them to pieces, as robbers and profaners of the 
holy body of Christ. The same is evident from the 
like complaint of Chrysostom concerning the tu- 
mult that happened in his church at Constantino- 
ple, when the soldiers broke into the sanctuary "^ 
where the holy mysteries were reposited, and many 

* Vid. Gratian. de Consecr. Dist. 2. cap. 29. 

'"" Cypr. Ep. 5. ad Cler. p. If. Presbyteri quoque, qui illic 
apiid confessorcs offerunt, singuli cum singulis diaconis per 
vices alterneut : quia et mutatio peisonarum et vicissiludo 
convenientiuin minuit iuvidiam. 

"" Ap. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 22. 

'"■- Vita Luciani, Philostorg. lib. 2. cap. 13. 

"" Tertul. de Fuga, cap. 14. Noa potes discurrere per 
singulos, sit tibi et in tnbus ccclesia. 

'"^ Paulin. Vit. Ambros. Per idem tempus cum trans 
Tyberim apud quendam clarissimum invitavetur, ut sacri- 
ficium iu domo otferret, &c. '"^ Urauius, Vit. Paulini. 

ws Naz. Orat. 19. de Laud. Patris, p. 305. 

"" Ibid. 11. de Gorgonia, p. 187. 

'OS Hamon L'Estrange, Allian. of Div. Offic. chap. 10. 
p. 299. 

'"' Aug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 22. cap. 8. p. 1485. Perrexit 
unus, obtulit ibi sacvificium corporis Christi, orans quan- 
tum potuit, ut cessaret ilia vexatio : Ueoprotinusmiserante 

"» Euseb. Vit. Const, lib. 4. c.56. Sozom. lib. 1. cap. 9. 

'" Optat. lib. 2. p. 55. 

"■^ Chrys. Ep. ad Innocent, t. 4. qu. 681. "Evda rd liyia 

aiTiKtii/ro, K.T.X. 


Chap. IV, 



of them who were not initiated, saw the secrets that 
were concealed within, and the holy blood of Christ 
was spilt upon the soldiers' clothes, as is usual in 
such tumults and confusion. We may collect the 
same from what Victor Uticensis "^ says of Valerian, 
an African bishop, that he was banished by Geise- 
ricus, king of the Vandals, because he would not 
deliver up the sacrament that was kept in his 
church. Cyril of Alexandria, in one of his epistles,'" 
reproves those who said the eucharist was not to be 
reserved to the next day. And in the council of 
Constantinople under Mennas,"* there is mention 
made of silver and golden doves hanging at the 
altar, which most probably were then used as the 
repositories of the sacrament kept in the chui'ches. 
"Which is also mentioned in Amphilochius's Life of 
St. Basil, but no stress need be laid upon that, be- 
cause it is a spurious writing ; nor need we descend 
to the second council of Tours,'"^ or other modern 
decrees, for the proof of that which has so good au- 
thority among the more ancient writers. 

^ ^ J, It appears also from a canon of the 

use "i^rsome days couucil of Trullo, that the eucharist 

, new"on!ecr°atk)n."° was sometimcs rcscrvcd for the pubUc 

pru^saZt^atontm. use of thc cliurch, to bc receivcd some 

Its use and original. . c, • , 

days after its consecration, particu- 
larly in the time of Lent, when they communicated 
on such elements as had been consecrated the Sa- 
turday or Sunday in the foregoing week, which were 
the only days in Lent on which they used the con- 
secration service, though they communicated on 
other days on such elements as they reserved out of 
the former consecration. The words of the canon 
are these,"' That on every day in the holy fast of 
Lent, except Saturdays and Sundays, and the feast 
of the Annunciation, the liturgy of the presanctified 
gifts shall be performed. This is best understood 
from another canon of the council of Laodicea,"^ 
which orders, that the eucharist should not be of- 
fered in Lent on any other day except the sabbath 
and the Lord's day. Not that they prohibited the 
communion to be received on other days, (for it was 
received every day,) but on these days they received 
only that which had been consecrated before on the 
sabbath and Lord's day, and what was reserved for 
the communion of these days without any new con- 
secration. This is commonly reckoned by learned 
men the beginning of this sort of communions upon 
reserved hosts, though it is hard to guess at the 

reason of the observation. Leo Allatius, who has 
written'" two peculiar dissertations upon this sub- 
ject, tells us the reason which the Greeks themselves 
allege for it is, that the consecration service is pro- 
per only for festivals, and therefore, all other days 
in Lent besides Saturdays and Sundays being fast 
days, they did not consecrate on those days, but 
only communicated in the elements which had been 
consecrated before. This he shows at large '^^ out 
of Alexius Aristenus, Matthew Blastares, Balzamon, 
Zonaras, Michael Cerularius, and Simeon Thessa- 
lonicensis. Whether this was the true reason, or 
whether it be a good reason, is none of my business 
to inquire. I only observe, that it was an ancient 
practice in the Greek church, as it continues to be 
at this day,'-' though the Latin church never adopted 
it into her service : for they used to consecrate, as 
well as communicate, about three in the afternoon> 
all the days of Lent, as is evident from TertuUian,'" 
St. Ambrose,'-^ and many others, of which there will 
be occasion to speak more fully when we come to 
the fasts and festivals of the church. Leo Allatius 
thinks this 7nissa prcesandijicatorum is intended by 
Socrates,'^* when he says. On Wednesdays and Fri- 
days at Alexandria they had all Divine servdce ex- 
cept the consecration of the eucharist : but it does 
not appear that they communicated at all upon 
those days, much less upon preconsecrated elements. 
However, he rightly concludes, that Durantus and 
others, who confound this 7nissa prcesanctijicatoruin 
with the missa sicca, or dry mass, as they called it, 
are wholly mistaken : because dry mass was a cor- 
ruption peculiarly crept into the Latin church, which 
was condemned by many of their own divines, 
Eckius, Estius, Laudmeter, and the Belgic bishops,'" 
as a mere novelty, a counterfeit, and a perfect piece 
of pageantry ; whereas this missa prasancfijicatorum 
was an ancient and approved usage of the Greek 
church, upon the account of which a certain por- 
tion of the consecrated elements were reserved for 
the pubUc use of the church upon those days of 
Lent, on which they made no new consecration. 
But besides this reservation of the g^^^ ,3 
elements for public use by the minis- somet,m«''"^eVed 
ters of the church, there was another me'i',"for"'daUy''pIrt.^ 
private reservation of them allowed "^'^ '""' 
sometimes to religious persons, who were permitted 
to carry a portion of the eucharist home with them, 
and participate of it every day by themselves in 

"» Victor, de Persecut. Vandal, lib. 1. Bibl. Pair. t. 7. 
p. 593. 

'" Cyril. Ep. ad Calosyrium, in Precfat. lib. cont. Au- 
thropomorph. t. 6. p. 365. 

>'* Cone, sub Menna, Act. 5. t. 5. p. 159. 

"* Cone. Turon. 2. can. 3. 

'" Cone. Trullan. can. 52. 'H roiy irpouytairfxiviuv hpa 
XsiTovpyia yiviGdu). 

"* Cone. Laodic. can. 49. Ou otl Tf.(TaapaKoaTtj aprov 
irpo<T(f)iptiv, £t fxii Iv aajipaTw nal KvpiaKrj fxovov. 
2i F 2 

'" Leo Allat. Epist. ad Naudaeum de Libiis Eccles. Grae- 
corum. It. Dissert, de Missa Pracsanctilicatorum, ad calcem 
Libri de Consensu Eccl. Orient, et Occident. 

'20 Leo Allat. de Missa Pr.xsanctif. n. 12. 

'2' See Dr. Smith of the Greek Church, p. 175. 

'-- Tertul. de Orat. cap. 14. 

'» Ambros. Ser. 8. in Psal. cxviii. p. 6.56. 

>2^ Socrat. lib. 5. cap. '22. ap. Allatium. Ep. ad Naudaeum. 

'25 Allat. de Missa Prajsanct. n. 10. Missa sicca, recens, 
et simulata et histriouica, confertur cum cwnis Heliogabali. 



Book XV. 

private. This custom seems to owe its original to 
tlie times of persecution, when men were willing to 
communicate every day, but could not have the 
convenience of daily assemblies. To compensate 
for the want of which, they took a portion of the 
eucharist home with them, and participated there- 
of every day in private. This seems very plainly 
to be intimated by Tertullian,'-" when, speaking of a 
woman marrpng a heathen husband, he asks her. 
Whether her husband would not know what it was 
that she eat before all her other meat ? And in an- 
other place,'"' answering the objection which some 
made against receiving the eucharist on a fast day, 
for fear of breaking their fast, he tells them, (ac- 
cording as some copies read it,) They might take 
the body of the Lord and reserve it ; and so they 
might both participate of the sacrifice and fulfil 
their duty of fasting. But I lay no stress upon 
this, because it is a doubtful reading. The testi- 
mony of Cyprian is more full and pregnant,'^ who 
tells us a most remarkable story of a woman, who 
having sacrificed at the heathen altars, when she 
came afterward to open her chest, where she kept 
the holy sacrament of the Lord, she was so terrified 
with a sudden eruption of fire, that she durst not 
touch it. And the ancient author who writes 
against the Roman shows, under the name of Cy- 
prian,'^ brings in one going immediately from 
chiu'ch, as soon as he was dismissed, to the theatre, 
carrying the eucharist with him, according to cus- 
tom, even among the obscene bodies of harlots. 
Gregory Nazianzen also "" speaks of his sister Gor- 
gonia having the eucharist in her chamber. And 
Basil says,'^' it was customary in times of persecu- 
tion for Christians, when they could not have a 
priest or a deacon present with them, to take the 
eucharist with their own hands ; as they who led 
a solitary life, at a great distance from the priest, 
commonly took the eucharist with their own hands 
also. And it was customary at Alexandria and 
throughout Egypt for the people every one to take 
the sacrament home with them. St. Jerom '^- also 
intimates the same, when he asks those who thought 
they might safely take the sacrament at home, when 
they were not prepared to do it in the church, whe- 

ther they thought there was one Christ in public, 
and another in private ? Why were they afraid to 
go to church ? If it was not lawful to receive it in 
the church, it was not lawful to receive it at home. 
St. Ambrose likewise, in his funeral oration upon 
his brother Satyrns, says of him,'** that he obtained 
the body of Christ of some that had it in the ship, 
wherein he suffered shipwreck. It is true indeed 
this custom was discouraged in Spain in the begin- 
ning of the fifth century, upon the account of the 
Priscillianists, who made use of it as a pretence to 
cover themselves among the catholics, and yet 
never eat the eucharist at all. In opposition to 
whom the council of Saragossa,"'^ about the year 381 , 
made a severe decree, that if any one was found to 
take the eucharist in the church, and not eat it, he 
should be anathematized. And this was seconded 
by a like decree '^ in the first council of Toledo. 
But as these canons were only made upon a parti- 
cular occasion, and for a particular country, they 
did not much affect the rest of the world. Inso- 
much that Bona himself observes,'^" out of Johan- 
nes Moschus and Anastasius Bibliothecarius, se- 
veral instances of the custom continuing in the 
seventh and eighth centuries. And doubtless it 
was the doctrine of transubstantiation, and the 
adoration of the host, that perfectly abolished 
this custom, which was thought inconsistent with 

It must be noted under this head, „ . ,, 

' Sect. U. 

that though the church, for the rea- ,„Xd in'l^ p"uJc" 
sons aforesaid, allowed the people to *"""• 
carry the eucharist home with them, and participate 
of it in private by themselves ; yet she never per- 
mitted any layman to have any hand in the ad- 
ministration of it in her public service. As the 
bishops and presbyters were the only persons that 
were allowed to consecrate the eucharist, so it was 
the ordinary office of deacons to minister it to the 
people.'" And when any laymen presumed to ad- 
minister it to themselves in the church, they were 
corrected for it by ecclesiastical censures.'^* And 
more especially women were debarred from this "'' 
and all other offices in the public ministrations, ex- 
cept what belonged to the inferior service of the 

'26 Tertul. ad Uxor. lib. 2. c. 5. Non seiet maritus quid 
secreto ante oiniiem cibum gustes ? 

'" De Orat. cap. 14. Accepto corpore Domini, et re- 
servato, (others road it, re servata,) utrumque salvum est, et 
participatio sacrilicii, et executio officii. 

'28 Cypr. de Lapsis, p. 132. Cum quaedam mulier arcam 
suam, in qua Domini sanctum fuit, indignis manibus ten- 
tasset aperire, igne inde surgente deterrita est, ne auderet 

'-'" Cypr. do Spectaculis, p. 3. in Append. Qui festinans 
ad spectaculum, dimissus,et adhuc gerens secum, ut assulet, 
eucharistiam inter corpora obsccena meretricum tulit. 

'^0 Naz. Orat. 11. de Gorgonia,p. 187. 

'5' Basil. Ep. 289. ad Caesariam Patriciam. 

'^- Hieron. Ep. ^yO. ad Pammachium. Quare ad martyres 

ire non audent ? Quare non ingrediuntur ecclesias ? An 
alius in publico, alius in domi Christus est^? Quod in ec- 
clesia non licet, nee domi licet. 

"' Ambros. Orat. de Obitu Fratris, t. 3. p. 19. 

'^' Cone. Coesaraugust. can. 3. Eucharistiae gratiam si 
quis probatur acceptam in ecclesia non sumpsisse, anathe- 
ma sit in perpetuura. 

'^^ Cone. Tolet. 1. can. 14. Si quis acceptam a sacerdote 
eucharistiam non sumpserit, velut sacrilegus propellatur. 

'■"^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 4. 

'3' See Book II. chap. 20. sect. 7 and 8. 

'^ Cone. Trullan. can. 58. 

"^ Vid. Firmil. Ep. 75. inter Epist. Cypr. Cone. Paris, 
an. 829. lib. 1. cap. 45. 

Chap. IV. 



deaconesses, of which I have given a full account"" 
in another place. 

Here I cannot omit the pertinent observation 
made by Morinus,'" and approved by Bona"' as a 
judicious and true remark, That the Mendicants 
were the first that introduced the custom of keep- 
ing the sacrament in the church for private men in 
health to partake of extra sacrijicium, out of the 
time of public service in the church. They freely 
own this to be a novelty, and that against the rules 
of the Roman ritual, which orders the sacrament to 
be kept in the church only for the sick. They say, 
the ancients kept it in the church only upon this ac- 
count, for the sake of the sick ; and that they al- 
lowed no use of the communion to men in health 
out of the time of the oblation, save only when 
they permitted the people to carry it home with 
them, and participate thereof in private, which was 
a different thing from public communicating in the 

Whilst we are speaking of reserving 
A novel ciistom tlic sacramcnt, it may not be amiss to 

noted, of reserving i -i i 

the eucharist for make a remark by the way upon a 

forty daya, and the ^ ■ ^ • , i , 

inconveniencies at- novcl custom, wluch IS related by 

lending It. . . 

some of the Roman rituaUsts about 
the time of Charles the Great, They tell us, it was 
usual in those days, in the ordination of a bishop 
or presbyter, not only to give the new ordained per- 
son the communion at that time, but also as much 
of it in reserve as would serve him to partake of for 
forty days after. This custom is mentioned by Al- 
cuin,"* and the Ordo Romanus, and Fulbertus Car- 
notensis, and Bona"* does not pretend to find it in 
any more ancient writers. It is hard to guess at the 
reasons of this custom, and therefore I content my- 
self barely to mention it, without further inquiry 
into the mystery of it. I only observe, that some- 
times great inconveniences followed upon this long 
reservation of the sacrament; for it would often 
grow mouldy, corrupt, and stink, and then they 
were hard put to it to determine which way to dis- 
pose of it. Sometimes by the negligence of the 
priest it was devoiu-ed by mice or other animals, in 
which case the priest was to do penance forty days 

•M Book II. chap. 22. 

'" Morin. de Pceniten. lib. 8. cap. 14. 

"- Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 6. 

"■' The reader that would see more abuses crept into the 
Human service, may consult the twenty-first session of the 
council of Basil, cap. de Spectaculis in Ecclcsia non facien- 
I dis, or Mr. Gregory's dissertation, called Episcopus Pucr- 
i'lum, where he will see how the episcopal office was used 
to be mimicked in pageantry on Innocents' day in many 

'" Alcuin. de Offic. cap. 37. Pontifex ad communican- 
dum porrigit ei formatam et sacram oblationem, quam ac- 
cipiens communicat super altare, caetera vero reservat sibi 
ad communicandum usque ad dies quadraginta. It. Ordo 
Roma, in Ordinat. Episcopi. Et Fulbert. Ep. ad Finardiim. 

'« Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 1. cap. 23. n. y. 

for his neglect, as Gratian"* cites a canon out of 
some council of Aries or Orleans to this purpose. 
But if it grew stale and corrupted, then it was to be 
burnt, by other canons cited by Ivo"' and Bur- 
chardus "" out of the council of Aries, ordering, tliat 
in this case it should be burnt, and the ashes of it 
buried under the altar. Which Algerus"" assures 
us was the custom in his time, as Bona'^' confesses 
out of him. And the very canon of the mass'^' has 
a rubric still in being. That if a fly or spider, or 
any such animal, falls into the cup after consecra- 
tion, the priest, when mass is ended, nmst take it 
out and wash it with wine, and burn it in the fire. 
And so he must do if it be spilt up(m the grouud, 
he must gather up the earth and burn it. And yet 
some of the schoolmen'*- cry out against this as an 
horrible sacrilege, to burn the consecrated host, 
though it be grown mouldy, which, according to 
their opinion, woidd be to burn the body of God. 
He that would see to what difficulties the Roman 
casuists are driven upon this point, to tell what be- 
comes of the body of Christ when the sacrament 
happens to be thus corrupted, and how they distress 
and confute one another ; may considt the learned 
Aubertin,'*' who has particidarly considered their 
several different answers, no less than seven in 
number, and showed the vanity of them all, in that 
elaborate work of his upon the eucharist, against 
the doctrine of the Romish church. I will not lead 
my reader too far out of his way with long digres- 
sions about such things, but return to the business 
of the ancient church. 

Though they did not receive cner- ^^^^ ,^ 
gumens, or persons vexed with evil J^:^,Z^';^iti to 
spirits, promiscuously to the commu- hiTeTv^^of'^hdr 
nion, yet neither did they wholly re- '^''^'"p"- 
ject them; but in the intervals of their distemper, 
if they showed any signs of piety and sobriety, they 
admitted them to partake of it. This we learn 
from the canons of Timothy, bishop of Alexandria, 
who proposes this question. Whether a communi- 
cant may commimicate if he be possessed ? and 
answers it. If he does not expose or blaspheme'*' 
the mysteries, he may communicate now and then. 

'*" Gratian. de Cnnsecrat. Dist. 2. cap. 91. Qui bene nnn 
custodierit sacrificium, et mus vel aliquod aliud animal illiid 
comederit, qnadragiiita diebus preuiteat. 

"' Ivo, Decret. par. 2. cap. 5G. 

'<'' Burchard. lit). 5. c. 50. 

•'» Alger, de Euchar. lib. 2. cap. 1. 

'^^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 10. n. 2. 

'^' IMissuI. de Defcctibus Missae, can. 10. Si musca vel 

aranea vel aliquid aliud ceciderit in calicem sacerilos 

extrahat eaui el lavet cum vino, iinitaquc missa comliu- 
rat, &c. 

'^- Petrus Paliidanns, in Sent. lib. 4. Dist. 9. Qii.Tst. 1. 
art. 3. Hostias consecratas quamvis mucidas comburcre 
immane sacrilegium. 

'"■^ Albertin. de Euchar. lib. 1. c. 19. p. 122. 

'^^ Timoth. Respons. Canon, c. 3. ap. Bevereg. t. 2. 



Book XV. 

And Cassian'" says, the same resolution was given 
to the question by the Egyptian fathers, who did 
not choose to interdict them the communion, but 
rather desired they should, if possible, communicate 
every day. For by this means they had relieved 
one abbot Andi-onicus and many others of their dis- 
temper. So that though the canons and rules of 
the church seem to drive away the energumens to- 
gether with the catechumens and penitents, they 
are to be imderstood with this exception ; or at 
least Ave must say, the church observed a different 
discipline in different places. 

It would be endless to enumerate 

Au men" debarred hcre all tlic particular crimes for 

guuty of any notori- which mcn Were debarred the holy 

ous crime, of what . , „ , 

rank or degree so- communiou : wc Shall liavc a morc 


proper occasion to specify them in the 
next volume, when we come to treat more perfectly 
and distinctly of the church's discipline : it may be 
sufficient to note here in general, that all who were 
guilty of any notorious crimes, were rejected from 
participating at the holy table, whatever rank or 
degree they were of, even though it were the em- 
peror himself, as appears from the case of Theodo- 
sius, whom St. Ambrose resolutely and absolutely 
refused, for a barbarous murder committed by his 
authority upon seven thousand men at Thessa- 
lonica, till he had both confessed his fault, and 
made ample satisfaction ; as the reader may find the 
story at large excellently related by Theodoret'^^ in 
his History, and which I will relate from him in the 
next volume in its proper place. Some other par- 
ticular cases are proposed and answered in the 
canons of Dionysius,'" and Timothy,'^' and by St. 
Jerom,"' which because they are rather private 
cases of conscience than matters of public dis- 
cipline, I refer the reader to their proper authors 
for them. 

There is one question in a doubtful 
The q'uestion of casc, wliich the obscurity of some an- 

dieamy, or second . . -, -, , 

marriage stated. cicnt canous lias made very perplexed 

Whether it debarred . . . , . 

men any time from and intricate lu the resolutions of 

the communion. 

learned men, which therefore may 
not be silently passed over : that is, the question 
about digamy or second marriage, in what sense it 
excluded men for some time from the holy commu- 
nion ? The penalty inflicted upon them, is ab- 
stinence from the sacrament for one year or two ; 
which I freely own, as it is ordered and worded by 

the canons of Neocsesarea,"^ Laodicea,'^' and St. 
Basil,""" is one of the hardest cases we meet with in 
all the history of the ancient church. Bishop 
Beveridge and some others think they mean only 
second marriages that are contracted whilst the 
first remains undissolved. And if so, there would 
be no difficulty in the case ; for a severer penance 
might be laid upon such as retain two wives at once. 
And therefore others think, they intended to dis- 
courage, though not absolutely to forbid, second 
marriages made successively after the obligation of 
the first was cancelled by death : but then, how to 
reconcile this with the apostolical rules, is not very 
easy to determine. Neither can it be excused from 
inclining to the errors of the Novatians and Mon- 
tanists, for which Tertullian pleads so stiffly against 
the church in his book De Monogamia, and other 
places. I should rather think these canons intend- 
ed no more but to discountenance marrying after 
an unlawful divorce, which was a scandalous prac- 
tice, however allowed by the laws of Jews and Gen- 
tiles. And this the rather, because TertuUian's 
arguments against the catholics imply, that they 
allowed of second marriages successively in all ex- 
cept the clergy, and many churches admitted diga- 
mists (in that sense) even into orders too, as I have 
showed out of Tertullian himself, and Chr}"sostom, 
and Theodoret more fully '^ in another place. And 
if these canons intended any thing more, they must 
be looked upon as private rules, which could not 
prescribe against the general sense and practice of 
the catholic church. 

There was one very corrupt and g^^^ ,3 
superstitious practice began to creep tom''of'^''s"me', who 
pretty early into the African churches foiL"e!d,'censur'ed 

T .1 1 • T_ ii^ i» xi by the ancients. 

and some others, which the fathers 
censure very heartily, as it justly deserved : that 
was, giving the eucharist to the dead. The third 
council of Carthage has a canon to this purpose,'" 
That the eucharist should not be given to the bodies 
of the dead : for the Lord said, " Take this and 
eat : " but dead bodies can neither take nor eat. 
Caution also is to be used, that the brethren may 
not through ignorance believe, that dead bodies 
may be baptized, seeing the eucharist may not be 
given to them. And this with a little variation is 
repeated in the African Code,'" where the cause 
of both errors, as well in baptism as the eucharist, 
is ascribed to the ignorance of the presbyters mis- 

'" Cassian. CoUat.. 7. cap. 30. Communionem vero eis 
sacrosanctam a senioribus nostris nunquam meminimus in- 
terdictam : quinimo, si possibile esset, etiam quotidie eis 

impartire earn deberc censebant. Hoc iiamque modo 

curatum et Andronicuui abbatem nuper aspeximus, aliosque 

'56 Theod. lib. 5. cap. 17. '" Dionys. can. 2 et 4. 

'53 Timoth. can. 5, 7, 12. 

'59 Hieroa. Ep. 20. ad Pammach. cap. G. 

'™ Cone. Neocaes. can. 7. '*' Cone. Laod. can. 1. 

'«2 Basil, can. 4. "« Book IV. chap. 5. sect. 4. 

'^^ Cone. Carth. 3. can. 6. Placuit ut corporibus defunc- 
torum eucharistia non detur. Dictum est enim a Domino, 
Accipite et edite : cadavera autem nee aecipere possunt nee 
edere. Cavendum est etiam, ne mortuos baptizari posse 
fratrum infirmitas credat, quibus nee eueharistiam dari lici- 
tum est. 

'« Cod. Afric. can. 18. 

< HAP. IV. 



quilling the people. A like canon was made in the 
council of Auxerre in France, anno 578, a little ""^ 
before the time of Grcgorj' the Great ; which shows 
tliat the same abuse had got some footing there 
also. St. Chrysostom also speaks against it,'" 
though he does not intimate that it was practised 
by any catholics, but rather (if by any) by the 
Marcionite heretics, who, as they gave a vicarious 
baptism to the hving for the dead, so perhaps might 
give the eucharist to the dead themselves; both 
which absurdities he refutes at once from the words 
of our Saviour. To whom did he say, " Except ye 
eat my flesh, and drink my blood, ye have no life 
in you ? " Did he speak to the li\ang, or to the 
dead? And again, "Except a man be born of 
water and of the Spirit, he cannot see the kingdom 
of God." It appears also, that long after St. Chrysos- 
tom's time there were some remains of this error in 
the Greek church : for the council of TruUo '® re- 
peats the prohibition in the words of the council of 
Carthage : Let no one impart the eucharist to the 
bodies of the dead ; for it is written, " Take, and eat ;" 
but the bodies of the dead can neither take nor eat. 
Bona does not undertake to defend 
raraiid' to which thls abusc, but he does another which 

isllieabuscofburv- . 

in:; the euchanst IS no Icss absurd, bccausc he found it 

with the dead, 

in the practice of St. Benedict, and 
related with approbation by Gregory the Great; 
that is, the custom of burying the eucharist with 
the dead. Bona says,'*^ this was done by St. Basil 
in the Greek church, as is reported in his Life ; but 
all men know the author of that Life to be both a 
spurious and a legendary writer. That which he 
alleges out of Gregory is more authentic ; ''° for he 
says, St. Benedict ordered the communion to be 
laid upon the breast of one of his monks, and to be 
buried with him. He reckons these things were 
done either by Divine instinct, or by compUance 
with received custom, which is since abrogated. 
But he produces no rule of his church to show its 
abrogation. And whatever rules there may be to 
the contrary, it is certain the practice continued 
still. For not only Balzamon'" and Zonaras speak 
of it in their time ; but Ivo says,"" When the body 
of St. Othmar was translated, the sacrament was 
taken up out of the dormitory with him. And a 
learned man "^ now living assures us, that he him- 
self with many others have seen the chalice in 

Sect. 21. 

The order of com- 


which the sacred blood was buried, dug out of the 
graves of divers bishops buried in the church of 
Sarura. So that whatever the laws might prohibit, 
the profanation continued under pretence of piety 
among the greatest men, but without any founda- 
tion or real example in the practice of the primitive 

We have hitherto considered what 
related to the communicants them- 
selves ; we are now to examine the 
manner of their communicating. Where first of all 
the order of their communicating occurs to our 
observation ; which is thus described in the Con- 
stitutions : First let the bishop receive,"^ then the 
presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, 
and ascetics ; among the women, the deaconesses, 
virgins, and widows; after that the children, then 
all the people in order. In Justin Martyr's time,'" 
when the bishop had consecrated, the deacons dis- 
tributed both the bread and the cup among the 
communicants ; but in after ages the bishop or 
presbyter commonly ministered the bread, and the 
deacons the cup after them. And there are some 
canons that expressly "® forbid a deacon to minister 
the body of Christ, when a presbyter is present, and 
others enjoining them not '" to do it without neces- 
sity, and a hcence from the presbyter to do it. And 
it was ever accounted so great an absurdity for a 
presbyter to receive from the hands of a deacon, 
that the council of Nice'" thought fit to make a 
particular canon to forbid it. But by permission 
and custom it became their ordinary ofiice to min- 
ister the cup,'" and sometimes both species'^ to 
the people, observing the method prescribed to 
communicate every one in their proper order. 

Another distinction was made in g^.^^ „, 
placing the communicants in their se^°e?%o/"duunc- 
proper stations. For though no dis- """'"'p'^'^^- 
tinction was made in this case between rich and 
poor ; they being all called alike to partake toge- 
ther of the same communion, as friends of one com- 
mon Lord;'^' yet some distinction of place for 
order's sake was generally observed, though not 
exactly the same in all places, but with some va- 
riety according to the different customs of difTerent 
churches. In the Spanish churches it was custom- 
ary for the presbyters and deacons to communicate 
at the altar, and the rest of the clergy in the quire, 

'^ Cone. Antissiodor. can. 12. Non licet mortuis nee eu- 
charistiam nee osculum tradi, &c. 

"" Chrys. Horn. 40. in 1 Cor. p. 688. 

>« Cone. Trull, can. 133. 

'«• Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 6. 

I'o Greg. Dial. lib. 2. cap. 24. Jussit communionera 
1 Domiaici corporis in pectus dcfuucti reponi atque sic tu- 

'" Not. in can. 83. Cone. Trull. 

''- Ivo, Vita Othmari, lib. 2. c. 3. ap. Surium, die 16 

'•' Dr. Wliitby, Idolatry of Host Worship, chap. 1. p. 26. 

'"^ Constit. lib. 8. cap. 13. '" Justin. Apol. 2. p. 97. 

"^ Cone. Arelat. 2. can. 15. Diaconi corpus Christi, 
praesente presbytero, tradere non praisumant. 

'" Cone. Carthag. 4. can. 38. Diaconus, prsRsente pres- 
bytero, eucharistiani corporis Christi populo, si necessitas 
cogat, jussus eroget. 

'•" Cone. Nic. can. 18. 

'" Vid. Cyprian, de Lapsis, p. 132. Constit. lib. 8. c. 13. 

^^ Cone. Aneyr. can. 2. 

'81 Vid. Chrysost. Horn. 10. in 1 Thess. p. 1485. 



Book XV. 

and the people without the rails of the chancel, as 
is plain from a canon of the fourth council'*^ of 
Toledo ; and to this a reference is made, as to an 
ancient custom, settled long before by former canons, 
in the first council of Braga.'^' Which implies that 
there were rules of old about this matter, since the 
council of Braga could not mean the council of 
Toledo, for that was after it, anno 633. The refer- 
ence must be to more ancient canons, such as that 
of the council of Laodicea, which '"* orders. That 
none but the clergy only should come to communi- 
cate within the chancel. And this seems to have 
been the constant practice of the Greek church, 
where no layman from that time, besides the em- 
peror, was allowed to come to the altar to make his 
oblations, and communicate there ; but this privilege 
was allowed the emperor by ancient tradition,"*^ as 
the council of TruUo words it. And yet even this 
was denied the emperor in the Italic church. For 
St. Ambrose would not permit the emperor Theodo- 
sius himself to communicate in this place, but 
obliged him to retire as soon as he had made his 
oblations at the altar. But Valesius '^^ has observed 
out of the epistles of Dionysius, bishop of Alexan- 
dria, that in the third century it was customary both 
for men and women to come and stand at the altar 
to communicate : and Mabillon shows '" out of 
Gregory of Tours,'** that the same custom prevailed 
in the Galilean churches. And it is very evident 
from the second council of Tours, which has a 
canon to this purpose : That though laymen at other 
times should not come into the chorus or chancel, 
yet when the oblation Avas offered,"*^ both men and 
women might come into the holy of holies to com- 
municate at the altar. So that this was plainly one 
of those rites which varied according to the differ- 
ence of times and places, and the various usages aud 
customs of different churches. There are a great 
many other customs relating to the manner of com- 
municating, which are of greater moment, and be- 
come matters of great dispute in these latter ages, 
and therefore it will be necessary to consider and 
examine them a little more particularly, which I 
shall do in the following chapter. 



The first and most momentous ques- 
tion of this kind is, whether the peo- That the 'peopi* 

were always admit- 

ple, and such of the clergy as did not Jf^fth'^io^s"'™ '" 
consecrate, were generally admitted to 
commimicate in both kinds ? The principal advo- 
cates of popery at the beginning of the Reforma- 
tion' were not willing to own, that the universal 
practice of the primitive church was against the 
modern sacrilege of denying the cup to the people : 
and therefore, though they confessed there were 
some instances in antiquity of communion under 
both kinds, yet they maintamed, the custom was 
not universal. So Eckius, and Harding, and many 
others. But they who have since considered the 
practice of the ancient church more narrowly, are 
ashamed of this pretence, and freely confess, that 
for twelve centuries there is no instance of the 
people's being obliged to communicate only in one 
kind, in the public administration of the sacrament,^ 
but in private they think some few instances may 
be given. This is Cardinal Bona's distinction, 
whose words are so remarkable, that I cannot for- 
bear to transcribe them : It is very certain, says he, 
that anciently all in general, both clergy and laity, 
men and women, received the holy mysteries in 
both kinds, when they were present at the solemn 
celebration of them, and they both offered and were 
partakers. But out of the time of sacrifice, and out 
of the church, it was customary always and in all 
places to communicate only in one kind. In the 
first part of the assertion all agree, as well catholics 
as sectaries ; nor can any one deny it, that has the 
least knowledge of ecclesiastical affairs. For the 
faithful always and in all places, from the very first 
foundation of the church to the twelfth century, 
were used to communicate under the species of 
bread and wine ; and in the beginning of that age 

'*- Cone. Tolet. 4. can. 17. Sacerdos et Levita ante altare 
comniimicent, in clioro clerus, extra chorum populus. 

'^^ Cone. Bracaren. 1. can. 31. Placiiit ut intra sanctu- 
arium altaris ingredi ad communicaudum non liceat laieis 
viris vel mulieribus, sicut et antiquis canouibus statutum est. 

"** Cone. Laodic. can. 19. MoVots i^dv tluut toIs 
itprtTLKOL^ tiariivai tis to Sfu(Tiai7T})piov Kai Koiviovtiv. 

'^5 Cone. Trull, can. 69. Kara ap)(aLOTu.Ti}v Trapuoo- 
aiv, K.T.X. 

186 Vales. Not. in Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 9. 

'" Mabil. de Liturg. Gallic, lib. 1. cap. 5. n. 24. 

'^ Greg. Turon. lib. 9. cap. 3. et lib. 10. cap. 8. 

"*" Cone Tnron. 2. can. 4. Ad orandura et communi- 
candum laieis et femiuis, sicut mos est, pateaiit sancta 

' Vid. Eckii Enchirid. cap. 10. de Euchar. p. 130. Hard- 

ing's Answer to Juel's Challenge, Art. 2. p. 30. Bellar- 
luiu. de Euchar. lib. 4. cap. 24. 

2 Bona, Her. Liturg. lib. 2. c. 18. n. 1. Certum est 
oinnes passim clericos et laicos, viros et mulieres sub utraque 
specie sacra mysteria antiquitus suinpsisse, cum solemni 
eorum celebrationi adorant, et oft'erebant et de oblatis par- 
tieipabant. E.xtra saerificium vero, et extra ecclesiam sem- 
per et ubiqiie communio sub una specie in usu fuit. Primae 
parti assertiouis consentiunt omnes, tarn catholici, quam 
sectarii ; nee earn negare potest, qui vel levissima rerum 
ecclesiasticarum notitia imbutus sit. Semper eniui et ubique 
ab ecclesiiB primordiis usque ad sajculum duodecimum sub 
specie panis et vini conimuniearunt fideles ; coepitque pau- 
latim ejus speculi initio usus calieis obsolescere, plerisque 
episcopis eum populo interdicentibus ob periculum irreve- 
rentia; et effusionis. 

'Chap. V. 



', the use of the cup began by little and little to be 
laid aside, whilst many bishops interdicted the peo- 
j pie the use of the cup for fear of irreverence and 
effusion. And what they did first for their own 
churches, was afterward confirmed by a canonical 
! sanction in the council of Constance. This is as 
fair and ample a confession for the practice of the 
universal church as we desire, and it serves to show 
the vanity of all those arguments, from Scripture 
and antiquity, that were offered at by the first 
managers of this dispute, to prove the practice of 
communicating in both kinds not to be universal. 
It supersedes also all further trouble of citing au- 
thorities in this dispute, as unnecessary in a matter 
so much beyond all doubt and exception by the ad- 
versaries' own confession. Though the reader that 
desires to see the authorities produced at large, may 
find them in Vossius' and Du Moulin,^ and more 
amply in Chamier,^ and a late treatise of a learned 
writer' in our own tongue, showing, that there is 
no catholic tradition for communion in one kind. 
But Bona not only grants us all this, but tacitly an- 
swers all the plausible arguments used by Bellar- 
mine' and others, to persuade their readers into a 
belief of the ancient church giving the communion 
only in one kind. Bellarmine urges the frequent 
mention of reducing delinquent clergymen to lay 
communion ; which he interprets communion in one 
kind. But Bona rejects this notion of lay commu- 
nion as utterly false f reflecting tacitly upon Bellar- 
mine, and other modern writers of his own church, 
as ignorant of the ancient discipline, who no sooner 
hear of the name, lay communion, but presently 
they take it in the sense that it now bears, and in- 
terpret it communion in one kind ; which how false 
it is, says he, we may learn from hence, that we 
often read of clergymen being thrust down to lay 
communion at that time, when laymen communi- 
cated in both kinds. Others draw an argument from 
that which the ancients call commimio jKret/rhia, the 
communion of strangers, which they interpret com- 
munion in one kind; but Bona" takes a great deal 
of pains to show the ignorance of these men, and 
makes an accurate inquiry into the true notion of 

this sort of communion, concluding, that whatever 
it meant, it did not mean communion in one kind. 
Bellarmine draws another argument or two from the 
reservation of the eucharist for the use of the sick, 
and from that private and domestic communion, 
which we have seen before was allowed to private 
Christians in their own houses, or in a journey, or 
in the wilderness : all which Bellarmine will have to 
have been only in one Idnd, But besides that this 
is false in itself, (for they reserved not only one, 
but both kinds for these uses, as we shall see more 
by and by,) Bona'" says, it is altogether beside the 
question : for the question is not about private and 
extraordinary communion in cases of great exigence, 
but about the public, solemn, and ordinary commu- 
nion of the church ; concerning which he concludes, 
no instance can be produced before the twelfth cen- 
tury of its being celebrated only in one kind. 

But then, that he may not seem to give up the 
cause of his church, and desert it as whoUy despe- 
rate, he pretends that the change that was made by 
the council of Constance, and confirmed by the 
council of Trent, was against no Divine law ; for 
communion in both kinds was neither instituted by 
God, nor did the ancient fathers ever teach it to be 
necessary to salvation. One would wonder to see 
discerning men so infatuated. What words can be 
able to express a Divine institution, if those of our 
Saviour are not, " Drink ye all of this ? " Or how 
should the fathers believe communion in both kinds 
not to be necessary, who thought it necessary for 
children, and actually communicated them in both 
kinds, whenever they were capable of receiving it, 
as we have seen before ? But he was sensible some 
of their own popes have called it a grand sacrilege 
to divide the mystery. Gelasius " complains. That 
some received the bread, but abstained from the cup ; 
whom he condemns as guilty of superstition, and 
orders, that they should either receive in both kinds, 
or else be excluded from both ; because one and the 
same mystery cannot be divided without grand sacri- 
lege. Leo the Great'- declaims against them after 
the same manner : They receive the body of Christ 
with an unworthy mouth, but refuse to drink the 

' Voss. Thes. Theol. Disp. 5. de Symbolis CcenEe Domin. 

^ Moulin, Novelty of Popery, Book 7. Controversy 12. 

■' Chamier de Eucharist, lib. 8. cap. 9. 

'• Demonstration that the Church of Rome has erred in 
her Decrees about Communion in one Kind. 

' Bellarm. de Euchar. lib. 4. cap. 21. 

*• Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 19. n. 3. Recentiores, 
qui audito nomine communionis, ejus veteri notione neglecta, 
id solum concipiunt quod hodie ea voce significatur, laicam 
ciiiamunionem nihil aliud esse putaut, quam perceptionem 
eticharistiae sub unica specie, aut extra cancellos morelaico- 
rum ; quod quam falsum sit vel e.\ eo liquet, quod saepe cle- 
ricosad laicam commuuiouem detrusos legimus, eo tempore, 
quo ctiam laici sub utraque specie comniunicabant. 

^ Bona, ibid. n. 5. Quidam, inter quos Binius in notis ad 
concilium Ilerdense, communionem peregrinam cum laica 

confundunt. Alii existimanmt nihil aliud esse quam per- 
ceptionem eucharistiae sub una tantum specie. Verum quid 
magis alienum a disciplina veterum patrum ? &c. 

'» Bona, ibid. c. 18. n. 1. 

" Gelas. ap. Gratian. de Consecrat. Dist. 2. cap. 12. 
Comperimus quod quidam sumpta tan tummodo corporis sacri 
portione, a calice sacri cruoris abstineant. Qui proculdubio, 
quia nescio qua superstitione docentur obstringi, aut integra 
sacramenta percipiant, aut integris arceantur : quia divisio 
unius ejusdemque mysterii sinegrandi sacrilegio non potest 

'- Leo, Ser. 4. de Quadragesima. Ore indip;no corpus 
Christi accipiunt, sanguinem autem redemjjtionis nostra; 
haurire omniuo declinant. — Quorum deprehensa fiierit sacri- 
lega simulatio, notati et prohibiti a sanctorum societate sa- 
cerdotali auctoritate pellantur. 



Book XV. 

blood of our redemption. Such men's sacrilegious 
dissimulation being discovered, let them be marked, 
and by the authority of the priesthood cast out of 
the society of the faithful. It is in vain to say 
here, as Bona does, That these decrees were only 
made against the Manichees, who believed wine to 
be the gall of the prince of darkness, and the crea- 
ture of the devil, and therefore refused to drink it ; 
for their reasons are general against all superstition 
whatsoever, and in their opinion the sacrament 
may not be divided without gi-and sacrilege, and 
thwarting the rule of the first institution. Which 
Bona might also have learned from another decree 
related in their canon law,'* under the name of Pope 
Julius, who says. The giving of the bread and the 
cup, each distinct by themselves, is a Divine order 
and apostolical institution, and that it is as much 
against the law of Christ to give them jointly by 
dipping the one into the other, as it is to offer milk 
instead of wine, or the juice of the grape imme- 
diately pressed out of the cluster; all which are 
equally contrary to the evangehcal and apostolical 
doctrine, as well as the custom of the church, as 
may be proved from the Fountain of truth, by 
whom the mysteries of the sacraments were or- 
dained. Does not this plainly imply, that com- 
municating in both kinds distinctly, was according 
to the laws of Christ, and agreeable to his rule and 
doctrine, as well as his example ? With what face 
then could Bona say. That communion in both 
kinds was neither instituted by God, nor did the 
ancient fathers judge it necessary ? when even some 
of their ancient popes have told us so plainly, that 
communion distinctly administered in both kinds 
is a Divine order, and that it is grand sacrilege to 
divide them. And the ancients always administered 
in both kinds upon this principle, because it was 
the law of Christ, whatever Bona or his partisans 
can say to the contrary. 

As to the other part of the question, whether the 
ancients did not in some private or extraordinary 
cases administer the sacrament in one kind, we 
have no dispute with Bona, as being nothing to the 
dispute of public communion by his own confession ; 
though all the arguments made use of by him and 
Bellarmine in this case, are far from being exactly 

true and conclusive. For, whereas they argue for 
communion in one kind from pi-ivate and domestic 
communion, it appears from several instances that 
this sort of communicating was often in both kinds. 
Thus Nazianzen" says of his sister Gorgonia, that 
she laid up the antitypes both of the body and blood 
of the Lord. And St. Ambrose, speaking of his 
brother Satyrus,'^ and othei's at sea, expresses the 
matter in such terms, as plainly imply that they 
both eat the bread and drunk the wine. And 
whereas again they say, the communion reserved 
in the church for the use of the sick was only in 
one kind; the contrary is evidently proved from 
Justin Martyr,"' who says. The deacons were used 
to carry both the bread and wine to the absent ; 
and from St. Chrysostom's complaint" to Pope In- 
nocent, That in that horrible assault that was made 
upon his church, the holy blood of Christ was spilt 
upon the sokhers' clothes. Which Baronius him- 
self"* brings as an argument to prove, that they 
were used to reserve the sacrament in both kinds 
in the church for the use of the sick. They argue 
further, from the example of such as took long 
journeys, or went to sea, that they always commu- 
nicated in one kind. But Baronius '^ proves in the 
same place from the authority of Gregory the Great, 
that they who went to sea carried both the body 
and blood of Christ along with them in the ship. 
And Bona himself^" tells us, there are some in- 
stances of the communion being carried in both 
kinds to hermits and recluses in the wilderness, as 
he gives an example in Maria jEgyptiaca, out of 
Sophronius. They urge likewise the use of the 
presanctified sacrament, which the Greeks used all 
Lent, except on Saturdays and Sundays, as has been 
noted before ; and the Latins, on the Farasceue, or 
Good Friday : and this they pretend to tell us, with 
great confidence, was only communion in one kind ; 
for they reserved only the bread, and not the wine, 
for this sort of communion. Bellarmine refers us to 
abundance of authors for this, as Pope Innocent, 
Ep. 1, cap. 4, who has not a word about it; and 
Gregory's Sacramentarium, and the Ordo Romanus 
in Officio Parasceues, and Rabanus Maurus, and 
Micrologus. But Cassander-' has unluckily spoiled 
this argument, and inverted it upon them. For he 

" Jul. Ep. ad Episc. jEgypt. ap. Gratian. de Coiisecr. 
Dist. 2. cap. 7. Audivimus quosdam schismatica ambitione 
detentos, contra Divinos ordines, et apostolicas institu- 
tiones, lac pro vino in Divinis sacrificiis dedicaro; alios 
quoque intinctatn eiicharistiam populis pro compleniento 

tommunionis porrigere. Quod quain sit cvangelicoe et 

apostolicBc doctrinae contrariuni, et consuetudini ecclesias- 
tieso adversum, non difficile ab ipso fonte veritatis proba- 
bitur, a quo ordinata ipsa sacramentorum mysteria pro- 
tesserunt, &c. 

'^ Naz. Orat. 11. de Gorgon, p. 187. 

'* Ambros. Orat. de Obitu Fratris, t. 2. p. 19. Toto 
pectoris haurirct arcano, &c. Vid. Voss. Theses, p. 517. 

ex. Tappero. 

"^ Justin. A pel. 2. p. 97. Thus also some think we may 
take St. Jerom speaking of Exuperius, bishop of Thoulouse, 
Nihil illo ditius, qui corpus Domini canistro vimineo, san- 
guinem portat in vitro, meaning his carrying both kinds to 
the sick. 

" Chrys. Ep. ad Innoc. t. 4. p. 681. 

'8 Baron, an. 404. t. 5. p. 194. 

'^ Baron, ibid, ex Gregor. Dial. 3. cap. 36. 

-» Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 18. n. 2. ex Vita Mariae 

-'' Cassand. de Communione sub utraque Specie, p. 
1027. ■ 

bnAP. V. 



has observed, and Vossius after him," thnt the 
Ordo Romanus, in the office of Good Friday, ap- 
points wine to be consecrated with the Lord's 
prayer, by putting some of the preconsecrated body 
into it, ^d jJojmUs plenc jjossit commimicare, that the 
people may have the full communion in both kinds. 
jAnd the same is to be said of the Greeks' presancti- 
fied communion ; for in that liturgy, wine and water 
is ordered to be put into the cup, and then, in their 
prayers before the communion, the elements are 
called the body and blood of the Lord. So Cassan- 
iler. But Leo Allatius,^ who wrote a peculiar dis- 
sertation upon this subject, has more effectually 
ruined this argument, which it is a wonder Bona 
should not observe, who so often refers to his dis- 
ertation, and commends it. For he shows out of 
the Greek writers, Nicolas Cabasilas ^* and Simeon 
rhessalonicensis,^ that in this communion there 
were both the elements of bread and wine, either 
Bonsecrated before, or by the touch of one another. 
So that this argument not only proves nothing to 
their purpose, but ruins the hypothesis of the ob- 
jectors. For this prcsanctified communion of the 
Greeks was in both kinds. And the very prayers 
n this liturgy, both before and after the commu- 
lion, (as Allatius-^ there observes,) evidently show 
it. For the priest thus prays before communion ; 
" Vouchsafe by thy mighty power to impart to us 
thy immaculate body and thy precious blood, and 
by our ministry to all the people." And after com- 
union, " We give thee thanks, Lord, the Sa- 
viour of all, for all the good things thou hast given 
I us, and for the participation of the holy body and 
blood of thy Christ." And Allatius observes fur- 
ther,-' that the same sort of communion in both 
kinds was used on Good Friday in Spain by the 
jjrder of the Mozarabic liturgy, which agrees with 
ixrhat Cassander observed before out of the Latin 
church. And that which led Bellarmine and Bona 
into the mistake, to take this for communion in one 
kind, was, that both the Greek and Latin church 
'eserved only the bread, and not the wine, for this 
service ; but when they came to communicate, they 
put the preconsecrated bread into a cup of wine, 
and said the Lord's prayer and some other prayers, 
,nd that was esteemed a consecration of it, and so 
they proceeded to communicate in both. I have been 
a little more particular in explaining this rite, be- 
cause it is the only instance our adversaries can 
urge with any colour, of public communion in one 

kind ; which yet when rightly understood, we see, 
is no argument for them, but directly against them. 
And at this day the Greeks, and Maronites, and 
Abyssinians, and all the Orientals, never communi- 
cate but in both kinds, as Bona^ himself confesses, 
out of Abraham Echellensis and other writers. And 
as to other instances of the sick, or infants, or men 
in a journey, who communicate only in one kind, (if 
they were never so true, as we see many of them 
are false,) they are private and extraordinary cases, 
that relate not to the public communion of the 
church, and so come not within the state of the 
present question, which is only about public com- 
munion, and not what was done in some very par- 
ticular and extraordinary cases. 

Having thus despatched this grand 
question about communion in one That In receiving 
kind, and showed the practice of the always received the 

elements distinctly, 

church to be constantly to receive in and not the one dip- 

•' ped m tlie other. 

both elements, we are next to inquire, 
whether they received them both separately and 
distinctly, or the one dipped into and mixed with 
the other. The modern Greeks have a custom, 
which they have retained for some ages, of dipping 
the bread into the wine, and ministering it so mixed 
in a spoon to the people.™ Some learned men, 
among whom are Latinus Latinius ^° and Arcudius," 
make this custom as ancient as the time of Pope 
Innocent and St. Chrysostom; but Habertus'^ and 
Bona'^ prove there could be no such custom in 
those days, it being altogether contrary to the usage 
of the church in that age to mingle the elements 
together, or minister them any otherwise than sepa- 
rate to the people. And indeed there is nothing 
more evident than this in all the writings of the 
ancients, who speak of delivering the bread first 
with a certain form of words, and after that the cup 
with another form, (as we shall see more by and by,) 
and that commonly by distinct persons, a bishop or 
a presbyter ministering the one, and a deacon the 
other. So that it is needless to multiply testimo- 
nies to show, that mixing of the elements is a novel 
invention. I only note one passage of an epistle 
that goes under the name of Pope Julius" in Gra- 
tian's collection, which seems to hint at the begin- 
ning of the practice, and condemns it as a great 
corruption, contrary to the primitive institution of 
our Saviour. Whereas, says he, some give the people 
the eucharist dipped in the cup for a complement 
of the communion, this has no authority to be pro- 

« Voss. Theses Theol. p. 519. 

^ Allat. de Missa Praesanctiiicatorum, n. 7. p. 1559. 
** Cabasilas, Expos. Missae, cap. 24. 
^ Simeon. Opiisc. cont. Haereses. Id. Resp. 56. ad Ga- 
briel. Pentapolitan. 26 Allat, ibid. n. 19. 
" Ibid. n. 18. Ex missa Mosarab. in die Parasceues. 
='"' Bona, Rer. Lituig. lib. 2. cap. 18. n. 2. 
^ Vid. Dr. Smith's Account of the Greek Church, p. 142. 
*' LatiniuSj Ep. ad Anton. Augustin. 

" Arcud. de Concord, lib. 3. cap. 53. 

'- Habert. Archieratic. par. 10. Observ. 10. p. 271. 
• ^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 1. cap. 23. n. 8. et lib. 2. cap. 
18. n. 3. 

^* Gratian. de. Consecrat. Dist. 2. cap. 7. Quod vero pro 
complemento communionis intinctam tradunt eucharistiam 
populis, nee hoc prolatumex evangelio testimonium recipit, 
ubi apostolis corpus suum et sanguinem commendavit. Seor- 
suui enim panis, et seorsum calicis commendatio inemoratur. 



Book XV. 

duced for it out of the Gospel, where Christ com- 
mended his body and blood to his disciples. For 
the Gospel speaks of the bread being apart, and the 
cup apart by themselves. This is repeated in the 
same words in the third council of Braga, anno 
675.^ Bona tells us further, out of Micrologus,^ 
that it was forbidden by the old Roman Ordo ; and 
that Humbertus de Sylva Candida, who wrote 
against the Greeks in the middle of the eleventh 
century, declaims" bitterly against it; though, he 
thinks, with more zeal than he needed to do, for a 
very good reason, we may be sure, because the same 
practice, as much an abuse as it was, and contrary 
to the first institution, was not long after authorized 
in the Roman church. For Pope Urban II., in the 
council of Clermont, ordered it in case of neces- 
sity so to be administered to the sick, and in other 
cases out of abundant caution, for fear the blood 
should at any time be spilt. However, it had various 
fortune in the Roman church. For Paschal II. 
not long after revoked the licence of his predeces- 
sor, and ordered'^ that neither infants nor the 
sick should have the communion mixed, but rather 
take the blood alone, which he thought more de- 
cent than to give the bread dipped in the cup. Yet 
this did not satisfy the council of Tours,^" mentioned 
by Ivo, for they thought still, that the sick in case 
of necessity ought to have it dipped, that they might 
have it in both kinds, and that the presbyter who 
administered it might say with truth. The body and 
blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto thee for 
remission of sins and eternal life. The men of this 
age did not yet think it lawful to communicate even 
the sick in one kind only, nor that the priest could 
say with truth to the communicant, The body and 
blood of Christ, when he did not give him both 
kinds. But Bona here pities their ignorance : for 
they, poor men! had not yet learned that noble 
secret in divinity, the doctrine of concomitancy, 
to know, that the body of Christ cannot be without 
the blood. But he goes on to acquaint us out of an 
old Ritual of Joannes Abrincatensis, that this mixed 
communion was ordered to be given to all the peo- 
ple likewise, for fear of effusion. And in the ancient 
customs of the monastery of Cluny, published by 
Dacherius, there is an order, that the novices should 
thus communicate, for fear that, if they took the 
blood by itself, they might incur some negligence 
and shed it. Thougli it is intimated in a marginal 
note there, that the old custom of giving both kinds 
separately was used in other churches. In Eng- 
land the custom of mixing the elements so far pre- 

vailed, that Ernulphus, or Arnulphus, bishop of Ro- 
chester, anno 1 120, wrote a letter in defence of it, 
which is also published by Dacherius in his Spici- 
legium, tom. 2, where one Lambert proposes the 
question to him, why the eucharist was administered 
at present after a different and almost contrary man- 
ner to that which was observed by Jesus Christ ; 
because it was customary at that time to distribute 
a host steeped in wine to the communicants, where- 
as Jesus Christ gave his body and blood separately ? 
To this Arnulphus answers. That this was one of 
those things that might be altered, and therefore, 
though anciently the two species of bread and wine 
were given separately, yet now they were given to- 
gether, lest any ill accidents should happen in the 
distribution of the wine alone, and lest it should 
stick on the hairs of the beard or the whiskers, or 
should be spilt by the minister. Yet for all this, not 
long after, Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, in a 
synod held at Westminster, anno 1175, prohibited^" 
the giving the eucharist steeped in wine as a comple- 
ment of the communion. Thus this matter was 
bandied about, and disputed backwards and for- 
wards, in the Latin church ; some allowing it, others 
condemning it ; now a council settling it, and then 
another unsettling it, and condemning all that went 
before them ; till at last the council of Constance 
came in with her paramount authority, and, as Bona 
thinks, very wisely put an end to all these disputes 
and inconveniences at once, by taking the cup 
wholly from the people, and ordering that they 
should neither have it separately nor conjunctly: 
and so this abuse of giving the eucharist steeped in 
wine, after a long course and struggle of various 
fortune, was cured with a worse error, which took 
away the cup from the laity, and denied one part 
of the sacrament wholly to the people. Let us 
now return again to the ancient church. 

The next question may be concern- ^^^^ ^ 
ing the posture in which they received. re«»"ed 'lometo"^ 
The resolution of which must be in kSnl't'ilT^n^er 
these three conclusions : 1. That they ^' "'°' 
sometimes received standing. 2. Sometimes kneel- 
ing. 3. Never sitting, that we read of. That they 
frequently received the communion standing, may 
be evidenced two ways ; by a direct, and by a col- 
lateral argument. The direct argument is, their 
positive assertions concerning the standing posture. 
Thus Dionysius of Alexandria, speaking of one who 
had often communicated among the faithful, repre- 
sents him, rpantZy irapcKrravra, as standing" at the 
Lord's table. Upon which Valesius makes this 

^^ Cone. Bracarens. 3. can. 1. 

"* Microlog. cap. 19. Non est authenticum quod quidam 
corpus Domini intingunt, ct intinctum pro coraplemento com- 
muniiinis populo distribuunt, nam Ordo Homanus contradicit. 

" Humbert. Refutat. Calumniar. Michael. Cerularii. 

^' Paschal. Ep. .32. ad Pontium. 

^' Cone. Turon. ap. Ivouem, par. 2. cap. 19. Sacra ob- 

latio intincta debet esse in sanguine Christi, ut veraciter 
presbyter possit dicere infirmo, corpus et sanguis Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi proficiat tibi in remissionem peccatorum 
et vitam aetemam. 

'"' Cone. Westmonaster. can. II. Inhibemus ne quis quasi 
pro coniplemento communionis intinctam alicui eucharis- 
tiam tradat. *' Dionys. Epist. ap. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 9. 

Chap. V. 



remark,''- that anciently they received the eucharist 
standing, not kneehng, as now the custom is. And 
Habertus undertakes to prove against the ItaHan di- 
vines," as he calls them, that the whole Divine liturgy 
was celebrated standing, and that they both conse- 
crated standing and received standing. And Bona" 
acknowledges the same for the Greek church, though 
lie is a little more doubtful of the Latin. For the 
(ircck church he produces the authority of Chry- 
sostom, (Orat. in Encaenia,) and Cyril of Jerusalem, 
wlio bids his communicant " receive it bowing his 
l)ody in the posture of worship and adoration. 
Some interpret this kneeling," but it signifies stand- 
ing, with inclination or bowing of the body in the 
manner of adoration. And so St. Chrysostom" 
represents both priest and people as standing at the 
altar. This altar, says he, (speaking of the altar of 
a man's own soul, sending up devoutly prayers and 
alms to God,) is a more tremendous altar than that 
whereat thou who art a layman standest. And 
again, As the priest stands invoking the Spirit, so 
thou invokest him also, not by thy words, but by 
thy works. In like manner St. Austin, representing 
the Christians' way of worshipping God at the altar, 
to answer the calumny of the heathen, who accused 
them of giving Divine worship to their martyrs, 
says. Which of the faithful ever heard the priest 
when he stands*^ at the altar say in his prayers, I 
offer sacrifice unto thee, O Peter, or Paul, or Cy- 
prian, when he offers to God at their monuments or 
memorials ? Which I produce here only to show, 
that their prayers were then offered in a standing 
posture at the altar. Upon which account it was 
usual for the deacon at such times, especially on 
such days as this posture was used, to call upon the 
people in some such form of admonition as that 
mentioned frequently by St. Chrj-sostom""" and the 
author of the Constitutions,^" 'Op9oi (Tru>fiiv KaXuJQ, Let 
us stand rightly and devoutly to offer our sacrifices 
and oblations. Some think Tertullian also refers 
to this posture, when he says,*' Nonne solennior crit 
statio tua, si et ad aram Dei steteris ? Will not your 
station be the more solemn, if you also stand at the 
altar of God ? But to speak freely, I think Tertul- 
lian in that place uses the word, standing, not to 
distinguish any particular posture of prayer, but 
only to denote a longer continuance in it on the 

stationary days, or half fasts, when they continued 
their religious assemblies till three in the afternoon : 
for on these days, as we shall hear presently, they 
prayed always kneeling, though on other days they 
did not ; and therefore Tertullian could not mean 
that they prayed standing on those days, but only 
that they extei^ded their devotions to a greater 
length on those stationary days beyond others. But 
without this controverted passage of Tertullian, 
there is sufficient evidence from the foregoing tes- 
timonies of their standing to receive the eucharist at 
the Lord's table. 

And this is farther confirmed by a collateral ar- 
gument, which is, that on the Lord's day, and all 
the days of Pentecost, they were obliged to pray 
standing, and in no other posture, as has been show- 
ed *- at large above : therefore it is very reasonable 
to believe, that at all such times they received the 
eucharist in the same posture they were obliged to 
pray, that is, standing at the altar. 

But then the usual custom was, on all other days, 
and particularly on the stationary days, for the 
whole church to pray kneeling, as has likewise been 
fully 53 ^^vinced before : and therefore it is no less 
reasonable to believe, that they received the com- 
munion in the same posture as they prayed, though 
there are not such positive evidences of their prac- 
tice. What some allege out of Tertulhan, that the 
people did ctris Dei adf/cnicuhtri, kneel down to the 
altars of God,*^ is no good proof: for that is only a 
corrupt reading of the first editions, which others 
since read more correctly, caris Dei adyeniculan, 
falling at the knees of the favourites of God ; allud- 
ing to the custom of penitents falling at the feet of 
the ministers and people, to beg their prayers for 
them when they went into the church. Nor is the 
argument much more solid that others bring out of 
Cyril's Catechism, where he bids his communicant 
receive the eucharist kvtttwv : for that, as I have ob- 
served just now, signifies not kneeling, but standing 
in a bowing posture. What St. Chrysostom says 
in one of his exhortations to communicants, seem.s 
more nearly to express it : " Let us come with 
trembling, let us give thanks, let us fall down" and 
confess our sins, let us weep and lament for our 
miscarriages, let us pour out fervent prayers to God, 
and let us come with a becoming reverence as to 

" Vales, in loc. Stantes, non ut hodie genibus flexis, ac- 

^ Habert. Archieratic. par. 8. observ. 10. p. 150. 

" Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 8. 

" Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 19. TLvtttiov kul Tpoiru) 
irpocKwijaiw^ kcu (ril3d<TfiaT09, Xtycui', ufii'iv. 

'*^ Hamon L'Estrange, Alliance of Div. OfBc. chap. 7. 
p. 2U9. 

" Chrys. Horn. 20. in 2 Cor. p. 886. ToDto (pptKioSiirTf- 
pov Srv(yin<rT-npiov iKiivov, lo (tu irapiirTrjKa^ 6 Xaiicoi. It. 
KattaTrfp iVxti/CE 6 uptv^ to Tlveu/uLa koXwv, k.t.X. 

*^ Aug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 8. cap. 27. Qiiis audivit ali- 

quando fiilelium stantem sacerdotem ad altare dicere 

in precibus, Ofl'ero tibi sacrificium Petre, vel Paule, vol 
Cypriane, cum apud eorum memorias ofTeratur Deo, &c. 
It. cont. Faustum, lib. 20. cap. 21. Quis antistitum assistens 
altari, aliquando dixit, OfFerimus tibi Petre aut Paule aut 
Cypriane ? sed quod offertur, offertur Deo, &c. 

'^ Chns. Horn. 2. in 2 Cor. p. 740. Horn. 29. de lucom- 
prehensibili, t. 1. p. 375. ^ Con&lit. lib. 8. cap. 12. 

^' Tertul. deOrat. cap. M. *- Book XIII. chap. 8. sect. 3. 

^^ Ibid. sect. 4. ^ Tertul. de Pocnitent. cap. 9. 

" Chrys. Horn. Ser. 31. in Natal. Christi, t. 5. p. 480. 
nno<nri(TU) i^o/xoXoyoufxivoi, k.t.X. 



Book XV. 


our heavenly King." But if there were none of 
these expressions, the very custom of kneehng at 
prayers on these days is a sufficient indication of 
the posture in which at the same time they received 
the communion. 

As to sitting, there is no example of it, nor any 
intimation leading toward it, in any ancient writer. 
I have showed before, that in many churches they 
allowed no sitting at all in time of Divine service, 
neither in preaching, nor reading the Scriptures, 
nor in psalmody, nor in praying, nor after praying 
neither. And it would be unreasonable to imagine, 
that what was rejected at all other times, should be 
allowed in receiving the communion. Cardinal 
Perron indeed labours hard to prove, that the apos- 
tles received sitting, and that sitting was also a pos- 
ture of adoration. But his vanity is abundantly 
chastised and exposed by the learned Daille, as I 
have noted before^'' upon another occasion. So 
that this posture is wholly without example in the 
ancient church. Nor are there many examples of 
it among the moderns, and of those that be, some 
of them are such, as, considering their motives, one 
would least of all choose to imitate them. The 
Arians in Poland are said to receive the communion 
sitting, to show that they do not beUeve Christ to 
be their God, but only their fellow creature. For 
which reason some of the protestant Polish synods 
expressly forbid this posture," as peculiar to the 
Arians, and obliged all their people to receive either 
standing or kneeling, not sitting, as being a posture 
taken up by the Arians, and contrary to the prac- 
tice of all protestant churches. We are likewise 
told, that it is the singular privilege of the pope to 
communicate sitting, whenever he performs the 
office of consecration. Bona^ not only tells us 
this, but describes the whole ceremony out of the 
book called Ceremoniale Romani Pontificis, and 
the old Ordo Romanus, which they that are curious 
in such matters may consult in their proper places. 
I go on with the practice of the ancient church. 
^ , , There is no one thing that has 

Sect. 4. _ => 

th^host'for'Divinl ™ade greater stir and confusion in the 
cfenT'ThiTrch" for Christian world, for some ages past, 
^se'of uansubltan- than tile adoratiou of the host, ground- 
ed upon a false presumption, that it 
is not bread and wine, but transubstantiated into 
the real body and blood of Christ. I intend not 
to enter upon the history of transubstantiation, 
(which is a doctrinal point, and comes not pro- 

perly into this work, which only inquires into the 
practice of the church,) but shall content myself to 
say, that in fact the most eminent of the ancient 
fathers have declared as plain as words can make 
it, that the change made in the elements of bread 
and wine by consecration, is not such a change as 
destroys their nature and substance, but only alters 
their quaUties, and elevates them to a spiritual use, 
as is done in many other consecrations, where the 
qualities of things are much altered without any 
real change of substance. Thus Gregory Nyssen :^' 
This altar before which we stand, is but common 
stone in its nature, differing nothing from other 
stones, wherewith our walls are built ; but after it 
is consecrated to the service of God, and has received 
a benediction, it is a holy table, an immaculate 
altar, not to be touched by any but by the priests, 
and that with the greatest reverence. The bread 
also at first is but common bread, but when once 
it is sanctified by the holy mystery, it is made and 
called the body of Christ. So the mystical oil, 
and so the wine, though they be things of little 
value before the benediction, yet after their sanctifi- 
cation by the Spirit, they both of them work won- 
ders. The same power of the word makes a priest 
become honourable and venerable, when he is se- 
parated from the community of the vulgar by a new 
benediction. For he who before was only one of the 
common people, is now immediately made a ruler 
and president, a teacher of piety, and a minister 
of the holy mysteries : and all these things he 
does without any change in his body or shape ; for 
to all outward appearance he is the same that he 
was, but the change is in his invisible soul, by an 
invisible power and grace. Cyril of Jerusalem** 
uses the same similitude and illustration : Beware 
that you take not this ointment to be bare ointment. 
For as the bread in the eucharist, after the invoca- 
tion of the Holy Spirit, is not mere bread, but the 
body of Christ ; so this holy ointment, after invo- 
cation, is not bare or common ointment, but it is 
the gift or grace of Christ and the Holy Spirit, who 
by his presence and Divine nature makes it effica- 
cious; so that the body is anointed symbolically with 
the visible ointment, but the soul is sanctified by 
the holy and quickening Spirit. St. Chrysostom, 
in his famous epistle to CEesarius, makes a like 
comparison, to explain the two natures of Christ, 
against the ApoUinarians, to show that he had both 
a human and Divine substance in reality, without 

50 Book XIII. chap. 8. sect. 7. 

" Synod. Wlodislav. an. 1583. Artie. G. in Corpore Con- 
fession, par. 2. p. 3U9. Sententia jam olim in Sendomiriensi 
synodo agitata, et conclusio in generali Cracoviensi atque 
Petricoviensi synodo facta ac repetita, in hoc etiam con- 
fessu approbata est : nempe ne in usu sit sessio ad mensam 
Dominicam in uUis hujus nostri consensus ecclesiis. Nam 
ha;c ceremonia, licet cum ca;teris libera, ecclesiis Christia- 

nis et cnetibus evangelicis noa est usitata, tantumque in- 
fidelibiis Arianis, cum Domino pari solio sese collocantibus 
propria, &c. Vid. Synod. Petricovens. Art. 4. ibid. p. 30G. 
Synod. Cracoviens. Art. 4. p. 303. 

^^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 8. 

'" Nysseu. de Bapt. Christi, t. 3. p. 369. 

"• Cyril. Catech. Myst. 3. n. 3. 

CllAP. V. 



any transformation or confusion : As the bread, says 
lie, before it is sanctified, is called bread, but after 
the Divine grace has sanctified it by the mediation 
of the priest, it is no longer called bread, but digni- 
fied with the name of the body of the Lord, though 
the nature of bread remain in it, and they are not 
said to be two, but one body of the Son ; so here, 
i he Divine nature residing or dwelUng in the human 
l)ody, they both together make one Son and one 
I 'erson. When this passage was first produced by 
i'eter Martyr, it was looked upon as so unanswer- 
ahle, that they of the Romish church had no other 
way to evade the force of it, but to cry out, It was 
a forgery. Peter Martyr left it in the Lambeth 
library, but it was ravished thence in the reign of 
Queen Mary. Bigotius, a learned French papist, 
published the original, but the whole edition was 
suppressed. Yet Le Moyne published it again in 
Latin among his Varia Sacra : and a learned pre- 
late, who now so deservedly holds the primacy in 
(lur own church, and whose indefatigable industry 
against popery will never be forgotten, having pro- 
eured the sheets which the Sorbonne doctors caused 
to be suppressed in Bigotius's edition of Palladius, 
])ublished it*" in our own tongue, with such of the 
(I reek fragments as are now remaining. And in 
these monuments it will stand as the unanswerable 
testimony of St. Chrysostom, and a key to explain 
all other passages of the Greek writers of that age, 
A\ ho were undoubtedly in the same sentiments of 
the bread and wine still remaining unalterable in 
their substance. 

Theodoret lived not long after St. Chrysostom, 
and he as plainly says, that the bread and wine re- 
main still in their own nature after consecration. 
Our Saviour, says he, would have those ^^ who are 
jiartakers of the Divine mysteries, not to mind the 
nature of the things they see, but by the change of 
names to believe that change which is wrought by 
grace. For he that called his own natural body, 
wheat and bread, and gave it the name of a vine ; 
he also honoured the visible symbols or elements 
with the name of his body and blood, not changing 
their nature, but adding grace to nature. In an- 
other place,^ he uses the very same weapon to foil 
an Eutychian heretic, who, to prove that Christ's 
human nature was changed into the Divine nature 
after union, uses this argument: As the symbols of 
the Lord's body and blood are one thing before the 
invocation of the priest, but after invocation are 

changed, and become another thnig: so also the 
body of our Lord after its assumption was changed 
into the Divine substance. To which Theodoret 
thus replies : Thou art taken in thy own nets which 
thou hast made : for neither do the mystical sym- 
bols depart from their own nature after consecra- 
tion, but remain in their former substance, figure 
and form, and are visible and palpable, as they were 
before ; yet they are understood and believed to be 
what they are made, and are reverenced as those 
things which they are made. Compare therefore 
the image with the original, and thou shalt see their 
likeness. For the type must answer to the truth. 
That body has the same form, and figure, and cir- 
cumscription, and, in a word, has the same sub- 
stance of a body that it had before ; but it is im- 
mortal after the resurrection, and is freed from all 
corruption, and sits at God's right hand, and is adored 
by every creature, as being called the body of the 
Lord of nature. These words are so plain, that the 
bread continues in its own substance after conse- 
cration, as the body of Christ continues in the sub- 
stance of human nature after its assumption, that, 
as Bishop Cosins" has observed, Nicolin, the pope's 
printer, who set forth these Dialogues at Rome, 
anno 1547, owns that Theodoret's opinion, as to 
what concerns transubstantiation, was not sound, 
but he might be excused, because the church had 
made no decree about it. 

Ephrem, bishop of Antioch, lived about a hun- 
dred years after Theodoret, anno 540, and he wrote 
against the Eutychians in the same manner. No 
man, says he, that hath any reason," will say, the 
nature of palpable and impalpable, of visible and 
invisible, is the same. For so the body of Christ, 
which is received by the faithful, does not depart 
from its own sensible substance, and yet it is united 
to a spiritual grace : and so baptism, though it be- 
comes wholly a spiritual thing, and but one thing, 
yet it preserves the property of its sensible sub- 
stance, I mean water, and does not lose what it 
was before. 

The Latin fathers are not less plain and full in 
their testimony about this matter. TertuUian not 
only frequently says it is bread representing '* the 
Lord's body, and the figure of his body," but also 
teaches us to trust to the testimony of our senses in 
this and many other things relating to Christ. We 
are not to call in question those senses'® of ours, 
lest we begin to doubt of the certainty of the very 

•" Defence of the Exposition of the Doctrine of the Church 
of England, against Mr. de Meaux. Lond. 1686. 

« Theod. Dialog. I. t. 4. p. 17. Vid. Ep. 130 et 145. 

'■' Id. Dial. 2. p. 85. 

'•' Cosins, Hist, of Transubstan. p. 77. 

"■^ Ephrem ap. Photium, Cod. 229. 

^•^ Tertul. cont. Marc. lib. 1. cap. 14. Panem quo ipsum 
corpus suum repraesentat. 

'^' Cont. Marc. lib. 4. cap. 40. Panem corpus suum 

fecit, Hoc est corpus meum dicendo, id est, figura corporis 

^ De Anima, cap. 17. Non licet nobis in dubium sensus 
istos vocare, ne et in Christo de fide eorum deliberetur — ne 
forte deceptus sit, cum Petri socrum tetigit, aut alium postea 
unguenti senserit spiritum, quod in sepulturam suam ac- 
ceptavit, alium postea vini saporem, quod in sanguinis sui 
memoriam consecvavit, &c. Falsa utique testatio, si oculo- 
rum et aurium et manuum sensus natura mentitur. 



Book XV. 

things that are related of Christ, whether he was 
not deceived, when he saw Satan fall from heaven, 
or when he heard the Father's voice testifying 
of him, or when he touched the hand of Peter's 
mother, or when he smelled the spirit of the oint- 
ment which he accepted to his burial, or when he 
tasted the wine that he consecrated to be the me- 
morial of his blood. St. John argues upon the 
testimony of our senses, " what we have seen, what 
we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, 
and om- hands have handled of the word of life." 
But this attestation is false, if our senses may be 
deceived in the nature of things, which we see with 
our eyes, and hear with our ears, and touch with 
our hands. It is plain from these words of Tertul- 
lian, that he never thought of transubstantiation, 
which contradicts four of the five senses of all 
mankind, the sight, the touch, the taste, and the 
smell ; and that he must be the most absurd man 
that ever wrote, if after all he could believe that not 
to be bread, which, according to his own rule, had 
the testimony of so many several senses. 

St. Austin uses the same argument with Tertul- 
lian, in one of his homilies to the newly baptized, 
which, though it be not now among St. Austin's 
works, yet it is preserved by Fulgentius,'^ and Bede, 
and Bertram. Here, instructing them about the 
sacrament, he tells them, that what they saw upon 
the altar was bread and the cup, as their own eyes 
could testify '° to them ; but what their faith required 
to be instructed about was, that the bread is the 
body of Christ, and the cup the blood of Christ. 
But such a thought as this will presently arise in 
your hearts; Christ took his body into heaven, 
whence he shall come to judge the quick and the 
dead. And there he now sits at the right hand of 
the Father. How then is bread his body ? or how 
is the cup, or that which is contained in the cup, 
his blood ? These things, my brethren, are therefore 
called sacraments, because in them one thing is 
seen, and another is understood. That which is 
seen, has a bodily appearance ; that which is under- 
stood, has a spiritual fruit. If therefore you would 
understand the body of Christ, hear what the apostle 
says to the faithful. Ye are the body of Christ and 
his members. If therefore ye be the body and 
members of Christ, your mystery or sacrament is 
laid upon the Lord's table, ye receive the sacrament 
of the Lord. Ye answer, " Amen," to what ye are. 

and, by your answer, subscribe to the truth of it. 
Thou hcarest the minister say to thee, " The body of 
Christ," and thou answerest, " Amen." Be thou a 
member of the body of Christ, that thy " Amen" 
may be true. But why then is this mystery in 
bread ? Let us here bring nothing of our own, but 
hear the apostle speak again. When he therefore 
speaks of this sacrament, he says, " We being many, 
are one bread and one body." Understand and re- 
joice. We being many, are unity, piety, truth, and 
charity, one bread and one body. Recollect and 
consider, that the bread is not made of one grain, 
but of many. When ye were exorcised, ye were 
then, as it were, ground ; when ye were baptized, ye 
were, as it were, sprinkled, or mixed and wet to- 
gether into one mass ; when ye received the fire of 
the Holy Ghost, ye were, as it were, baked. Be ye 
therefore what ye see, and receive Avhat ye are. 
Here St. Austin, first, says plainly, that it was bread 
and wine that was upon the altar, for which he ap- 
peals to the testimony of their senses. 2. That 
this very bread and wine is the body and blood of 
Christ. Consequently it could not be his natural 
body in the substance, but only sacramentally. 3. 
He says, the natural body of Christ is only in hea- 
ven ; but the sacrament has the name of his body ; 
because though in outward, visible, and corporeal 
appearance it is only bread, yet it is attended with 
a spiritual fruit. 4. Lastly, he saj^s, that the sacra- 
ment not only is a representative of the natural 
body of Christ, but also of the mystical body, the 
church ; and that, as a symbol of the church's unity, 
it is called the body of Christ in this sense, as well 
as the other. So that if there were any real tran- 
substantiation, the bread must be changed into the 
mystical body of Christ, that is, his church, as well 
as into the body natural. These things might be 
confirmed from 'abundance of parallel passages in 
St. Austin's works, but this one is sufficient to show 
his meaning. 

The next irrefragable testimony is that of Pope 
Gelasius, who wrote against the Nestorians and Eu- 
tychians, about the reality of the two natures in 
Christ, anno 490, where he thus proves them : 
Doubtless, the sacraments of the body and blood of 
Christ which we receive, are a Divine thing ; and, 
therefore, by them we are made partakers of the 
Divine nature, and yet the substance and nature" of 
bread and wine do not cease to be in them. And, 

«9 Fulgent, de Bapt. ^Ethiopis, cap. 11. Beda in 1 Cor. 
X. Bertram, de Corpore et Sanguine Dom. 

'" Quod ergo videtis, panis est et calix, quod vobis etiam 
oculi vestri renunciant. Quod autem fides vestra postulat 
instruenda, panis est corpus Christi, calix sanguis Christi. 

Quomodo est panis corpus ejus? Et calix, vel quod 

habet calix, quomodo est sanguis ejus. Ista, fratres, ideo 
dicuntur sacramenta, quia in eis aliud videtur, aliud intel- 
ligitur. Quod videtur, speciem habet corporalem; quod 
intelligitur, fruclum habet spiritalera. Corpus ergo Christi 

si vis intelligere, apostolum audi dicentem fidelibus, Vos 
estis corpus Christi et membra, &c. 

" Gelas. de Duabus Natur. cout. Nestor, et Eutych. Bibl. 
Patr. t. 4. p. 422. Certe sacramenta qua; sumimus corporis 
et sanguinis Domini Divina res est, propter quod et per 
eadum Divinee efficimur consortes naturae, et tamen esse non 
desinit substantia vel natura panis et vini. Et certe imago 
et similitudo corporis et sanguinis Christi in actione mys- 
teriorum celebrantur, &e. 

Chap. V. 



indeed, the image and similitude of the body and 
blood of Christ is celebrated in the mysterious ac- 
tion. By this, therefore, is evidently showed us, that 
we are to beheve the same thing in our Lord Christ, 
as we profess and celebrate and take in his image : 
that as, by the perfecting virtue of the Holy Ghost, 
the elements pass into a Divine substance, whilst 
their nature still remains in its own propriety ; so 
in that principal mystery, (the union of the Divine 
and human nature,) whose efficacy and power these 
represent, there remains one true and perfect Christ, 
both natures, of which he consists, continuing in 
their properties unchangeable. He must be blind 
that cannot see how the force of this argimient sup- 
poses that bread and wine continue in their proper 
nature and substance in the eucharist, notwithstand- 
ing the sacramental union that is made between 
them and the body of Christ by the sacred use of 
them. Without this it had been of no force against 
the Eutychians, and they might, with a very obvious 
reply, have inverted the argument upon him, by 
sapng, that as the bread was changed from its own 
nature into the very substance of the natural body 
of Christ, and remained no longer bread; so the 
human nature was really changed into the Divine 
nature, and continued no longer in its own substance 
after its assumption into the Godhead. Which ar- 
gument, in the mouth of an Eutychian, had been 
unanswerable to Gelasius, had he, with his success- 
ors, given in to the doctrine of transubstantiation. 

Some time after Gelasius lived Facundus, an Afri- 
can bishop, about the year 550. He wrote to excuse 
Theodorus of Mopsuestia, for saj'ing, that Christ 
received the adoption of sons ; which he does after 
this manner : Christ vouchsafed to receive the sacra- 
ment of adoption, both when he was circumcised, 
and when he was baptized. Now, the sacrament 
of adoption may be called adoption, as we call the 
sacrament of his body and blood, which is in the 
Iconsecrated bread and cup, his body and blood, not 
because the bread is properly his body,'" or the cup 
his blood, but because they contain the mystery of 
his body and blood. Whence our Saviour, when he 
blessed the bread and cup, and gave them to his 
disciples, called them his body and blood. It is 
plain, according to Facundus, that the bread and 
wine are not properly the body and blood of Christ, 
but properly bread and wine still, and onlj^ called 
his body and blood, as baptism and circumcision 
are called adoption, because they are the sacraments 

of adoption, and not the very thing which (hey re- 

To these I only add the testimony of Isidore, lii- 
shop of Seville, who lived in the beginning of the 
seventh century, anno 630. He, speaking of the 
rites of the church," says. The bread, because it 
nourishes and strengthens our bodies, is therefore 
called the body of Christ; and tlie wine, because it 
creates blood in our flesh, is called the blood of 
Christ. Now, these two things are visible, but being 
sanctified by the Holy Ghost, they become the sa- 
crament of the Lord's body. Bertram also" quotes 
a like expression out of Isidore's Origines : That as 
the visible substance of bread and wine nourish the 
outward man ; so the word of Christ, who is the 
bread of life, refresheth the souls of the faithful, 
being received by faith. But, as Bishop Cosins and 
Mr. Aubertin have observed, this passage, by some 
pious fraud, is not to be found in its proper place. 
Now, if the bread be such bread in substance as 
nourishes the body, then it must be such as is pro- 
perly bread still, and not the incorruptible body of 
Christ, which cannot be said to be cast out into the 
di-aught, which yet Origen says of it," That the 
material part of the sacrament, the typical and 
symbolical body of Christ, which goes in at the 
mouth, goes into the belly; but the real body of 
Christ is only received by those that are worthy, and 
by faith. By all which it is evident, the ancients 
did not know any thing of the new doctrine of tran- 
substantiation, but believed that the bread and wine 
still remained in the eucharist in their proper na- 
ture. He that would see more of this, may consult 
Bishop Cosins's History of Transubstantiation, and 
Mr. Aubertin's elaborate Book of the Eucharist, 
where he may find all the other arguments against 
this doctrine proposed, and the testimonies of every 
father vindicated against the sophistry of Perron 
and Bellarmine, and all other Romish waiters upon 
this subject ; and also see what opposition was made 
to the new hypothesis of Paschasius Rathbertus, 
(which was rather a consubstantiation than a tran- 
substantiation,) as soon as it appeared, by Rabanus 
Maurus, Amalarius, Walafridus Sti'abo, Heribaldus, 
Lupus, Frudegardus, Joannes Erigena, Prudentius 
Tricassin, Christianus Druthmarus, Alfricus and 
the Saxon homilies, Fulbertus Carnotensis, Leu- 
thericus Senonensis, Berno Augiensis, and others, 
to the time of Bercngarius ; after whom it met with 
greater opposition from Honorius Augustodunensis, 

'2 Facund, lib. 9. cap. 5. Potest sacramentutn adoptionis 

adoptio uuncupari, sicut sacramentum corporis et sanguinis 

p[ sjus, quod est in pane et poculo consecrato, corpus ejus et 

,,j ianguinem dicimus; non quod propria corpus ejus sit panis 

.J ;t poculum sanguis, sed quod in se mysterium corporis san- 

,j. juinisque contineant. Hinc et ipse Doniiiius benedictuni 

janem et calicem, quern discipulis tradidit, corpus et san- 

[uinem suum vocavit, &c. 

'3 Isidor. Hispal. de Eccles. Offic. lib. Leap. 18. Panis 
quia confirmat corpus, ideo Christi corpus nuncupatur ; vi- 
num autem, quia sanguinem operatur in carne, ideo ail sati- 
guinetn Christi refertur. Hocc autem duo sunt visibilia, &>•. 

"' Bertram, de Corp. et Sang. Dom. ex Isidor. Orig. lib. 
6. cap. 19. 

" Origen. Com. in Matt. xv. t. 2. p. 27. 

3 G 



Book XV. I 

Amalricus, Peter and Heniy de Bruis, Guido Gros- 
sus, archbishop of Narbo, Francus Abbas, the Wal- 
denses and Albigenses, the Bohemians and followers 
of John Huss and Jerom of Prague, the Wickliff- 
ists here in England, among whom was the famous 
Reginald Peacock, and many other learned men, to 
the time of the Reformation. The first inventor of 
the name transubstantiation, was Stephanus Edu- 
ensis,"* as Aubertin there shows ; and he lived not 
long before the council of Latcran, which first dog- 
matically established it, anno 1215. He shows, 
that before this they rather believed an impanation, 
or concomitancy of the body with the bread still 
remaining. Bishop Cosins has many curious re- 
marks of the same nature, and particularly he ob- 
serves of the recantation which Pope Nicholas II. 
obhged Berengarius to make, that it was so crude 
and absurd, that even the present Romanists can- 
not digest it : for there he was obhged to profess, 
that the very body and blood of Christ was touched 
and broken by the hands of the priests, and ground 
with the teeth of the faithful, not sacramentally 
only, but in truth and sensibly. Which the glosser 
upon Gratian, John Semeca, marks with this note," 
That unless you imderstand it cautiously, it will lead 
into a greater heresy than that of Berengaiius ; for it 
exceeds truth, and is spoken hyperbolically. So 
little understanding was there of this monstrous 
doctrine, when first it began to make its appearance 
in the w^orld. 

But I shall pursue this matter no further, having 
sufficiently demonstrated that the ancients knew 
nothing of this doctrine, since they unanimously 
declared, that the bread and wine continued in their 
own proper substance after consecration. Whence 
it follows, that they could not adore the eucharist 
with Divine adoration, Avhich they did not believe 
to be any otherwise than typically and symbolically 
the body of Christ. Indeed they did not so much 
as elevate it upon any account for many ages, much 
less for adoration. Some pretend to cite St. Basil's 
authority for lifting it up to show it to the people 
in order to adoration. So Schelstrate'* and Bona" 
after Bellarmine. But his words will bear no such 
sense : for he neither speaks of adoration, nor yet 
of elevation to show it to the people, but only of 
consecration, as the Greek word, avaSti^tg, properly 
signifies both in foreign and ecclesiastical writers, 
as Mr. Aubertin proves by various examples."" St. 

'8 Albertin. de Euchar. lib. 3. p. 969. 

" Grat. de Consocr. Dist. 2. cap. 42. 

™ Schclstrat. de Cone. Antioch. p. 219. 

" Bona, Rcr. Liturg. lib, 2. cap. 13. n. 2. Hcllarin. de 
Euchar. lib. 2. cap. If). 

'" Albertin. de Euchar. lib. 2. p. 41G. 

"' Basil, de Spir. Sancto, cap. 27. 

**- Perron, de Euchar. lib. 2. Author. 15. cap. 3. ap. Al- 
bertin. ibid. 

Basil's words are these, rd Trjg tTmcXi/o-twe prjfiaTa ini 
riJQ dvaSti^eiiig tov aprs Tijg tvxapi'^iag, rig riov ayiuv 
tyypd<p(xiQ yixTv /caraXtXciTrtv ; **' Which Bellarmine, fol- 
lowing a corrupt Latin translation, renders thus ; 
Which of the saints has left us in writing the 
words in which the people invocate the eucharist, 
when it is showed to them ? whereas they ought to 
be rendered thus ; Which of the saints has left us 
in writing the words of the invocation, or prayer, 
wherewith the eucharist is consecrated? And so 
Perron*'- himself, with more than ordinary ingenuity, 
confesses, telling us. That St. Basil's words are not 
to be understood of the people's praying to the eu- 
charist, but of the minister's praying to God in a 'j 
solemn form of invocation to consecrate the eucha- 
rist. Which, as I have showed before,*" was not 
done barely by pronouncing those w^ords, " This is 
my body," as now it is in the Roman church ; but 
by a formal invocation and thanksgiving, beseech- 
ing God to sanctify the gifts : which form, St. Basil 
rightly says, was not by any of the evangelists left 
in writing. Some, again, urge the testimony of 
Germanus, bishop of Constantinople, as one who 
speaks of elevating the host after consecration. 
And indeed he does so ;** but then he gives another 
reason for it, and not that of the people's adoration. 
He says, it was to represent our Saviom-'s elevation 
upon the cross, and his dying there, together with 
his rising from the dead. Which was far from the 
modern intent of elevation. This author lived about 
the year 715, and he is the first that mentions this 
elevation among the Greeks, without any notice of 
adoration. And for the Latin church, there is a 
perfect silence in all the older ritualists about it till 
the eleventh century, when it is mentioned by Ivo*' 
Carnotensis and Hugo de Sancto Victore,**^ though 
still for the same reason given by Germanus, and 
not for adoration. The first writer that assigns 
the reason of it to be for adoration, as Mr. Daille" 
proves at large, is Gulielmus Durantus, who wrote 
his Rationale^'* about the year 1386. So that Iran- 
substantiation and adoration of the eucharist, as 
mother and daughter, came within an age of one 
another. The most learned now in the Roman 
church confess the main of this. Bona:"" says very 
frankly, he cannot trace the original of elevating ; 
the sacrament immediately after consecration in the 
Latin church, higher than Ivo, and Gulielmus 
Parisiensis, and Hildebert of Tours, who make 

S3 Book XV. chap. 3. sect. 11. 

*" German. Theoria Rer. Divin. Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 
.p. 163. ^ 

"^ Ivo, Epist. de Sacram. Missa. 

^'^ Hiigode S.'Vict. de Missae Observat. lib. 2. cap. 28. 
"' Dallsc. do Objecto Cultus, lib. 2. cap. 6. 
'*'* Diirant. Rational, lib. 4. de 6. Parte Canonis. .^ 

>*'■' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 13. n. 2. '( 

Chap. V. 



mention of ringing a bell at this elevation, in the 
twelfth and thirteenth century, when they lived: 
but he owns the old Sacramentaria, whether printed 
or manuscript, and the old ritualists, Alcuin, Ama- 
larius, Strabo, Micrologus, and the rest, have not a 
syllable about it. And whereas Stephen Durantus'" 
boasts of its antiquity, and says it begun with the 
very infancy of the church, he corrects his mistake, 
as relying only upon the Greek writers, who prove 
nothing of the customs of the Latin church. So 
that here we have a plain acknowledgment of its 
novelty : and Daille"' takes the same confession 
under the hand of Morinus'^- and Goar,'^ two other 
learned writers of the Roman church, as Bishop 
Stillingfleet'' does also from Menardus. 

But it may be said, though there 
No adoration of was uo clevation of the host, nor 

the host bcf.iretlie . . ,. , „ , ,. i • • 

twelfth or thirteentii nugmg of a bell, bciore this time in 

century. . 

the Latin church, yet there might be 
Divine adoration for all that paid to the eucharist 
from the beginning. Cardinal Perron was so con- 
fident of this, that he makes sitting a posture of de- 
votion, on purpose to prove that the apostles adored 
it sitting. The vanity of which pretence has been 
showed before. A great many other proofs are al- 
leged out of the ancients to prove this adoration. 
But they prove no more, but either that a venera- 
tion was paid to the sacrament, as to the books of 
the Gospel, and the water of baptism, and the Lord's 
table, and many other sacred things, which no one 
denies ; or else, that the adoration was given to 
Christ, as divinely present every where, or as sitting 
at the right hand of God in heaven, whither they 
were directed by the admonition of Sursum corda, 
to lift up their hearts, and to elevate their own souls, 
to adore him there. St. Jerom speaks of common 
and ordinary veneration, when he says. Men were 
taught"' by the Scriptures, with what veneration 
they ought to receive holy things, and serve in the 
ministry of Christ's altar, and not to esteem the 
holy cups, and holy veils, and other things pertain- 
ing to the service of the Lord's passion, to be with- 
out holiness, as inanimate things and void of sense, 
but as things which, for their relation to the body 
and blood of the Lord, w'ere to be venerated with 
the same majesty and reverence as his body and 
lined. Such reverence as this, which was given to 

' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 13. n. 2. 

' Dallae. ubi supra. 

■ Morin. De Ordinat. par. 3. Exercit. 8. cap. 1. 

' Goar. Not. in Eucholog. p. 146. 

' Stilling. Orig. Brit. p. 236. e.x Menardo, Not. in Gregor. 
ram. p. 374. 

' Hieron. Ep. ad Theophil. Discant, qui ignorant, eru- 
suscipere, et altaris Christi ministerio deservire, sacrosque 
calices, et sancta velamina, et cetera qua; ad cultum perti- 
inut Dominicae passionis, non quasi inanima et sensu caren- 
tia sanctimoniam non habere, sed ex consortio corporis et 
3 G 2 

the cups and other utensils of the altar, no doubt 
was given to the sacrament, as the symbolical body 
and blood of Christ : but this could not be a vener- 
ation of Divine worship and adoration, unless we 
can think that they gave Divine worship to the 
cups and utensils of the altar, which he says 
were venerated with the same respect as the body 
and blood of Christ. Mr. Aubertin** gives a great 
many instances of this kind of veneration paid to 
churches, and the book of the law, and baptism, 
which can signify no more than their reverent use 
of them as sacred and venerable things. And such 
a veneration they paid to the sacrament ; never 
putting consecrated bread to any profane or com- 
mon use ; much less violating its sacredness by any 
more indecent practice, as was that outrage of the 
Donatists, when they threw it to the dogs ; never 
touching it with unwashen hands ; being extremely 
cautious not to let any particle of it fall to the 
ground : which is a particular caution, noted by 
many of the ancients, TertuUian,"' St. Austin,'-* Cy- 
ril of Jerusalem,"" and Origen,'"" who styles it a ve- 
neration in express terms. Whence Bellarmine very 
wisely concludes, they must needs believe it to be 
Christ's natural body, and adore it. As if holy things 
could not be used with such caution and reverence, but 
presently it must be interpreted an act of adoration. 
But the ancients sometimes say, they worshipped 
Christ in the eucharist. Which we do not deny 
neither. St. Austin says. No man eats'"' the flesh 
of Christ, but he that first worships it. And there 
are like expi-essions in Ambrose, Chrysostom, and 
some other ancient writers. But then they suffi- 
ciently explain their own meaning, giving us to 
understand, that they neither speak of oral mandu- 
cation, nor of adoring Christ as corporeally present 
in the eucharist, but as spiritually present, or else 
as corporeally absent in heaven. St. Chrysostom '°^ 
sa5''s. They fell down before Christ their King as cap- 
tives in baptism, and that they cast themselves down 
upon their knees before him. And yet no one would 
conclude therefore that they worshipped him as 
corporeally present in baptism, although baptism 
made them partakers of his body and blood also. 
He says further,'"^ That the king himself bowed his 
body because of God speaking in the holy Gospels. 
But it would be ridiculous hence to infer, either 

sanguinis Domini, eadem qua corpus ejus et sanguis majes- 
tate veneranda. 

^^ Albertiu. de Euchar. p. 432. 

*" Tertul. de Coron. Mil. cap. 3. 

>« Aug. Horn. 26. et 50. ^ Cyril. Catech. Myst. n. 18. 

100 Orig. Horn. 13. in Exod. Cum suscipitis corpus Do- 
mini, cum omni caiitcla et veneratione servatis, ue e.x eo 
parura quid decidat, &c. 

"" Aug. in Psal. xcviii. 

'"- Chrys. in illud, Simile est regnum coelorum, &c. 

'"* In illud, Attendite ne eleemosynam facialis, ap. Al- 
bertin. de Euchar. p. 432. 




Book XV. 

that they worshipped the Gospels, or Christ as cor- 
poreally present in them. Mr. Aubertin"" has de- 
monstrated out of St. Austin's works these several 
propositions, which are all point blank contrary to 
the adoration of Christ as corporeally present in 
the eucharist. 1. That bread and wine are not 
properly and substantially the body and blood of 
Christ, but only sacramentally and figuratively. 2. 
That Christ is not substantially and corporeally 
present in the eucharist, but corporeally present 
only in heaven. 3. That true bread remains and 
is eaten in the eucharist. 4. That the mandu- 
cation of Christ in the eucharist is not oral, but 
spiritual. 5. That the wicked do not eat or drink 
the proper body and blood of Christ in the eucha- 
rist. 6. That the same body cannot be in different 
places at one and the same time ; and that this is 
particularly asserted of the body of Christ. 7- That 
a body must necessarily occupy some place and 
space, and be extended by parts, with longitude, 
latitude, and profundity. 8. That accidents cannot 
subsist without a subject. All which directly over- 
throw the corporeal presence of Christ in the eucha- 
ist, and consequently show, that the adoration 
which was given to Christ in the eucharist, was not 
to his corporeal presence, but his spiritual presence, 
or to his body as absent in heaven. 

But Durantus'"^ undertakes to prove, that the 
body of Christ was not only worshipped as cor- 
poreally present in the eucharist in the use and time 
of celebration, but at other times by non-commu- 
nicants also. For this he alleges Chrysostom,'"" 
who says that the energumens at that time were 
brought by the deacon and made to bow their heads. 
Which Durantus interprets of bowing to the eu- 
charist. But Chrysostom unluckily spoils his ar- 
gument. For at that time, he says, the eucharist 
was not consecrated, but only about to be conse- 
crated ; and these energumens were not allowed to 
stay to hear the pi'ayers of consecration with the 
faithful, but were dismissed with the catechumens 
and other non-communicants before the commu- 
nion service began. So that if they worshipped 
the host, it must be an unconsecrated host, which, 
according to Durantus himself, would be plain idol- 
atry. So unfortunate are these gentlemen in the 
best arguments they can produce for host worship 
among the ancients, that their own very proofs 
manifestly overthrow it. 

On the other hand, there are most certain de- 
monstrations, that there could be no such thing as 
host worship in the ancient church, not only taken 
from their not believing transubstanfiation and the 
corporeal presence, but from many other topics so- 

lidly deduced and substantially proved by two learn- 
ed writers, Mr. Daille"" and Dr. Whitby ,"« in two 
excellent discourses upon this very subject, to which 
I will commend the reader, contenting myself to 
mention the heads of the principal arguments, 
which they have more fully drawn out and proved. 
Mr. Daille ranks his arguments under two heads, 
some general ones against the worship of the eu- 
charist, saints, relics, images, and crosses ; and others 
more particularly levelled against the worship of 
the eucharist. Among those of the first kind he 
urges this as very remarkable, that in all the an- 
cient relations of miracles, there is never any men- 
tion made of miracles being wrought by the eucha- 
rist, as is now so common in later ages, especially in 
the book called the School of the Eucharist, which is 
a collection of legends under the name of miracles 
wrought by the host upon sundry occasions. 2. He 
urges another general argument from the silence of 
all such writers of the church as speak of tradi- 
tions, that the worship of the eucharist is never once 
named among them. 3. That among the heathen 
objections and calumnies which they raised against 
them, such as their worshipping the sun, and an 
ass's head, and the genitals of their priests, and a 
crucified and dead man, they never objected to them 
the worship of bread and wine, which yet had been 
very obvious and natural, and invidious enough to 
have accused them of, had there then been any such 
plausible ground for an accusation, as there has 
been in later ages. 4. The Christians used to ob- 
ject to the heathens, that they worshipped things 
that were dumb and void of life ; things that must 
be carried upon men's shoulders, and if they fell, 
could not rise again ; things that must be guarded 
by men, to secure them from thieves ; things that 
might be carried captive, and were not able to pre- 
serve and deliver themselves ; things that might be 
laid to pawn, as the eucharist has been by some 
princes in later ages ; things that are exposed to 
fire and weather, and rust, and moth, and corrup- 
tion, and other injuries of nature ; things that might 
be devoured by mice and other animals, and might 
be gnawed and dunged upon by the most contempt- 
ible creatures. All which objections rnight easily 
have been retorted by the heathen upon the Chris- 
tians, had they then worshipped the eucharist, or 
images, or relics, or crosses, which are liable to all 
the same reproaches. These are general arguments 
against host worship, together with the rest of that 
idolatrous worship which now so abounds in the 
church of Rome. But there are a great many more 
special arguments urged in particular against the 
host worship by that learned man. As, 1. From 

'»♦ Albeitin. de Euchar. p. 602, &c. 
"*^ Dniant. de llitibus, lib. 2. cap. 40. n. 5. 
'"" Chrys. Horn. 3 et 4. de Incomprohonsibili, p. 3G5 ct 
374. t. 1.' 

"" Dallffl. de Objecto Cultus Religiosi, cont. Latinos, lib, 
1 et2. 

'"» Whitbv, Idolatry of Host Worship. Loud. 1G79.J 

Chap. V. 



the silence of all ancient writere about it. 2. From 
their using no elevation of the host for worship for 
many ages, as we have showed at large out of Bona 
before. 3. The ancients knew nothing of ringing a 
bell, to give notice of the time of adoration to the 
people. 4. There are no histories of beasts miracu- 
lously worshipping the eucharist, which sort of fic- 
tions are so common in later ages. 5. The ancients 
never carried the eucharist to the sick or absent with 
any pomp or signs of worship ; never exposed it to 
public view in times of solemn rejoicing or sorrow ; 
never adored or invoked its assistance in distress, or 
upon any great undertaking : which are now such 
common practices in the Roman church. 6. The 
ancients never enjoined persons newly baptized and 
penitents to fall dovra before the eucharist and wor- 
ship it, as is now commonly done in the Roman 
church. 7- The ancients never allowed non-com- 
municants to stay and worship the eucharist, as the 
practice now is ; which yet had been very proper, 
had they believed the eucharist to be their God. 
But they used it only for communion, not for ador- 
ation. 8. The ancients never used to carry the 
eucharist publicly in processions, to be adored by 
all the people ; which is a novel practice in the 
judgment of Krantzius"" and Cassander. 9. The 
ancients lighted no lamps nor candles by day to the 
eucharist, nor burned incense before it, as is now 
the practice. 10. They made no little images of the 
eucharist, to be kissed and worshipped as the images 
of Christ. 11. They had no peculiar festival ap- 
propriated to its more solemn worship. This is of 
no longer date than Pope Urban IV., who first in- 
stituted it, anno 1264, and it is peculiar only to the 
Roman church. 12. The ancient liturgies have no 
forms of prayers, doxologies, or praises to the eu- 
charist, as are in the Roman Missal. 13. The 
adoration of the eucharist was never objected by 
the heathens to the primitive Christians ; nor were 
they reproached, as the Romanists have been since, 
as eaters of their God. It is a noted saying of 
Averroes, Quando quidem comeditnt Christiani quod 
cohmf, sit anima mea cum 2)hilosop}iis, Since Chris- 
tians eat what they worship, let my soul rather have 
her portion among the philosophers. This learned 
philosopher lived about the year 1150, when the 
host worship began to be practised, which gave him 
this prejudice to the Christian religion. 14. The 
Christians objected such things to the heathens, as 
they never would have objected, had they them- 
selves worshipped the host ; as that it was an im- 
pious thing to eat what they worshipped, and wor- 
ship what they eat and sacrificed. Which objections 
might easily have been retorted upon them. 15. 
The Christians were accused by the heathens of 

eating infimts' blood in their solemn mysteries, but 
never any mention is made of eating the blood of 
Christ, either in the objection or answer to it. The 
ground of the story arose from the practice of the 
Carpocratians and other heretics, and not from the 
Christians eating the blood of Christ. 16. Lastly, 
the Christians never urged the adoration of the eu- 
charist in their disputes with the Ebionites and 
Doceta;, which yet would have been very proper to 
confute their errors, who denied the reality of the 
flesh of Christ, To these arguments of Mr. Daille, 
Dr. Whitby has added these further: I. That the 
Scriptures and fathers deride the heathen deities, 
and say, that we may know they are no gods, be- 
cause they have no use of their outward senses. 2. 
Because they are made gods by consecration, and 
by the will of the artificer, part of that matter which 
is consecrated into a god being exposed to common 
uses. 3. Because they were imprisoned in their 
images, or shut up in obscure habitations. 4. Be- 
cause they clothed their gods in costly raiments. 5. 
Because they might be metamorphosed or changed 
from one shape to another. All which might have 
been retorted upon the Christians, had they wor- 
shipped the eucharist, \nthout any possibility of 
evasion. Soto and Paludanus own, that the whole 
eucharist, substance as well as species, may be 
vomited up again, or voided at the draught. Which 
to affirm of the real body of Christ, the ancients 
would have accounted the greatest blasphemy. For 
these and the hke reasons we may safely conclude, 
that there was no such practice among the ancients, 
as giving Divine honour to the host upon presump- 
tion of its being the real body of Christ, though they 
treated it, as the sacred symbol and antitype of his 
body, with all imaginable respect and veneration. 
To deduce these arguments at their full length 
would fill a volume, and therefore it is sufficient 
here to have hinted the heads of them in this sum- 
mary account, referring the reader to those two 
learned authors, who have proved every thing they 
say, for fuller satisfaction. I now go on with the 
practice of the ancient church. 

In distributing the elements the 
people were allowed to receive them The pe«pk.aiio« - 

*■ ^ ed to receive the 

into their own hands. Which now, eucharist into their 

' own hands. 

since the beUef of transubstantiation 
and the adoration of the host came in, is severely 
prohibited in the Roman church. And this is at 
least another strong presumption, that the ancients 
had very different sentiments of the eucharist from 
those which now prevail in the Roman church. As 
to fact, there is no dispute of the matter. The thing 
is confessed by Baronius,"" and Morinus,'" and 
Garsias Loaysa,"- as Daille'" has noted out of 

'"' Krantz. Metropol. lib. 11. cap, 39. Cassander. Con- 
siiltat. sect, de Circiuncjestat. 
"" Baron, an. 57. n. 147. 

'" Morin. de Ordinat, par, 3. Exercit. 12. c. 3. 

"= Loaysa in Cone. Tolet. 1. can. II. 

"3 Dalla\ de Objecto Cult. Kelig. lib. 2. cap. 20. 



Book XV. 

them. And Bona'" confesses he cannot tell when 
the contraiy custom first came in, but he thinks it 
very probable, that it began at the same time that 
they first brought into the Western church the use 
of unleavened bread, and wafer hosts, which, as he 
proves before, was not till the twelfth or thirteenth 
century. But, that the reader may not wholly de- 
pend upon these concessions, I will note a few 
places in the margin out of TertulUan,"* Clemens 
Alexandrinus,"" Cyprian,'" Origen,"** Dionysius 
Alexandrinus,"" Cyril of Jerusalem,'-" Nazianzen,'"' 
Basil,'^ Ambrose,'^ Austin,'-* Chrysostom,'^ and 
the council of TruUo;'^ which I think it needless 
to repeat at length in a matter so plain and uncon- 
tested. The very custom of washing the hands 
before communion, in order to receive it, the fre- 
quent admonitions to beware of letting it fall, the 
allowance of private men to carry it home with them 
and communicate in private, the sending it to the 
sick sometimes by private men, which we have 
spoken of before, do all bear testimony to the same 
practice. But all these customs are perfectly anti- 
quated and abolished in the Roman church, since 
the practice of host worship came in, partly by for- 
bidding the people to touch the bread with their own 
hands, but suffer it to be dropped into their mouths, 
and partly by withdrawing the cup wholly from 
them. Many w'ise and pretty reasons are used to 
be given for abolishing this ancient custom, as that 
it is to prevent men's negligence, and irreverence, 
and other abuses ; but the fathers had much better 
reasons for allowing it. For then it afforded them 
a noble argument to keep innocent and holy hands, 
free from idolatry, murder, rapine, and extortion, 
and other the like vices, when they must with those 
very hands receive the immaculate body and blood 
of their Lord. A man might declaim, says Tertulli- 
an,'^' all the day long, with the zeal of faith, and be- 
wail those Christians, who work with their hands at 
the trade of making idols for the heathen gods, and 
come immediately from the shop of the adversary to 
the house of God, to lift up those hands to God the 
Father, which are the makers or mothers of idols, 
and stretch forth those hands to receive the body of 
the Lord, that were instrumental in carving bodies 
for devils. With what eloquence does St. Chrysos- 
tom inveigh against rapine, and bloodshed, and 

strife, and contention, upon this very topic ! Con- 
sider, says he,'-^ what thou takest into thy hand, and 
never dare to smite any man ; do not disgrace those 
hands, which are adorned with so great a gift, by 
the crime of fighting and contention. Consider 
what thou takest into thy hands, and keep them 
free from all rapine and extortion. Consider that 
thou not only takest it in thy hands, but puttest 
it to thy mouth ; therefore keep thy tongue pure 
from all filthy and contumelious words, from blas- 
phemy, perjury, and all such kinds of evil dis- 
course. So, again, reproving those who in time of 
sickness went to the Jews to get charms and amulets 
to cure their distemper, he asks them, what apology 
they would'-' make to Christ for thus flying to his 
enemies in their distress? How they could call 
upon him in their prayers ? With what conscience 
they could come into the church ? With what eyes 
they could look upon the priest ? With what hands 
they could touch the holy table ? And in another 
place, repressing the people's fury against Eutropius, 
(who, having procured a law to be made against 
men's taking sanctuary at the altar, was himself 
not long after, by falling under the emperor's dis- 
pleasure, forced to fly thither for refuge ; and then 
some of the people clamoured against him with 
revengeful thoughts, and cried out. It was but just 
that he should suffer the effects of his own laM^,) to 
suppress the people's anger in this case, and incline 
them to thoughts of mercy and pardon, he asks 
them. How otherwise they could take "° the sacra- 
ment into their hands, when sermon was done, and 
say that prayer, which commands them to beg of 
God, that he would " forgive them their trespasses, as 
they forgave them that trespassed against them," if 
they persisted to call for justice upon their enemy ? 
These are handsome turns of eloquence, grounded 
upon this innocent and pious custom of the people's 
taking the sacrament into their own hands ; and they 
had often their due weight and force even upon the 
greatest minds, as may appear from the effect of 
that speech which St. Ambrose made to the empe- 
ror Theodosius, when he had caused seven thousand! 
men to be slaughtered without any formal trial at: 
Thessalonica. St. Ambrose met him a^ he was en- 
tering the church, and thus accosted him: With 
what eyes wilt thou behold the house of our common 

'I' Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 7. Vid. Vales. 
Not. in Euseb. lib. 7. c. 9. 

"* Teitul. de Coron. Mil. cap. 3. de Idololatr. cap. 7. 

'"^ Clem. Alex. Strom. 1. p. 318. 

'" Cypr. de Lapsis, p. 132. De Patient, p. 216. Ep. 56. 
al. 58. ad Thibaritanos, p. 125. 

118 Orig. Horn. 13. in Exod. 

I's Ap. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 9. 

I'M Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 18. 

1=1 Naz. Carmen de Ornatu Mulier. t. 2. p. 152. 

'- Basil. Ep. 289. ad Caesaream Patriciam. 

■^ Ambr. Oral, ad Theodos. ap. Theodoret, lib. 5. cap. 18. 

121 Aug. cont. Liter. Petil. lib. 2. cap. 23. Hom. 26. ex 50. 

1-5 Chrys. Hom. 21. ad. Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 266. Hom. 
22. p. 285 et 290. Hom. 24. p. 316. Hom. 6. cont. Juda;os, 
t. ].p. 540. Hom. 6. in Seraphim. Hom. 3. in Ephes. et 

126 Cone. Trull, c. 101. 

1" Tertul. de Idololat. cap. 7. Vid. Tertul. de Spectac 
c. 25. Cvpr. Ep. 56. al. 58. ad Pleb. Thibarit. p. 125. 

128 Chrys. Hom. 21. ad Pop. Antioch. t. 1. p. 266. Vid 
Hom. 31. de Natali Christi, t. 5. p. 479. 

■2" Chvys. Hom. 6. cont. Jud. t. 1. p. 539. 

™ Chrys. Hom. in Eiitrop. t. 4. p. 554. 

Chap. V. 



Lord? With what feet wilt thou tread his holy 
pavement ? Wilt thou stretch out those hands yet 
dropping with the blood of that unjust slaughter, 
and with them lay hold "' of the most holy body of 
the Lord ? Wilt thou put the cup of that blood to 
thy mouth, who hast shed so much blood by the 
hasty decree of an angry and impetuous mind ? This 
just reproof of the pious bishop, so handsomely 
addressed to the emperor, made such a deep impres- 
sion on his mind, that it melted him into tears, and 
made him refrain from church as a penitent, till, by 
way of satisfaction, among other things, by St. Am- 
brose's direction, he made this good law, That no 
sentence of death, or proscription, for the future, 
should be executed till thirty days after its promul- 
gation, that reason, and not passion, might judge of 
the equity and reasonableness of it. Such brave 
speeches, and such worthy effects, did that ancient 
pious custom minister the occasion to of old, which 
is now laid aside in the Roman church, and changed 
into another custom, that has neither precedent nor 
use ; serving only to feed superstition, and keep 
men under the monstrous and inveterate prejudices 
of transubstantiation, which this innocent rite serv^ed 
in some measure to keep out of the minds of men 
in the primitive church. 

It is further observable, that in this 
whttiier the same case no distiuctiou was made between 

custom was observed 

m delivering it to meu, womcn, and children, but all re- 
women and clmdren. 

ceived into their own hands who were 
capable of so doing. Only in the latter end of the 
sixth century, we find a rule made about women, 
that they should not receive it in their bare hand, 
but in a fair linen cloth. Some think this as an- 
cient as St. Austin's time, because, in one of the 
sermons De Tempore,'^- that go under his name, 
there is mention made of it ; for there it is said, it 
was customaiy for men to wash their hands when 
they communicated, and for women to bring their 
little linen cloths to receive the body of Christ. 
But, as many of these sermons are spurious, so this 
in particular is sometimes ascribed to other authors, 
and therefore no weight can be laid upon it. How- 
ever, the council of Auxerre '^ in France, anno 590, 
made a rule, That no woman should receive the 
eucharist in her bare hand. But after what manner 
she should receive it in her hand, is not said. A 
great many learned persons think that another canon 
in that council"' orders them to receive it in a linen 

cloth, because there is mention made of women's 
wearing a dominicak when they communicate; which 
they interpret, a linen cloth upon their hand. So 
not only Baronius, and Binnius, and Sylvias, but 
also Bona,"^ and Habertus,"*^ and even Mabillon,'^' 
and Vossius,"' understand it. But Baluzius, who is 
often more sagacious than the rest in telling the 
meaning of hard words, says. It means only the 
women's veil, which they were obliged to wear upon 
their heads by ancient canons, conformable to the 
rule of the apostle.''" And for this he quotes an 
ancient collection of canons, where, in the council 
of Mascon, the dontinicale is expressly styled the 
veil which the women wore upon their heads at the 
communion. So that, whatever covering the wo- 
men used for their hands when they received the 
communion, it is plain it was a different thing from 
the doinimcale. The council of TruUo"" speaks of 
some in the Greek church, who would not receive 
the sacrament in their hands, but in some little in- 
strument of gold or other precious material, out of 
a pretended reverence to it ; but they condemn, and 
forbid it as a superstitious practice ; ordering all 
persons to receive the communion in their own 
hands, set in the form of a cross, as is appointed in 
Cyril's Catechisms,'" and some others before them : 
and for those that pretended to bring those little 
trinkets to receive the communion with, they order 
them to be rejected, as persons who preferred inani- 
mate matter to the living image of God. And withal 
they threaten suspension to any priest that shall 
admit any communicants to receive in such manner. 
By which it is plain no alteration was as yet allowed 
in this matter in the Greek church. 

The next thing observable is, that 
the priest in delivering the elements Theeuciiaristusu- 

. ^ - ally delivered to the 

to the people used a certain lorm or people with a certain 

■*■ ■*- form of words, to 

words, to which the people answered, "•>'<:'» they answer- 

' r s. ' ed, Amen. 

Amen. The form at first seems to 
have been no more than this : " The body of Christ ;" 
and, " The blood of Christ;" to each of which the 
people subjoined, Amen. Tertullian is thought to 
refer to this, when he asks a Christian'" who was 
used to fi-equent the Roman theatres, how he could 
give testimony to a gladiator with that mouth 
wherewith he was wont to say Amen in the holy 
mysteries ? But that may refer as well to the Amen 
which they used at the end of the gi'eat consecra- 
tion prayer, as to this form at the delivery. How- 

'3' Ap. Theodor. Hist. lib. 5. cap. 18.' 

''- Aug. Ser. 252. de Temp. Omues viri, quando commu- 
nicare desiderant, lavant manas : et omnes mulieres exhi- 
bent liuteamina, ubi corpus Christi accipiant. 

"^ Cone. Antissiodor. can. 36. Nou licet mulieri nuda 
manu eucharisliam accipcre. 

"' Ibid. can. 42. Unaquoeque mulier, quando commuai- 
cat, dominicalem suum habeat. Quod si non liabuerit, usque 
in alium diem Dominicum non communicet. 

"^ Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. 2. cap. 17. n. 3. 

'^ Habcrt. Archieratic. par. 10. observ. 8. p. 264. 

I" Mabil. de Litiu-g. Gallic, lib. 1. cap. b. n. 25. 

'** Voss. Thes. Theol. de Symbolis Coenae Doiu. p. 477. 

'3» Baluz. Not. in Gratian. Caus. 33. QuKst. 3. cap. 19. 
Si mulier commuuicans dominicale suum super caput suum 
nou habuerit, usque ad alium diem Dominicum non com- 

'« Cone. Trull, can. 101. "' Cyril. Catech. Myst.5. n. 18. 

'« Tertul. de Spectac. cap. 25. Quale est— ex ore quo 
Amen in sanctum protuleris, gladiatori testimonium reddere ? 



Book XV. 

ever, Cornelius, bishop of Rome, not long after 
speaks expressly of it. For he says,"' Novatian 
was used to make the people of his party swear by 
the body and blood of Christ, when he delivered 
the eucharist to them, that they would not forsake 
his party and go over to Cornelius. So, says he, 
every man, instead of saying Amen, when he takes 
the bread, is forced to say, I wall not return to Cor- 
nehus. The author of the Constitutions speaks of 
the form in this manner : '" Let the bishop give the 
oblation, saying, " The body of Christ;" and let 
the receiver answer. Amen. Let the deacon hold 
the cup, and when he gives it say, " The blood of 
Christ, the cup of life ;" and let him that drinks it 
say, Amen. So St. Cyril'" bids his communicant 
receive the body of Christ, and say. Amen. And 
St. Ambrose,'" The priest says to thee, " The body 
of Christ," and thou answerest. Amen. The like, 
as to the people's answering Amen, is noted by St. 
Austin'" as the general practice of the whole 
world. And so by St. Jerom,'^^ Leo Magnus,'" and 
many others. By the time of Gregory the Great, 
the form of delivery was a little enlarged : for then 
they said, " The body'^° of our Lord Jesus Christ 
preserve thy soul." And by the time of Alcuin and 
Charles the Great, it was augmented into this form, 
" The body of our Lord Jesus Christ'*' preserve thy 
soul unto everlasting life ; " which is much the same 
with the former part of that which is now used in 
our liturgy. The Scotch liturgy also orders the 
people to answer, Amen ; which, we see, is conform- 
able to ancient practice. The Romanists generally 
di-aw this answer of the people into an argument 
for transubstantiation ; because saying Amen im- 
pUes as much as the true body of Christ. But they 
might as well argue, that the bread is transubstan- 
tiated into the bodies of the people, and that they 
too are but one proper, substantial, true, numerical 
body with their Lord; because St. Austin says this 
is one meaning of the body of Christ, to which, 
when the priest spake it, they answered. Amen : Ye 
answer Amen, says he,'" to what ye are, (that is. 

the body of Christ,) and by your answer subscribe 
to the truth of it. Thou hearest the priest say, " The 
body of Christ," and thou answerest. Amen ; be 
thou a member of the body of Christ, that thy Amen 
may be true. In another place he says, it denoted 
their belief of the reality of Christ's suffering for 
them, that his blood was truly shed'*' for their 
sakes, and that they made profession of this by 
saying Amen, This is true. And again,'" Christ 
shed his blood upon the cross for our sakes : and 
ye who are communicants know what testimony 
ye bear to the blood which ye receive ; for ye say 
Amen to it. Ye know what that blood is " which 
was shed for many, for the remission of sins." 
So that in whatever sense we take it, there is no 
necessity of making it to signify a corporeal and 
substantial presence, which it is certain St. Austin 
never thought of. 

It is here proper, before we pass on, 

• , n , • xt- Sect. 9. 

to make a just reflection upon the how Novatian 

and others abused 

horrible abuses of the communion tiie communion to 

%vicked purposes. 

committed by some against the true 
end and design of it, which was intended by Christ 
to represent our union with himself and one an- 
other, but wicked men made use of it to base ends 
and purposes. We have already heard how Nova- 
tian abused it to strengthen his schism, and bind 
men over by an oath upon it, that they would not 
desert his interest and party. And it was a like 
abuse that was some time allowed in the supersti- 
tious times of popery under the general notion of 
many other superstitious practices, called canonical 
purgations ; which was, that when any one was 
suspected of a crime, he was to purge himself by 
taking the sacrament upon it. Gratian cites a canon 
out of the council of Worms '" to this purpose : 
Whereas it often happens, that thefts are committed 
in monasteries, and they that commit them are not 
known : we therefore order, that when the brethren 
are to purge themselves of such suspicions, mass 
shall be celebrated by the abbot, or some other ap- 
pointed by him, and when it is ended, every one of 

i« Ap. Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 4.3. p. 245. 

'" Constit. lib, 8. cap. 13. 

'" Cyril. Catech. Myst. 5. n. 18. 

'*^ Ambros. de Sacram. lib. 4. cap. 5. Dicit tibi sacerdos, 
Corpus Christi: et tu dicis, Amen, id est, Verum. It. de 
Initiatis, cap. 9. 

'" Aug. cont. Faust. lib. 12. cap. 10. Habet magnam 
vocem Christi sanguis in terra, cum eo accepto ab omnibus 
gentibus respondetur Amen. 

•^8 Hicron. Ep. 62. ad Theophil. 

'"• Leo, Ser. 6. de Jejunio scptimi Mensis. 

'■'■" Joan. Diacon. Vit. Gregor. lib. 2. 

'^' Alcuin. de Offic. et Hclgaldus, Vita Roberti Regis 
Galliffi, ap. Bonam, Liturgic. lib. 2. c. 17. n. 3. 

'^- Aug. Serm. ad Infantes, ap. Fulgent, de Baptismo 
.^thiopis, cap. 11. Ad id quod estis, respondetis, Amen, et 
respondendo subscribitis. Audis Corpus Christi, et respon- 
des, Amen. Esto membrum corporis Christi, ut sit verum 

Amen tuum. 

153 Aug. Ser. de 4. Feria sive Cultura Agni, t. 9. p. 319. 
Quid dicit omuis homo, quando accipit sanguinem Christi ? 
Amen dicit. Quid est amen ? Verum est. Quid est verum ? 
Quia fusus est sanguis Christi. 

»J Id. Ser. 29. de Verbis Apost. t. 10. p. 150. In cruce 
pro nobis sanguinem fudit : et nostis fideles quale testi- 
monium perhibeatis sanguini quem accepistis. Certe enim 
dicitis Amen. Nostis qui sit sanguis qui pro multis efFusiis 
est in remissionem peccatorum. 

'^^ Cone. Wormat. can. 15. ap. Grat. Caus. 2. Quast. 5. 
cap. 23. Sajpe contingit, ut in monasteriis furta perpe- 
trentur, et qui ha>c committant ignorentur. Idcirco sta- 
tuimus, ut quando ipsi fratres de talibus se expurgare de- 
buerint, missa ab abbate celebretur, vel ab aliquo cui ipse 
abbas praeceperit, prsesentibus fratribus : et sic expleta 
missa, omnes communicent in haec verba; Corpus Domini 
sit mihi ad probationem hodie. 

Chap. V. 



(liem shall communicate, saying these words, " Let 
the body of Christ be my purgation this day." But 
though this was allowed by a council, it is justly 
iLckoned a great abuse by all sober men. Antonius 
Aiigustinus, in his Emendations upon Gratian,'^" 
})a.sses this censure upon it, that it is to be ascribed 
to the great corruption and filth of the times which 
allowed it. For even, as the old glosser upon Gra- 
tiau observes,'" the communion was not to be given 
to suspected persons, as he proves from other laws, 
particularly the extravagant de Purgatione Canonica, 
cap. Cum dilectis. And therefore, he says, this canon 
in Gratian was of no force, being disannulled in law. 
So that we need not scruple to call this a great 
abuse of the holy communion, though it had synod- 
ical authority some time to enjoin the practice of 
it. I know nothing hardly that exceeds it under 
pretence of religion, unless it be that more horrible 
abuse which Baronius '^' himself relates out of the 
Greek historians, concerning Pope Theodore and 
the Roman council, anno 648, who, in their cen- 
sure of Pyrrhus and Paulus, the Monothelite here- 
tics, took blood out of the cup, and mingled it with 
ink, and therewith subscribed their condemnation. 
An unparalleled instance of intemperate zeal, for 
which there was neither law nor example in the 
Roman church, as Baronius confesses, nor any 
instance like it, save one in the Greek church, 
when Ignatius, in the council of Constantinople, 
anno 869, made use of the blood in the sacred cup 
instead of ink to condemn his adversary Photius, 
as Baronius also tells us'^^ out of Nicetas, in his Life 
of Ignatius. But I pass over these horrible abuses, 
more becoming Draco, and his sanguinary laws, 
than the pens and practices of Christian bishops, 
and go on with the more innocent practices of the 
primitive church. 

j^ During the time of communicating. 

Proper psalms for ^r^iie the clcments were distributed 

the occ;ision usually 

pi"wer''e''commll^"i- to the pcople, it was usual in most 
'"^ '""■ places for the singers or all the peo- 

ple to sing some psalm suitable to the occasion. The 
author of the Constitutions '* prescribes the thirty- 
third Psalm, which in our division is the thirty- 
fourth, for this purpose : " I will bless the Lord at 
all times, his praise shall be always in my mouth." 
Which was chiefly sung upon the account of those 

words relating to the sacrament, " O taste and see 
that the Lord is gracious," &c. For so St. Cyril 
more plainly declares, when he says,"" After this 
you hear one singing with a Divine melody, and 
exhorting you to partake of the holy mysteries, 
and saying, " O taste and see that the Lord is gra- 
cious." St. Jerom also seems to intimate,'""^ that 
they sung both this and the 45th Psalm, when he 
says. They received the eucharist always with a good 
conscience, hearing the psalmist sing, " O taste and 
see that the Lord is gi-acious:" and singing with 
him, " My heart is inditing of a good matter, I speak 
of the things which I have made unto the king." 
This being a psalm peculiarly setting forth the 
praises of Christ, and the affection of the church 
toward him : " Hearken, O daughter, and consider, 
incline thine ear, forget also thine own people and 
thy father's house : so shall the King have pleasure 
in thy beauty ; for he is thy Lord God, and wor- 
ship thou him." In Africa they seem to have de- 
lighted much in this custom, insomuch that when 
one Hilarius a tribune railed against it and all other 
singing of psalms at the altar, St. Austin wTote a 
book particularly in vindication of it, which is now 
lost, but he mentions it in his Retractations.'" And 
both he and Tertullian seem to intimate, that among 
other psalms they sung the one hundred and thirty- 
third : "Behold, how good and joyful a thing it is, 
brethren to dwell together in unity ! " For Tertul- 
lian says,'" They were used to sing this psalm 
when they supped together: by which most probably 
he means the Lord's supper. And St. Austin says, 
it was a psalm so noted and well known, "^ by its 
constant use, that they who knew nothing of the 
Psalter, could repeat that psalm, as having often 
heard it sung, probably at the altar. And he seems 
to say,"^'^ that they sung the 33rd Psalm upon 
the same occasion. For he says expressly they 
sung it daily, " I will bless the Lord at all times, 
his praise shall ever be in my mouth." Which con- 
sidering how many writers before speak of it as 
sung at the distribution of the elements, it is pro- 
bable St. Austin meant the same, that it was sung 
daily at the altar. St. Chrysostom says they sung 
the 145th Psalm upon this occasion, chiefly upon 
the account of those words in it, " The eyes of all 
wait upon thee, and thou givest them their meat in 

'5« Anton. August, de Emend. Grat. lib. 1. Dial. 15. p. 172. 
Haec omnia sunt illorum temporum sordibus adscribenda. 

'" Glossa in loc. Gratiani. Huic capiti est derogatuui, 
quia suspectis non est danda eucharislia. 

'^ Baron, an. 648. n. 15. ex Theophane. 

'^ Ibid. an. 869. t. 10. p. 428. »«> Ck)nst. lib. 8. cap. 13. 

'" Cyril. Myst. Catech. 5. n. 17. 

"" Hieron. Ep. 28. ad Lucin. Boeticum. 

'® Aug. Retract, lib. 2. cap. 11. Morem qui tunc esse 
apud Carthaginem coeperat, ut hymni ad altare dicerentur 
de psalmorum libro, sive ante oblationem, sive cum distri- 
bueietur populo quod fuisset oblatum, maledica reprehen- 

sioneubicunque poterat lacerabat, &c. Huic respondi, et 
vocatur liber contra Hilarium. 

'^' Tertul. do Jejiin. cap. 13. Vide qnam bonum ct quam 
jucunduin habitare fratresin uiium. Hoc tu psallere non fa- 
cile nosti, nisi quo tempore cum compluribus cccuas. 

iM Aug. in Psal. c.wxiii. p. 629. Psalmus brevis est, sed 
valde notus et nominatus. Ecce quam bonum et quam ju- 
cundum, &c. Ita sonus iste dulcis est, ut et qui psalterium 
nesciunt, ipsum versum cantent. 

''^' Ibid. p. 630. Impletum est in eo quod quotiilie canta- 
mus, si et moribus consonemus : Benedicam Dominum in 
omni tempore, semper laus ejus in ore meo. 




Book XV. 

due season." For he interprets this of their spiritual 
meat at the Lord's table. This psalm, says he,'" 
is diligently to be noted : for this is the psalm which 
has these words, which they that are initiated in 
the holy mysteries sing continually in consort, say- 
ing, " The eyes of all wait upon thee, and thou givest 
them their meat in due season." For he that is 
made a son, and partaker of the spiritual table, does 
justly give glory to his Father. Thou art a son, and 
partaker of the spiritual table ; thou feedest upon 
that flesh and blood which regenerated thee : there- 
fore give thanks to him that vouchsafes thee so 
gi'eat a blessing, glorify him who grants thee these 
favours : when thou readest the words, compose 
and tune thy soul to what is said, and when thou 
sayest, " I will exalt thee, my God, my King," (which 
are the first words of this psalm,) show thy great 
love and affection to him, that he may say to thee, 
as he said to Abraham, " I am thy God." In the 
liturgy which goes under St. Chrysostom's name,"^ 
there is mention made of the people's singing at 
this time, but no psalm specified, as here in his 
genuine works. In the liturgy called St. James's"'" 
of Jerusalem, the words of the 34th Psalm, " O 
taste and see that the Lord is gi-acious," are ap- 
pointed to be sung by the singers. St. Mark's 
liturgy "" appoints the 42nd Psalm, " As the hart 
desireth the water brooks, so panteth my soul 
after thee, O God." And Cotelerius'" has observed, 
that in some ancient rituals at the end of Gregory's 
Sacramentarium the I39th Psalm is appointed: "O 
Lord, thou hast searched me out, and known me," 
&c. So that though the custom of singing psalms 
in this part of the service was universal, the parti- 
cular psalms varied according to the wisdom and 
choice of the precentor, or the different rules and 
usages of different churches. I have now stated 
and resolved the several questions and cases that 
may be put concerning the manner of communicat- 
ing in the ancient church ; and there remains but 
one thing more to be considered, which was the 
solemn thanksgiving and prayers after receiving, 
which may be included with some other concomi- 
tant rites in the general name of their post-com- 
munion service ; of which we will discourse in the 
following chapter. 



Sect. 1. When all the people had communi- 

Bervice closed with catcd, and the deacons had removed 

the remainder of the elements into the several sorts of 

, . , • , J /< tlianksgiving. First, 

pastophona, or place appomtcd tor the deacons bidding 

, . . . 1 <- ^ •"'''>'^' ""'1 thanks- 

their reception ; it was usual first for 8"ing. 
a deacon to admonish the people to return thanks 
for the benefits which they had received. The 
form of this exhortation in the Constitutions ' runs 
thus : " Now that we have received the precious 
body and the precious blood of Christ, let us give 
thanks to him that hath vouchsafed to make us 
partakers of his holy mysteries ; and let us beseech 
him that they may not be to our condemnation, 
but salvation, for the benefit of our soul and body, 
for the preservation of us in piety, for the remission 
of our sins, and obtaining of the life of the world to 
come." Then he bids them rise up, and commend 
themselves to God by Christ. Upon which the 
bishop makes a prayer of thanksgiving and com- 
mendation of the people to God in the following 
words : 

" Lord God Almighty, the Father 
of thy Christ, thy blessed Son; who TheWshop'sThani^s- 

- * _ , , , . , giving or coniinen- 

hearest those that with an upright dation of the people 

^ ° to God. 

heart call upon thee, who knowest 
the supplications of those that in silence pray unto 
thee ; we give thee thanks for that thou hast vouch- 
safed to make us partakers of thy holy mysterie.s, 
which thou hast given us for the confirmation or 
full assurance of those things which we stedfastly 
believe and know, for the preservation of our piety, 
for the remission of our sins ; because the name of 
thy Christ is called upon us, and we are united unto 
thee. Thou that hast separated us from the com- 
munion of the ungodly, unite us with them that are 
sanctified unto thee ; confirm us in thy truth by the 
coming of thy Holy Spirit and his resting upon us ; 
reveal unto us what things we are ignorant of, sup- 
ply what we are deficient in, and strengthen us in 
what we know. Preserve thy priests unblamable 
in thy service, keep our princes in peace, our go- 
vernors in righteousness, the air in good tempera- 
ture, the fruits of the earth in plenty, and the whole 
world by thy almighty providence. Pacify the 
nations that are inclined to war ; convert those that 
go astray; sanctify thy people ; preserve those that 
are in virginity ; keep those that are married in thy 
faith ; strengthen those that are in chastity ; bring 
infants to mature age ; confirm those that are newly 
baptized ; instruct the catechumens, and make them 
fit and worthy of baptism : and gather us all into the 
kingdom of heaven, through Jesus Christ our Lord, 
with whom unto thee and the Holy Spirit be glory, 
honour, and adoration, world without end. Amen." 
After this the deacon bids the peo- 

. Sect. 3. 

pie bow their heads to God in Christ, The bishops benc- 

^ diction. 

and receive the benediction. Then 

'" Chrys. in Ps. cxliv. t. 3. p. 59 1. "» lb. Litur. t. 4. p. 618. 
'«» Jacob. Liturg. Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 2. p. 20. 
'"» Marci Lituvg. ibid. p. 40. 

'■' Coteler. in Constit.lib. 8. cap. 13. 
' Constit. lib. 8. cap. 14. it is called Trpo(r</)a)i'))o-ts finct 
Tt/y fjLhTuK^xlnv. 

ClIAl'. VI. 



the bishop pronounces the benediction in this fol- 
lowing prayer : " Almighty God, and true, with 
whom no one can compare, who art every where, 
and present unto all, yet not in them as things of 
which they consist ; who art circumscribed by no 
place, not grow^n old with time, nor bounded by ages; 
who art without generation, and needest no pre- 
server ; who art above all corruption, uncapable of 
change, and unalterable by nature ; that dwellest 
in light which no one can approach unto, and art 
invisible by nature ; that art known to all rational 
natures that seek thee with an upright heart, and 
art apprehended by those that search after thee 
with a pure mind ; O thou God of Israel, the Israel 
that truly sees thee, and the people that believe in 
Christ, showf thyself propitious, and hear me for thy 
name's sake : bless this people that bow their necks 
unto thee, and grant them the petitions of their 
heart that are expedient for them, and suffer none 
of them to fall from thy kingdom; but sanctify 
them, keep and protect, help and deliver them from 
the adversary, and from every enemy ; preserve 
their houses, and defend their going out and their 
coming in : for to thee belongs glory, praise, majesty, 
worship, and adoration ; and to thy Son Jesus, thy 
Christ, our Lord and God and King; and to the Holy 
Spirit, now and for ever, world without end. Amen." 
After this the deacon used a short 

Sect, 4. 

ot^d^mi^tn'^th^ fo'"'^^ of words iu the nature of a prayer 
St''p^5-«,"''''Go for peace, which was the signal where- 
in peace. ^,.^j^ ^^ dismisscd the whole assem- 
bly; intimating that the whole service was now 
finished, and therefore praying that the peace of 
God might continue with them, and preserve 
them, he said, ' A-n-oXviaOe tv tlprjvy, "Depart in 
peace." This was the usual form of breaking up 
all religious assemblies in the Greek church, as we 
have noted before in speaking- of the daily morn- 
ing service out of this author : and we are assured 
of it from St. Chrysostom,^ who, speaking of the 
frequent use of that short prayer of salutation, 
" Peace be with you," particularly takes notice of 
the deacon's using it at the dismission of the assem- 
bly : The deacon, says he, when he dismisses you 
from this meeting, does it with this prayer, noptv- 
taBi iv tlpijvy, " Go in peace." Whence we may learn, 
that they did not use it as an empty form, but as a 
short solemn prayer, to send them away with a be- 
nediction, or the blessing of God upon them. 

Sect. 5. -A^s for the other prayers used in 

haverfthPMprayere tliis part of thc scrvicc, we have no 

particular account of them in other 

writers ; but they tell us in general, that such forms 

of praise and thanksgiving were always used after 

the communion. St. Austin says,* when all was 
ended, and every one had received the communion, 
a solemn thanksgiving concluded the whole action. 
And so Cyril of Jerusalem' bids his newly baptized 
communicant stay, when the communion was done, 
to give thanks to God, wdio had vouchsafed to make 
him a partaker of so great mysteries. St. Chry- 
sostom has a long invective ° against those who 
w'ould not stay these last prayers, but as soon as 
they had communicated themselves, would be gone, 
and leave their brethren to give thanks alone : 
whom he compares to Judas, who left the apos- 
tles after supper before the last hymn w-as sung ; 
but all the other apostles staid to sing the hymn 
with their Lord, from wdiose example the church 
took up the custom of making these last prayers 
after the communion. It is an excellent passage, 
and therefore I w'ill transcribe it at length in his 
own words : " Would you have me tell you, what is 
the cause of noise and tumult in the church ? It is 
because we shut not the doors upon you all the time 
of Divine service, but suffer you to draw off and go 
home before the last thanksgiving ; which is a great 
contempt of God's ordinance. What meanest thou, 
O man, in so doing ? Christ is present, the angels 
stand by him, the tremendous table is spread, thy 
brethren are yet communicating, and dost thou 
desert them and fly off? If thou art called to a 
common entertainment, thou dost not presume, 
whilst the rest are sitting, to depart before thy 
friends, though thou hast filled thyself before them : 
and dost thou here leave all and depart, whilst 
the holy mysteries of Christ are celebrating, and 
the sacred offices performing? What pardon can 
be expected, what apology can be made for this ? 
Shall I tell you plainly, wdiose work they are a 
doing, who thus depart before all is finished, and 
wait not for the eucharistical hymns at the end of 
the supper? It may perhaps seem a hard and 
odious saying, but it is necessary to be said, to 
reprove the negligence of many. When Judas 
communicated at the last supper in that last night, 
whilst all the rest were sitting at table, he stole off 
and went out ; and they imitate him, w'ho go aw'ay 
before the last thanksgiving. For if he had not 
gone out, he had not been made the traitor ; if he 
had not deserted his fellow disciples, he had not 
perished ; if he had not broken away from the flock, 
the wolf had not found him alone ; if he had not 
separated himself from the Shepherd, he had not 
been a prey to the wild beast. Upon this account 
we find him among the Jews, but the rest stay to 
sing a hymn, and go forth with their Lord. Do you 
not now see, that the last prayers after the sacrifice 

^BookXIII. chap. 10. sect. 8. 

' Chrjs. Horn. 52. in eos qui Pascha jejiinant, t. 5. 
p. 713. 
* Aug. Ep. 59. ad Paiilin. Quwst. 5. Quibus pcractis, et 

participate tanto sacramento, gratiariim actio cuncta con- 
cliidit. * Cyril. Catecli. Myst. 5. n. 19. 

!* Chrvs. Horn. 24. de Bapt. Christi, t. 1. p. 317. It. Horn. 
82. al. 83. in Mat. n. 700. 



Book XV. 

take theii- rise from that example ?" Thus far St. 
Chrysostom, who seems to intimate that they had 
not only prayers, but also psalms and hymns of 
thanksgiving, in imitation of our Saviour's singing 
a hymn after his last supper with his disciples. 
And it is very probable, from what St. Chrysostom 
tells us in another place, that the church had such 
an affection for David's Psalms, that she used and 
interspersed them in all her offices. Primus et 
ynecUus et novissimus est David,^ David was in the 
beginning, and middle, and end of her services. It 
is true, the author of the Constitutions takes no 
notice of psalms or hymns in the forementioned 
place ; btit in another place,* where he has also a 
prayer, fiiTci Tt)v ixiTa\r\^i.v, after participation, be- 
sides the thanksgiving, there is order to sing, Ma- 
ranatha, that is, " The kingdom of God," or, " The 
Lord, cometh :" and also, " Hosanna to the Son of 
David. Blessed is he that cometh in the name of 
the Lord : blessed be the Lord our God, who was 
manifested to us in the flesh." Which seems to 
imply, that there were different usages in different 
churches, and that this author made his collections 
vary sometimes from themselves, by interposing the 
rites of different churches. In the old Gothic 
Missal, published by Mabillon, there is nothing ap- 
pointed after the communion but only two prayers, 
the one called, post commnnionem ; and the other, 
collectio, the collect or concluding prayer. And it 
is much after the same manner in the Mozarabic 
liturgy, of which Mabillon gives a specimen or two 
in his Appendix. But in the Greek liturgies, as 
that under the name of St. James,' besides the 
prayers, there are several short hymns and praises 
collected out of the Psalms and other Scriptures ap- 
pointed to be said after the communion : as that of 
the 57th Psalm, " Set up thyself, O God, above the 
heavens, and thy glory above all the earth." And, 
" Blessed be the name of the Lord from this time 
forth for evermore." And, " Blessed be he that 
cometh in the name of the Lord. Save thy people, 
God, and bless thine heritage." And, " O let 
our mouth be filled with thy praise, that we may 
sing of thy glory and honour all the day long," 
Psal. Ixxi. /• So in St. Chrysostom's Hturgy,'" the 
people are appointed to sing those words of the 
113th Psalm, "Blessed be the name of the Lord 
from this time forth for evermore." And the whole 
34t.h Psalm, " I will always give thanks unto the 
Lord, his praise shall ever be in my mouth." 

g^^j g And it is observable, that in all 

in^^waysmafe'In the ancicut forms, the thanksgiving 
by%he'''whore"body praycrs are always in the plural num- 
of ec lire . ^^^^ representing the whole body of 

the communicants as returning their praises to God 
for the mercies they had received. Eor then there 
were no private nor solitary masses, where the 
priest says the office alone by himself without any 
hearers, or communicates alone without any par- 
takers ; but they all assisted and communicated 
together: and so long it was very rational and 
proper to return a general thanksgiving for the 
benefits of the communion which they had all re- 
ceived. But since private and solitary masses came 
in, all these forms are very improper and absurd, 
to tell God, they have all received ' the sacrament, 
and bless him for it, when none has received it but 
one, and sometimes none has so much as heard the 
office, but the priest alone that repeats it. Yet 
these offices now stand in the Roman mass, to the 
eternal reproach of those that abuse them. For 
they still say. Quod ore sunipsimiis, Szc, " That which 
we" have received with our mouths, O Lord, grant 
that we may receive with a pure mind ; and of a 
temporal gift, make it unto us an eternal remedy." 
And there are many other prayers in the same 
tenor; all which suppose many to have commu- 
nicated, when yet no one has received but the priest 
alone. Bona'^ confesses this is not according to 
the pi'imitive custom. For those prayers were in- 
stituted at first for communicants, when all or a 
great part of the church communicated together ; 
for otherwise the very name of communion would 
here be improperly used, if more than one did not 
partake of the sacrifice. And all he has to say for 
their retaining those prayers in the mass, when the 
use of them by private mass is become so improjjer, 
is only this : That though the ancient custom of 
many communicating together be left off, yet no 
change is made in the prayers, but they are retained 
still, to show us what was done anciently, and to 
excite us by the very tenor of the prayers to return 
to the primitive fervour. How happy would it be, 
if the Roman church would in all things observe 
this rule, and return to the laudable practice and 
simplicity of the ancient church ; reforming her 
offices by the primitive standard, and casting away 
all those corruptions, which appear from the whole 
series of this history to be manifest innovations, 
either privately crept in by connivance and negli- 
gence in times of ignorance, or else forcibly im- 
posed by tyranny and power, contrary to the usages 
of the ancient church, and many times to the very 
design of Divine service, and the natural intent of 
holy institutions ! As it is plain in the case of 
having Divine service in an unknown tongue, and 
worshipping saints and angels, and images and 
crosses, with Divine worship, and dividing the sa- 

' Chrys. Horn. 6. de Poenitentia, in Edit. Latinis. 
8 Constit. lib. 7. cap. 2G. 

' Liturg. Jacob. Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 2. p. 21. 
'» Chrys. Litur. t. 4. p. G2J. 

" Missal. Roman, p. 24. de Ritu celebrandi Missam, et in 
Canone Missae, p. 306. 

'2 Bona, Rerum Liturgic. lib. 2. cap. 20. n. 1. 

Chap. VII. 



crament, and ministering it only in one kind, and 
many other things of the like nature ; which, as 
they contradict the very end of the Divine ordi- 
nances, and the natural design of God's institutions, 
so they run counter to the whole practice of the 
ancient church, as any one may see by considering 
the allegations produced in these collections, in 
which I have endeavoured to point out as well the 
rise of errors and the original of corruptions in 
latter ages, as the true ancient practice of the pri- 
mitive church, in all the several parts of Divine 
service relating to the ordinary worship of God. 

And here I should have put an end to this ac- 
count, but that there are a few questions more that 
may be asked concerning some appendages and cir- 
cumstances of the communion, which it will be 
proper to answer in this place. As, I. How they 
were used to dispose of the remains of the eucharist 
after communicating ? 2. What was their usage 
and practice in regard to their agape or feast of cha- 
rity, so famous in ancient history ? 3. What pre- 
paration they required as necessary to communi- 
cants, to qualify them for a worthy reception ? 4. 
What time they administered the Lord's supper, 
and how often they exhorted or obliged all persons 
to receive it ? I will give as short an answer as I 
can to these questions, and therewith put an end 
to tiiis discourse. 



We have observed before, in several 
Some part of the placcs of this Book, that some part of 

eucharist anciently i i . 

reserved for particu- thc cucharist was commouly reserved 

lar uses. 

for several particular uses, to be sent 
to the absent, and communicate the sick, and to 
testify the communion of distant churches one with 
another. And this was one way of disposing of the 
remains of the consecrated elements when the com- 
munion was ended : to which, I conceive, the au- 
thor of the Constitutions had regard, when he orders 
the deacon' to carry what remained into the ^ws- 
tophoria or vestry, which M-as the repository for all 
holy things belonging to the church. 

g^^j 2 If ^^y thing remained over and 

amok's the' commu'^- above what was necessary for these 
""^*°'*' uses, then by other rules it was to be 

divided among the communicants. As appears 
from the canons of Theophilus, bishop of Alexan- 
dria, one of which is to this purpose :^ Let the clergy 
and the faithful, that is, the communicants, divide 
among themselves the oblations of the eucharist, 
after all have participated, and let not a catechu- 
men cat or drink of them. 

Some learned persons' confound 
this division or consumption of the Thiii'diviV 

,.., .v.,.,,v. rated elo- 

consecrated elements with that other men's « distinct 

tiling from tlie di. 

division of the oblations among the »;«"" "'' "»> other 

f' oblations. 

clergy, and allege the author of the 
Constitutions for it, as if he intended this when he 
says,* Let the deacons divide what remains of the 
mystical euhgice, by the orders of the bishop or 
presbyters, among the clergy ; to the bishop four 
parts, to the presbyter three parts, to the deacon 
two parts, to the rest of the clergy, subdeacons, 
readers, singers, deaconesses, one part. For this 
is acceptable to God, that every man should be 
honoured according to his dignity. It is plain, he 
speaks not here of the consecrated elements, but 
of the division of the people's oblations among the 
clergy, as Cotelerius rightly expounds it. For this 
was one way of maintaining the clergy in those 
days, as has been more fully shown ^ in another 
place. And though he calls these by the name of 
the mystical culogicB, yet that does not determine it 
to the consecrated elements ; for, as has been noted 
before, euhgice is a common name that signifies 
both. And Socrates* takes it for the oblations in 
this very case, when, speaking of Chrysanthus the 
Novatian bishop, he says, he never received any 
thing of the church save two loaves of the eidogice 
on the Lord's day. Where he certainly means not 
two loaves of the eucharist, but of tlie other obla- 
tions of the people, which it was customary for the 
clergy to have their proportioned shares in. 

Sometimes what remained of the 
eucharist was distributed among the The remains of 

° the eucharist sonie- 

innocent children of the church. For, times given to inno- 
cent children. 

as I have briefly hinted before, whilst 
the communion of infants continued in the church, 
nothing was more usual, in many places, than both 
to give children the communion at the time of con- 
secration, and also to reserve what remained uncon- 
sumcd for them to partake of some day in the week 
following. Thus it was appointed by the second 
council of Mascon, in France, anno 588,' That if 
any remains of the sacrifice, after the service was 
ended, were laid up in the vestry, he who had the 
care of them should, on Wednesday or Friday, 
bring the innocents to church fasting, and then. 

' Constit. lib. 8. cap. 13. = Theoph. can. 7. 

' L' Estrange, Alliance of Div. OfRc. chap. 7. p. 213. 

* Constit. lib. 8. cap. 31. 

* Book V. chap. 4. sect. 1. 

* Socrat. lib. 7. cap. 12. 

' Cone. Matiscon. 2. can. 6. Qua;cunque reliquiae sacrifi- 
ciortiin post peractain missam in sacrario siipcrsederint^ 
quarta vel sexta feria innocentes ab illo, cujus interest, ad 
ecclesiam adducantur, et indicto eis jejunio, easdem reliquias 
conspcrsas vino percipiant. 



Book XV 

sprinkling the remains with wine, make them all 
partake of them. And Evagrius' says it was the 
custom of old at Constantinople to do the same ; for 
when they had much remains of the body of Christ 
left, they were used to call in the children that went 
to school, and distribute them among them. And 
he tells this remarkable story upon it, That the son 
of a certain Jew happening one day to be among 
them, and acquainting his father what he had done, 
his father was so enraged at the thing, that he cast 
him into his burning furnace, where he was used to 
make glass. But the boy was preserved untouched 
for some days, till his mother found him : and the 
matter being related to Justinian the emperor, he 
ordered the mother and the child to be baptized; 
and the father, because he refused to become a 
Christian, to be crucified as a murderer of his son. 
The same thing is related by Gregory of Tours," and 
Nicephorus Callistus,'" who also adds, that the cus- 
tom continued at Constantinople to his own time, 
that is, the middle of the fourteenth century ; for he 
says, when he was a child, he was often called to 
partake of the remains of the sacrament after this 
manner among other children. 

In some places they observed the 

Sect. 5. 

And sometimes rule givcn bv God for disposing of the 

burnt in the fire. ° •' % 

remainders of the sacrifices of peace 
offerings and vows under the old law, which was to 
burn them with fire. Lev. vii. 17- This was the 
custom of the church of Jerusalem in the fifth cen- 
turj'', when Hesychius, a presbyter of that church, 
wrote his Comment upon Leviticus, where he speaks 
of it in these words :" God commanded the remain- 
der of the flesh and the bread to be burned with fire. 
And we now see with our own eyes the same thing 
done in the church : whatever happens to remain of 
the eucharist unconsumed, we immediately burn 
with fire, and that not after one, two, or many days. 
From hence our learned writers '' generally observe 
two things: 1. That it was not the custom of the 
church of Jerusalem to reserve the eucharist so 
much as from one day to another, though they did 
in some other churches. 2. That they certainly did 
not believe it to be the natural body and substance 
of Christ, but only his typical or symbolical body: 
for what a llomble and sacrilegious thing must the 
very Jews and heathens have thought it, for Chris- 
tians to burn the living and glorified body of their 
God! And how must it have scandalized simple 
and plain Christians themselves, to have seen the 

God they worshipped burnt in the fire ! And with 
what face could they have objected this to the hea- 
then, that they worshipped such things as might be 
burnt, (which is the common argument used by 
Arnobius, Lactantius, Athanasius, and most others,) 
if they themselves had done the same thing? If 
there were no other argument against transubstanti- 
ation and host worship, this one thing were enough 
to persuade any rational man, that such doctrines 
and practices were never countenanced by the an- 
cient church. 

We have seen how they disposed of sect. e. 
the consecrated elements ; and are tionspar'tiv"ispo!.td 

of in a feast of 

next to examine what they did with charity ; which nu 

the ancients reckon 

their other oblations. It has been ^" apostoucai nte 

accompanymg the 

already observed, that some part of co°">»"'"<>n- 
these (by what distinction made is not very easy to 
tell) went toward the maintenance of the clergy. 
Out of the rest a common entertainment was usually 
made, which, from the nature and circumstances of 
it, was usually called ayape, or feast of charity ;'^ be- 
cause it was a liberal collation of the rich to feed 
the poor. St. Chrysostom gives this account of it, 
deriving it from apostolical practice : he says," The 
first Christians had all things in common, as we 
read in the Acts of the Apostles ; and when that 
ceased, as it did in the apostles' time, this came in 
its room, as an efflux or imitation of it. For though 
the rich did not make all their substance common, 
yet, upon certain days appointed, they made a com- 
mon table, and when their service was ended, and 
they had all communicated in the holy mysteries, 
they all met at a common feast; the rich bringing 
provisions ; and the poor and those who had nothing 
being invited, they all feasted in common together. 
In another place,'^ he repeats the same thing, say- 
ing. From this law and custom (of having all things 
common) there arose then another admirable cus- 
tom in the churches. For when all the faithful met 
together, and had heard the sermon and prayers, 
and received the communion, they did not imme- 
diately return home upon the breaking up of the 
assembly, but the rich and wealthy bi'ought meat 
and food from their own houses, and called the 
poor, and made a common table, a common dinner, 
a common banquet in the church. And so from 
this fellowship in eating, and the reverence of the 
place, they were all strictly imited in charity one 
with another, and much pleasure and profit arose 
thence to them all : for the poor were comforted, 

^ Evagr. lib. 4. cap. 36. 

^ Gregor. Turon. de Glor. Martyr, lib. 1. cap. 10. 

"• Niceph. lib. 17. cap. 2o. 

" Hesych. in Levit. lib. '2. Quod reliquiim est de canii- 
biit et panibiis, in igne inceudi prxccpit. Quoil nunc videmus 
etiara sensibiliter in ecclesia fieri, ignique tradi quiccunque 
remanere contigerit inconsumta, non omnino ca qiuB una die, 
vel duabus aut multis servata sunt. 

'= Vid. Du Moulin, Novelty of Popery, lib. 7. Controv. II. 
chap. 19. Albertin. de Euchar. p. 853. Whitby, Idolaii y 
of Host Worship. 

'5 Ignat. Ep. ad Smyrn. n. 8. ' AyaTn]v irouli'. Ep. In- 
terpol, calls it ooxnv. Constit. lib. 2. cap. 28. Clem. Ale;;. 
PfcdaiJ. lib. 2. cap. 1. p. 165. 

" Chrys. Horn. 27. in 1 Cor. p. 559. 

'' Id. Horn. 22. Oportet haereses esse, &c. t. 5. p. 310. 

Chap. VII. 



and the rich reaped the fruits of their benevolence 
both from those whom they fed and from God. 
The same account is given by the author under the 
name of St. Jerom,'" who says, when they met in 
the church, they made their oblations separately, 
and after the communion, whatever remained of 
those sacrifices, they eat and consumed in a com- 
mon supper together. The like is said by Theodo- 
ret," (Ecumenius, Theophylact, and others upon 
that place of the apostle. From whence it appears, 
that this was a rite always accompanying the com- 
munion. And it is a singular opinion of Albas- 
jiina^us, when he asserts,'^ that these agapa; and the 
; communion were never celebrated at the same time, 
which he maintains without any foundation against 
the concurrent sense both of ancient and modern 

There is some difference indeed be- 

whfther this feast twccu tlic aucieut and modern inter- 
was before oi- after 

the comm.inion in prctcrs concemma: one circumstance 

apostles' days. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

of these love-feasts in point of time, 
as practised in the apostles' days. The ancients, as 
we have heard already out of St. Chrysostom and 
the rest, generally say, these feasts were not till 
after the communion, when the whole ceremony of 
preaching, praying, and participating of the sacred 
elements was over, and the remainders of the obla- 
tions were to be disposed of. But many of the 
moderns think otherwise : Dr. Cave '^ says, it is 
probable that in the apostles' time, and the age after 
them, this feast was before the communion, in imi- 
tation of our Saviour's institution, who celebrated 
the sacrament after supper ; and St. Paul, taxing 
the abuses of the church of Corinth, reproves them, 
that when they came together for the Lord's sup- 
per, they did not tarry one for another, but every 
one took his own supper, and one was hungrj", and 
another was drunken. All this, he says, must needs 
be done before the celebration of the eucharist, 
which was never administered till the whole church 
met together. In this opinion, he has the concur- 
rence of Suiccrus,^ and Daille,^' and Estius,^ who 
says that Pelagius, Primasius, Haimo, Hervaeus, 
Aquinas, Lyra, Cajetan, and others of the Latins, 
were of the same opinion. That which seems most 
probable is, that they observed no certain rule about 
this matter, but had their feast sometimes before, 
sometimes after the communion, as it appears to 
have been in some measure in the following ages. 

For when the Christians in time of 
persecution were obliged to meet early now observed in 
m the morning before day to celebrate '"'^ euchari,i rom- 

. , monly rcneivi-d fast- 

the eucharist in their religious assem- 'psr-^nA before thi. 

t5 feast, except upon 

blies, then their feasting before com- 'a^on^"^""'*' °°' 
munion could not well comport with 
the circumstances and occasion of their meeting. 
And therefore, in the beginning of the second cen- 
tury, we find the eucharist was received before, and 
the feast postponed. For so Pliny ^ represents it 
in the account which he had from the Christians in 
the entrance of this century : for having said. That 
they met on the Lord's day to sing hymns to Christ, 
and bind themselves by a sacrament, it is added, 
When this is done, our custom is to depart, and meet 
again to partake of an entertainment, but that a 
very innocent one, and common to all. It is plain 
here, the communion was first, and the agcqie some 
time after. And so Tertuilian, who gives the most 
particular account of it, speaks of it as a supper a 
little before night : Our supper, which you accuse of 
luxury, shows its reason in its very name : for it is 
called aydirt), which signifies love among the Greeks. 
Whatever charge we are at, it is gain to be at ex- 
pense upon the account of piety. For we therewith 
relieve and refresh the poor. There is nothing vile 
or immodest committed in it. For we do not sit 
down before we have first offered up prayer to God; 
we eat only to satisfy hunger; and drink "^ only so 
much as becomes modest persons. We fill ourselves 
in such manner, as that we remember still that we 
are to worship God by night. We discourse as in 
the presence of God, knowing that he hears us. 
Then, after water to wash our hands, and lights 
brought in, every one is moved to sing some hymn 
to God, either out of Scripture, or, as he is able, of 
his own composing; and by this we judge whether 
lie has observed the rules of temperance in drink- 
ing. Praj^er again concludes our feast ; and thence 
we depart, not to fight and quarrel, not to run about 
and abuse all we meet, not to give ourselves up to 
lascivious pastime ; but to pursue the same care of 
modesty and chastity, as men that have fed at a 
supper of philosophy and discipline, rather than a 
corporeal feast. As this is a fine description of 
these holy banquets, where charity is the founda- 
tion, and prayer begins and ends the feast, and 
singing of hymns and religious discourses season 
the entertainment, and modesty and temperance 

■* Hieron. in 1 Cor. si. 20. In ecclesia convenientes ob- 
lationes suas separatim offerebant, et post communioncm 
quaecunque eis de sacriiiciis superfiiissent, illic in ecclesia 
communem coenam coraedentes paritcr cnp.sumcbant. 

" Theod. in 1 Cor. xi. 16. MsTti Tiju fUKTTiKiiv Xii-rnvp- 
yiai> icTTLuaOaL, k.t.X. CEciiraen. in 1 Cor. xi. t. 1. p. 529. 
Theophylact. in 1 Cor. xi. 17. 

'* Albasp. Observat. lib. 1. cap. 18. p. 57. 

" Cave, Prim. Christ, par. 1. c. 11. p. 314. 

™ Suicer. Thesaur. Eccles. voce 'AyuTrt]. 

=' Dallffi. de Objecto Cult. Relig. lib. 2. cap. 19. 

-■- Esfius in 1 Cor. xi. 20. 

-^ Plin. lib. 10. Ep. 97. Quibns poractis moretn sibi dis- 
cedere, rursusque cociuidi ad capiendum cibum, promisciuini 
taiuen et iunoxium. 

-' Tertul. Apol. cap. 39. Ita satiirantiir, ut qui meniinc- 
rint etiam per noctcm adorandum sibi esse ; ita fiibulaiitur, 
ut qui sciunt Dominum audire. Post aquam manualcui et 
lamina, ut quisque de Scripturis Sanctis, vcl dc proprio in- 
genio potest, provocatur in medium Deo canero, &c. 



Book XV. 

runs through the whole : so the particular mention 
made of lights, and worshipping God by night, 
shows that they came after the communion, and 
not before, in TertuUian's time ; when they were 
used to receive the communion in the morning, 
and always fasting, even upon those days when 
they deferred it till three in the afternoon, as upon 
the stationary days, or till six at night. For it 
was a rule in the African church, to receive the 
eucharist fasting at all times, except one day, which 
was the Thursday before Easter, commonly called 
Coina Domini, because it was the day on which 
our Saviour celebrated his last supper, and institut- 
ed the eucharist after supper ; in imitation of which, 
it was the custom to celebrate the eucharist after 
supper on this day, in the African churches, but on 
no other day whatsoever, as we learn from the third 
council of Carthage and St. Austin. The council 
of Carthage had an express canon to this purpose:"* 
That the sacrament of the altar be never celebrated 
by any but such as are fasting, except on one anni- 
versary day, when the supper of the Lord is solemn- 
ized. And pursuant to this they order, That if any 
commendation of the dead was to be made in the 
afternoon, it should only be done with prayers, and 
not with the celebration of the eucharist, if they 
that assisted at the funeral office had dined before. 
St. Austin was a member of this council, and he 
assures us, that this decree was conformable to the 
practice of the universal church in his age, which 
he thought to be derived from the appointment of 
the apostles. For though it be very apparent, that 
when the disciples first received the body and blood 
of the Lord, they did not receive fasting ; yet does 
any one now accuse the universal church ^ because 
all men receive fasting ? For so it pleased the Holy 
Ghost, that, for the honour of so great a sacrament, 
the Lord's body should enter into the mouth of a 
Christian before any other food. And therefore 
this custom is observed by the whole world. For 
neither because the Lord gave it after meat, ought 
the brethren to meet after dinner or supper to re- 
ceive it, or to imitate those whom the apostle re- 
proves and corrects, who mingled it with their 
tables. Our Saviour, to commend the greatness of 
this mysteiy, was minded indeed to fix it in the 
hearts and memory of his disciples as the last thing, 
before he went from them to his passion : but he 
did not therefore order in what manner it should be 
received, that he might reserve this for his apostles 

to do, by whom he intended to order his church. 
For if he had appointed, that men should receive it 
after meat, I suppose no one would have altered 
that custom. But when the apostle, speaking of 
this sacrament, says, " The rest will I set in order 
when I come," 1 Cor. xi. 34, we are given to un- 
derstand, that he then appointed this custom of 
receiving fasting, which now the whole church 
over all the world observes without any variation 
or diversity. But adds, that some upon a probable 
reason were delighted to offer and receive the body 
of the Lord after meat on one certain day in the 
year, when the Lord himself gave his supper, to 
make the commemoration of it more remarkable. 
And because some on that day chose to fast, and 
others not, therefore in many places it was custom- 
ary to offer the sacrifice twice, to serve the ends of 
both. St. Chrysostom also frequently speaks of their 
receiving the communion fasting."' Thou fastest, 
says he, before thou receivest the eucharist, that 
thou mayest be worthy. And in one or two places 
he vindicates himself from an objection which 
his adversaries brought against him, as if he was 
used to transgress this rule both in administering 
baptism and the eucharist. They say, I gave "* the 
communion to some after eating. If I have done 
this, let my name be wiped out of the catalogue of 
bishops, and not be written in the book of the or- 
thodox faith. If I have done any such thing, let 
Christ cast me out of his kingdom. But if they 
still go on to object this, let them also degrade St. 
Paul, who baptized a whole house after supper. 
Let them also depose the Lord himself, who gave 
the communion to his apostles after supper. So 
again,'-'* They object against me. Thou didst first eat, 
and then administer baptism. If I did so, let me 
be anathema; let me not be numbered in the roll 
of bishops ; let me not be among the angels ; let 
me never please God. But if I had done so, what 
absurdity had I committed ? Let them depose Paul, 
who baptized the jailer after supper. Yea, I will 
say a bolder thing, let them depose Christ himself, 
for he gave the communion to his disciples after 
supper. This shows the custom of the church was 
to administer both sacraments before eating, though 
at the same time it intimates, that to do otherwise 
was not an unpardonable crime. Gregory Nazian- 
zen hints also at this custom'" when he says, Every 
action of Christ is not necessary to be imitated by 
us : for he celebrated the mystery of the passover 


" Cone. Carth. 3. can. 29. Ut sacramenta altaris nou 
nisi a jejunis hominibus celebreutur, excepto iino die anni- 
versario, quo coena Domini celebratur. Nam si aliquorum 
pomeridiano tempore defunctorum, sive episcoporuui sive 
ceeterorum, commendatio facienda est, solis orationibiis fiat, 
si illi qui faciunt, jam pransi inveniantur. 

2" Aug. Ep. 118. ad Januar. cap. 6. Liquido apparet, 
quando primum acceperunt discipuli corpus et sanguinem 
Domini, eos non accepisse jejuuos. Nimquid tamen pmp- 

terea calumniandum est universae ecclesise quod a jejunis 
semper accipitur ? Et hoc enim placuit Spiritui Sancto, ut 
in honorem tanti sacrameuti, in os Christiani prius Domi- 
nicum corpus intraret, quam ca3teri cibi. Nam ideo per 
universum orbem mas iste servatur, &c. 

" Chrys. Horn. 27. in 1 Cor. p. 567. 

"■^ Chrys. Ep. 125. ad Cyriacum.t. 4. p. 868. 

'^■' Sermo ante quam iret in Exilium, t. 4. p. 969. 

^" Naz. Orat. 40. de Baptismo. 

Chap. VII. 



with his disciples in an upper room, and after supper, 
but we do it in the church, and before supper. The 
like is said by St. BasiP' and many other of the 
Greek writers. And among the I^atins there are 
several canons of the councils of Braga,^ Mascon," 
Auxerre,'* and Toledo^* to this purpose. Some of 
which allow the African custom of communicating 
after eating on the Thursday in Passion Week, but 
others upon the account of the Priscillianists for- 
bid it. And therefore Socrates notes it^° as a sin- 
gular thing in the churches of Egypt and Thebais, 
that on Saturdays they were used to administer the 
eucharist after eating in the evening. Wliich is 
prohibited by the council of Trullo," not excepting 
the Thursday in Passion Week, which though the 
African fathers for probable reasons might allow, 
yet they utterly forbid it. By all which it appears, 
that the general custom of the church was to cele- 
brate the eucharist fasting : and consequently, that 
these love-feasts we are speaking of must be held 
after the communion, and not before it. Yet it is 
but a sorry argument in Mabillon, to conclude 
hence'' that the ancients must needs believe tran- 
substantiation, because they received the communion 
fasting. For he might as reasonably have con- 
cluded fi'om Chrysostom, that the water in baptism 
was transubstantiated, because we have heard him 
say before, that they always administered baptism 
fasting. And some learned men" are of opinion, 
that for the three first ages, though they generally 
received the eucharist fasting in the assemblies be- 
fore day, yet sometimes they received after supper. 
For Cyprian, disputing against the Aquarians, who 
celebrated in the morning in water only, and in the 
evening in wine and water mixed together, does not 
contend with them about celebrating after supper, 
but only because they did not at both times mix 
wine with water, after Christ's example. He would 
not so easily have passed over the practice of the 
Aquarians in celebrating in the evening, had there 
been no instances of the like practice in the church : 
but as it was customary in Egj^pt to celebrate the 
eucharist on Saturdays after dinner, and in Africa 
one day in a year after supper ; all he pleads for 

upon this point, is only this,*" That the general cus- 
tom of the church to celebrate the eucharist iu the 
morning only, was not against the rule of Christ, 
though he gave it in the evening after supper ; be- 
cause Christ had a particular reason for what he 
did, which he did not intend should oblige the 
church: Christ offered in the evening, to signify 
the evening or end of the world ; but we offer in the 
morning, to celebrate our Saviour's resurrection. 
And he gives another reason why they did not cele- 
brate in the evening generally as in the morning, 
because the people could not so well all come to- 
gether in the evening as in the morning. By which 
it is plain, in Cypiian's time there was no absolute 
rule to forbid communicating after supper, though 
the practice began generally to be disused, and the 
common custom was to receive fasting and at morn- 
ing service. 

There is one thing more to be ob- ^ , „ 

o Sect 9. 

served of their love-feasts, that as they aJhvTheu^'n'^he 
were designed for the promotion of ^^rd^forbidden^'by 

• , 11 • , . -I orders of councils. 

unity and charity, they were com- 
monly held in the church for the three first centu- 
ries, as learned men"" conclude fi-om that canon of 
the council of Gangra,*- which was made against 
the Eustathians ; If any one despises the feasts of 
charity which the faithful make, who for the honour 
of.the Lord call their brethren to them, and comes 
not to the invitation, because he contemns them, 
let him be anathema. These Eustathians were men 
who held their meetings in private houses, and de- 
spised the church ; which is the reason of this canon 
made against them. However, such abuses were 
sometimes committed in these feasts, that the coun- 
cil of Laodicea not long after made a law against 
having them in the church," forbidding any to eat 
or spread tables in the house of God or the church. 
And a like decree was made in the third council of 
Carthage,^* forbidding the clergy to feast in the 
church, unless it were by chance in a journey for 
want of other entertainment : and orders are given 
to restrain the people as much as might be from 
such feasting in the church. But the custom was 
too inveterate to be rooted out at once ; and there- 

" Basil. Horn. 1. de Jejunio. 

^2 Cone. Bracar. 1. can. 16. Bracar. 2. can. 10. 

" Cone. Matiscon. 2. can. 6. 

^* Cone. Antissiodor. can. 19. ^* Cone. Tolet. 7. can. 2. 

36 Socrat. lib. 5. cap. 22. s? Conc. Trull, can. 29. 

^ Mabil. de Liturg. Gallicana, lib. Leap. G. n. 7. 

39 Vid. Dallas, de Objecto Cult. Relig. lib. 2. cap. 19. p. 
297. Fell. Not. in Cypr. Ep. 63. p. 156. 

*" Cypr. Ep. 63. ad Coecilium, p. 156. The objection of 
the Aquarians : An ilia sibi aliquis contemplatione blan- 
ditur, quod etsi mane aqua sola offerri videtur, tamen cum 
ad ccenandum venimus, mixtum calicem offerimus ? Cypri- 
an's answer; Sed cum ca?namus, ad convivium nostrum 
plebem convocare non possumus, ut sacramenti veritatem 
I fraternitate omni praisente celebremus. The Aquarians ob- 
I 3 H 

ject: At-enim non mane, sed post cnenam mixtum calicem 
obtulit Dominus. Cyprian answers: Nunquid ergo Do- 
minicum post coenam celebrare debemus, ut sic mixtum 
calicem IVequentaudis Dominicis offeramus ? Christum 
offerre oportebat circa vesperam diei, ut hora ipsa sacrificii 

ostenderet occasum et vesperam mundi. Nos autem re- 

surrectionem Domini mane celebramus. 

^' Bevereg. Not. in can. 74. Trull. Suicer. Thesaur. 
Eccles. t. 1. p. 27. 

■*'- Conc. Gangren. can. 11. 

" Conc. Laodic. can. 28. 

** Conc. Carth. 3. can. .30. Ut nulli episcopi vel cleriei 
in ecclesia conviventur, nisi forte traiiseuutes hospitiorum 
necessitate illic reficiant : populi etiam ab hujusmodi con- 
viviis, quantum fieri potest, prohibeantur. 



Book XV. 

fore we find by St. Austin's" answer to Faustus 
the Manichee, that they were still kept in the 
church : for whereas Faustus objected two things 
against thena ; 1. That they were but the spawn of 
the Gentile banquets, turned into Christian feasts ; 
2. That the cathohcs were used to make themselves 
drunk at them in the memorials of the martyrs ; 
St. Austin rejects the first charge as a mere calumny, 
telling him, that the end of their agape was only 
to feed the poor with flesh, or the fruits of the 
earth : but the second charge he owns in part as 
true, that the people still held these feasts in the 
church, and that some excess was committed in 
them : But then, says he, there is a great deal of 
difference between tolerating and approving : we do 
not approve of drunkenness even in a private house, 
much less in a church : it is one thing which we 
ai'e commanded to teach, and another what we are 
forced to tolerate and endure, till we can correct 
and amend it. St. Austin ^^ says all kind of feast- 
ing in the church was prohibited by St. Ambrose 
at Milan with good success : and it was he himself 
that gave the advice to Aurelius, bishop of Carthage, 
to make the foresaid canon against it," in hopes to 
extirpate it, after the example of St. Ambrose. In 
France it was prohibited by the second council of 
Orleans," anno 541. Yet, for all this, there were 
some remains of it in the seventh century, when 
the council of Trullo " was obliged to re-enforce the 
canon of Laodicea against feasting in the church 
under pain of excommunication. So difficult a 
matter was it to extirpate the abuses of ancient 
custom, without destroying the custom itself, which 
was innocent in its original, and of so great service 
to the Christian church, whilst it continued free 
from abuses, that it was the envy and admiration 
of the heathen. 

Some indeed were maliciously dis- 
sect. 10. •' 
How the Chris- poscd to calumuiatc and traduce the 

tians were at first 1 

nS by"'some"'"of Christiaus upou tlic accouut of this 
mfred ami'mvkd'by innoccut custoui, as guilty of I know 

olhers.uponarcoimt . i . i i i i • i\ ■ so 

of these feasts of not what black designs. Origen says, " 

Celsus charged them with holding 

clancular and seditious cabals upon the score of 

these a>/aj)es, or meetings to show kindness to one 
another. Which is also noted by TertuUian in that 
chapter of his Apology, where he gives ^' us that 
fine description of the Christian feasts in answer to 
this suggestion. Others charged these feasts with 
the practice of abominable uncleanness : in answer 
to which Minucius" tells them, their feasts were 
not only chaste, but s